جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2010 المجلد: 38 العدد: 4

Article
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF F2 DIALLEL CROSSES IN DURUM WHEAT
التحليل الوراثي للتهجينات التبادلية للجيل االثاني في الحنطة الخشنة

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الخلاصة

Inheritance of yield, combining ability and inbreeding depression were investigated in durum wheat of F2 half diallel crossing among the 7 varieties Vis: Leeds, Waha, Azeghar1, Um-Rabie3, Brashua, Cyprus1 and Korfila. Genotypes, general and specific combining ability mean square were highly significant. The durum wheat yield was under the dominance gene effect. The parents Leeds and Um-Rabie3 were considered suitable according to their yield capacities and general combining ability effects. The two hybrids (Leeds x Brashua) and (Waha x Brashua) had significantly higher yield (2.943 and 2.955 ton per hectare respectively) as compared with others, and also possessed significant positive specific combining ability effects, highly significant positive inbreeding depression values and deviation from local variety Um-Rabei5, therefore they were considered to be promising hybrids.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ANALYSIS OF EXTENSION BULLETINS CONTENT PRODUCED BY STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND COOPERATION 2007-2008
تحليل مضمون النشرات الارشادية الصادرة عن الهيئة العامة للارشاد والتعاون الزراعي لعامي 2007-2008*

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الخلاصة

The study aimed at analyze the content of extension bulletins which are produced by the general faculty of agricultural extension and cooperation 2007-2008 according to the content the (What says?) and the shape (How says?). Content analysis technique was used to describe the content of bulletins. Results showed that 28.57% of bulletins contented themes belong to the field of plant protection. 55% From the bulletins were prepared by participators have Ph.D. certificates. 28.58% from the bulletins were aimed to improve the level of knowledge about controlling the agric pests and diseases by using the developed irrigation systems. 57.14% of the bulletins consist pictures and painting with less than 10% from the whole area of each bulletins. The researchers concluded that the extension bulletins were concentrated on serious themes for farmer especially the diffusion of diseases and pest. So the researchers recommended that there were importance to produce bulletins in the fields of forestry, husbandry and food industries, in addition to increasing the size of pictures and paintings in the bulletins and devoting budget to produce periodical enables the college of agriculture new bulletins.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF BORON ON FRUIT SET , VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF ANNA APPLE CULTIVAR ( Malus domestica Borkh ).
تأثير التسميد بالنتروجين والرش بالبورون في العقد والنمو الخضري والحاصل للتفاح(Malus doestica Borkh) صنف Anna .

المؤلفون: Nabil M.A.A. Al-Imam
الصفحات: 9-18
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الخلاصة

This Study was conducted at private apple orchard located at AL-Rashidia region in Mosul , Iraq , during the season of 2008 . To study the effect of different levels of Nitrogen fertilization (0,60,120 and 180KgN.h-1 and foliar application of Boron (0,50,100 and 150mgB.l-1) as boric acid H3BO3 (17%B) on fruit set , vegetative growth and some quality and quantity of yield characteristics of Anna apple cultivar.The results showed response of apple trees to nutrient treatments especially with using 120KgN.h-1 which caused increased on fruit set, leaf area, total chlorophyll in the leaves, TSS in fruit, fruit weight and tree yield, while this treatment caused a significant decrease in total acidity in fruit. In the same direction of results when foliar application with 100mgB.l-1 for these characteristics. The best results of growth and quntity Anna, apple yield and quality were obtained by interaction between application containing 120KgN.h-1 + 100mg B.L-1.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
KNOWLEDGE NEEDS FOR RURAL WOMEN IN THE ASPECT OF SHEEP BREEDING IN GWAIR DISTRICT / NINEVEH GOVERNORATE
الاحتياجات المعرفية للنساء الريفيات في مجال تربية الأغنام في ناحية الكوير / محافظة نينوى*

المؤلفون: Aamel F. Al-Abbassi عامل فاضل العباسي
الصفحات: 11-18
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الخلاصة

The objectives of this research were to determine the knowledge needs of rural women in sheep breeding, and to determine the differences of these needs according to some variables. The research population consisted of all rural women in Al-Quair district/ Nineveh Governorate. A random Sample of 127 rural women was selected, and data were collected through questionnaire consisted of tow parts, the first was to measure the independent variables, while the second part consisted of 18 items from which distributed to seven dimensions of sheep breeding. Content validity and comparison of extreme groups were used, also, reliability was tested by using Kuder-Richardson estimates, which was 0.94. Item analysis was used, and data were analyzed by using means, mann-whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that 75.59% of the respondents have medium knowledge needs and the highest need was is sheep nutrition domain and the lowest need was in sheep barns. The results also showed no significant differences in knowledge needs according to age, educational level, working years in sheep breeding, type of family, while there were significant differences according to number of owned sheep and number of daily working hours in sheep breeding and number of information sources. The research included some conclusions and recommendations.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
SEED SIZE AND SEED QUALITY EFFECTS ON SEEDDLING GROWTH OF BARLEY VARIETIES GROWN IN Fe AND Zn DEFICIENT CALCAREOUS SOIL
تأثير حجم البذور ونوعيتها في نمو البادرات لأصناف الشعير النامية في تربة كلسية تعاني من نقص الحديد والزنك

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الخلاصة

Greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the effects of seed size and seed iron and zinc content on seedling growth of 15 promising and dominant varieties of barley plant in the North part of Iraq. Three groups of seed size with different seed quality (Fe and Zn content) of each variety were sown in Fe and Zn deficient alkaline calcareous soil. After six weeks root and shoot dry weights of barley plants grew from different seed size and seed quality were compared. Seedlings derived from larger seed size and with high Fe and Zn content had greater root and shoot dry weights. Barley varieties El-Kheir, 1/1105,Amal and local black performed better seedling growth.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ASSESING AND ANALYSING THE RATE OF AGRICULTURAL GROWTH CONCERNING PRODUCT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD (1980 – 2005)
تقدير وتحليل معدلات نمو الانتاج والانتاجية الزراعية في العراق للمدة (1980-2005)

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الخلاصة

This study is considered part of the studies that concern with assessment of the growth rates for the agricultural product and productivity in the Arab states. The assessment of the product and productivity growth rates has been made in Iraq as well as the analysis of the effective factors on the product through aggregate production function. The results of the reports indicated that there are growth rates in the agricultural product and productivity. But through the compares on with the standard numbers of the average share of person from the agricultural product in the progressing countries and with that in Iraq, that comparison pointed out that the growth rates in Iraq are still low and below the desired level to achieve the agricultural development. The study has made some conclusions first dropping in the areas that are good for agriculture comparing with the total area. Second dropping in the planted crops in these areas and in sufficiency of growing rates' standards of product and productivity as to meet the shortage which is happening in the local exhibit. Finally dropping in the average share of the Iraqi person in agricultural product as compared with some other countries. So as to increase the unit area's productivity.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PHOSPHOROUS FERTILIZER AND FIVE VARIETIES ON THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET (Beta Vulgaris L.)
تاثيرالتسميد الفوسفاتي وخمسة اصناف من البنجر السكري( Beta Vulgaris L . ) في الحاصل والنوعيه

المؤلفون: Salih .M. Al-Rashidi صالح محمد الراشدي
الصفحات: 24-35
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الخلاصة

A field Experiments in two agricultural locations were carried out to evaluate three levels of phosphorous fertilizer (60,80,120)Kg P/ha, as super phosphate and five varieties of sugar beet, Monogerm (Vero, Rosana, Rosa) and, Multigerm (Gitane, Monterosa). Results showed the yield of root (ton/ha) increased significantly as the fertilizer increased, which gives (20. 3 % ,24.6%) when compared with first level added of phosphorous fertilizer respectively , The root sugar also increased as compared to the first level (0.65%,0.89%) respectively in both locations, Monogerm (Vero, Rosana, Rosa) gave a high yield of sugar and purity when compared with the Multigerm ,Vero surmount to the others Monogerm Rosana and Rosa at the two locations .So phosphorous fertilizer and the Monogerm of the sugar beet increased the quantity and Improved quality at the two locations under Iraqi conditions

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ESTIMATING OF HETEROSIS AND GENETIC VARIABILITY IN SUMMER SQUASH( Cucurbita pepo L.)
تقدير قوة الهجين والتباين الوراثي في قرع الكوسة(Cucurbita pepo L.)

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in the vegetable field of Department of Horticulture and land Scape Design, College of Agriculture and forestry/ Mosul University, during spring and autumn seasons 2007 ,by using a randomized complete block design with three replications .The aim of the study was to evaluate four parents and their hybrids to estimate heterosis , genetic variability and heritability for the studied traits by full diallel crosses of four summer squash varieties : 1 Local , 2 Syrian , 3 Tala &4 Bather Elbethor. The results of statistical analysis showed that there was significant differences among the parents and their hybrids for all the studied characters. The parent Tala (3) was higher than for early and total yield, while the hybrid 2×3 gave highest value for early yield and the hybrid 2×4 for total yield. All the hybrids exhibited significant heterosis for all the studied characters whete the hybrid 4×1 had the highest positive significant value for plant length the hybrid 3×1 fruit length and the hybrid 2×3 for fruit weight, while the hybrid 4×2 showed superiority for fruit number and early yield, and the hybrid 2×4 for total yield. The results also showed that narrow sense heritability was in the range of medium to high for plant height, number of leaves/ plant, male flowering date, fruit length and width and number of fruits / plant. Average degree of dominance was greater that one for all the characters except for plant length, indicating that over dominance control the inheritance of these characters.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
نمذجة درجات حرارة التربة على أعماق مختلفة باستخدام السلاسل الزمنية

المؤلفون: عصام محمود محمد
الصفحات: 38-49
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الخلاصة

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
KINETICS OF POTASSIUM ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION IN SOME NINEVEH GOVERNORATE SOILS
حركيات امتزاز وتحرر البوتاسيوم في بعض ترب محافظة نينوى

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الخلاصة

This research was conducted to study physico – chemical behavior of potassium adsorption–desorption phenomena in some soils of Nineveh Governorate. To fulfill the mentioned target above 10 different locations in their rainfall and land management. Series chemical experiments were done . The results of the above experiments revealed the following: 1- Potassium adsorption was ranged between 32 – 64% of added potassium while K – desorption was ranged between 22 – 56% of added potassium. 2- The adsorption amounts were significantly correlated with Cation Exchange capacity (r = 0.48*) and organic matter (r = 0.36*). 3- According to kinetic approach showed a significant effect of time on potassium adsorption and soils a different pathways of adsorption curves, the first order equation was the best to describe the adsorption of potassium. The studied soils appeared to be high in potassium adsorption rate (310-3  6610-3 min-1). 4- Potassium desorption according to kinetic approach showed a significant effect of time on potassium desorption, there are two stages of K release, and first order equation was the best to describe the desorption of potassium by using missible displacement. Rate coefficient of K – desorption according to first order equation were range between (1.7 – 2.510-3) min-1. Studied soils appeared to be low in potassium desorption rate coefficient as well. 5- Desorption index ranged between 0.2 – 0.9 according to (Kd/Ka) by using first order equation. Studied soils appeared to be high–moderate fixing.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY OF AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION IN SOME NORTHERN IRAQ SOILS
دراسة تطاير الامونيا من بعض ترب شمال العراق

المؤلفون: M.A.Alobaidi محمد علي جمال العبيدي
الصفحات: 60-69
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الخلاصة

Ammonia volatilization phenomena from urea fertilizer was studied by using three different textures of calcareous soil(loamy sand ,clay loamand clay) from Mosul city – northern Iraq, classified as calciorthids .Urea was added at three rates (100,200 and 400 mg N.kg-1),using plastic pots (5kg soil) during Spring season 2008 with average minmum and maximum temperature (8-22cْ ). The soil moisture content was monorated around field capacity during period of incubation.The amount of ammonia volatilized from surface was measured after 5,12,27,39,,,and 53 days.The results showed that a higher accumulationof NH3 volatilization was in loamy sand soil followed by clay loam ,then clay soil.The results also showed a significant increases in the accumulated NH3volatilized with increasing fertilizer rates and incubation periods.The mathematical discrption of kinetics equation showed the following order: parabolic diffusion , first order , power function ,second order ,elovich ,and zero order equations respectively according to a highest R2 and lowest SE values. The rate coefficients of parabolic diffusion equation were high at loamy sand when compered with the other textures. Also the increasing rate of urea fertilization from 100 to 400 mg N.kg-1soil caused an increase in the rate of coefficient of NH3 volatilization from (0.118 -0.392) ,(0.108 -0.145) and (0.04-0.108) mg.kg-1 day-1/2 for loamy sand ,clay loam ,and clay soils respectivily.Using a hetrogenous diffusion model showed the sutability of this model to describe the volatilization potential under fertilization non-stability.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF MICRO-ELEMENTS ON GROWTH, FRUITS AND OIL FENNEL PLANT Foeniculum vulgare L. 1- VEGETATIVE GROWTH
تأثير العناصر الغذائية الصغرى في النمو الخضري وحاصل الثمار والزيت لنبات الحبة الحلوة L. Foeniculum vulgare 1-النمو الخضري

المؤلفون: Mothafer A. Al-Mosuly مظفر أحمد الموصلي
الصفحات: 70-76
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الخلاصة

Fruits planted in the field is sweet bean sheets (1x2 m2) of soil type Silty Loam on 15.10.2006, using four levels of major elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) are N0P0K0 , N60P30K20 , N90P45K30 and N120P60K40 kg. ha - 1 by using urea, single super phosphate and potassium sulfate as a source of elements, with the elements is small (2.5% Iron , 2.5% zinc ,0.5% manganese and 0.5% copper) are five levels (0, 0.50, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5) gm.liter -1 foliar spray and land, three iterations , harvested plants in 15/5/2007, and the results were : over-treatment N90P45K30 + 2.5 gm . liter -1 of micronutrients, Wet weight of the shoot 33212 kg. foliar spray ha -1 and 28235 kg. ha -1 ground. The dry weight of shoots 3690 kg. foliar spray ha -1 and 2488 kg. ha -1 ground. The number of flowering per plant 30.4 foliar spray and 28.6 ground.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF MICRO-ELEMENTS ON GROWTH, FRUITS AND OIL FENNEL PLANT Foeniculum vulgare L 2- FRUITS AND OIL
تأثير العناصر الغذائية الصغرى في النمو الخضري وحاصل الثمار والزيت لنبات الحبة الحلوة L. Foeniculum vulgare 2- حاصل الثمار والزيت

المؤلفون: Mothafer A. Al-Mosuly مظفر أحمد الموصلي
الصفحات: 77-84
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الخلاصة

Fruits planted in the field is sweet bean sheets (1x2 m2) of soil type (Silty Loam) on 15.10.2006, using four levels of major elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) are N0P0K0 , N60P30K20 , N90P45K30 and N120P60K40 kg. ha - 1 by using urea, single super phosphate and potassium sulfate as a source of elements, with the elements is small (2.5% Iron , 2.5% zinc , 0.5% manganese and 0.5% copper) are five levels (0, 0.50, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5) gm . liter -1 foliar spray and land, three iterations , harvested plants in 15/5/2007, and the results were: Fruit holds 4355 kg. foliar spray ha -1 and 4100 kg. ha -1 to the ground and the amount of oil, 56.62 liters. foliar spray liter. ha -1 and 49.20 liter. ha -1 to the ground when the transaction N90P45K30 + 2.5 gm . liter -1, while the proportion of oil was 1.35 ml / 100 grams fruits of foliar spray and 1.25 ml / 100 grams fruits of the ground when the transaction N60P30K20 + M1.5.

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Article
STUDYING OF SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SWAMPE WATER TO THE LOCAL AQUATIC PLANTS LEMNA spp. EXIT IN IT NATURALY
دراسة بعض الصفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية لمياه المسطحات المائية المتواجد فيها نبات عدس الماء Lemna spp. طبيعياً

المؤلفون: Thaiar Abrahem Kasem ثائر ابراهيم قاسم
الصفحات: 85-93
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الخلاصة

This study was regionally for one of local aquatic plants called duckweed Lemna spp. And it's life in natural conditions for different regions water study of Baghdad within year seasons. The results of statistical analysis showed that there are significantly (p<0.05), differences in water properties in which the plant grows, such as temperature between 10-28ºC and pH between 6.80-8.35 and different concentrations of ammonia between 5.62-13.79 mg/l, nitrite between 0.0004-0.0038 mg/l, nitrate between 0.13-24.00 mg/l and phosphorus between 0.15-9.08 mg/l. and the concentration of water included various heavy elements like zinc between 0.07-0.70 mg/L and iron between 0.03-0.33 mg/L and lead 0.01-1.05 mg/L and Copper between 0.03-0.55 mg/L. The conciliation of the study is that duckweed plant can be obtained throughout the year depending on the suitable climatic conditions in our country at regions of the lowest levels of nutrients.

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Article
STUDY SOME BLOOD PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND CHIOCHEMICAL IN NATIVE GOATSRAISED AT COMMERCIAL FLOCKS
دراسة بعض الصفات الفسلجية والكيميائية الحياتية للماعز المحلي في القطعان التجارية

المؤلفون: Mwafaq, S. Barwary موفق سليمان برواري
الصفحات: 94-100
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الخلاصة

A Survey was carried out on three flocks at three locations namely (Duhok, Zakho and Emadia) in Dohuk governorate to study the effect of different physiological status on blood parameters (blood hemoglobin, cholesterol, glucose and total protein in blood) and ( concentration of T3 ,T4 and TSH). Eighteen does 3-4 years old were ear tagged. Blood samples (10 ml) were withdrawn every 45 days from each animal for nine months. Physiological status was divided into three stages namely pregnancy, lactation and drying and mating. Data showed the following results: Blood hemoglobin, cholesterol, sugar, total protein, T3, T4 and TSH averaged respectively, 10.00 gm/100m1, 99.33 mg/100 ml, 47.63 mg/100 ml5.82 gm/100ml 12.22 mg/100 ml, 103.9 ng/100 ml and 0.341 ngm /ml. With the exception of total protein and T4, A highly significant (P <0.01) effect of physiological stage of the animals on all studied traits were noticed. blood cholesterol and TSH, were higher during drying and mating season. Blood sugar was at highest during pregnancy, whereas hemoglobin was highest during suckling stage. A highly significant effect (P<0.01) of location on all studied traits were observed.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF USING UREA TREATED STRAW OR ALFALFA HAY IN KARADI LAMB DIET
تأثير أستخدام التبن المعامل باليوريا أو دريس الجت في علائق الحملان الكرادية

المؤلفون: Salm Omar Raaof سالم عمر رؤوف
الصفحات: 101-106
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الخلاصة

This experiment was carried out in Grdarasha Farm , College of Agriculture, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, during 22/4/2008 to 2/7/2008. A total of 12 Karadi lambs of 5.5 – 6 months old weighting 29.12 kg were used in this investigation. The lambs were divided randomly into three groups (G1, G2 and G3) of 4 lambs each. All groups were fed a basal diet of 250 gm barley and ad libitum of either untreated straw (G1), treated straw with urea (G2) or untreated straw plus 200 gm of alfalfa hay (G3) to investigate the influence of these diets on lamb's growth. The result revealed that daily dry matter consumed by G1, G2 and G3 were 615, 650 and 645 gm, respectively. Lambs in groups 2 and 3 exceeded group 1(P<0.05) in average daily weight gains. The respective averages daily weight gains were 110, 139 and 133 gm . The results also indicated that groups fed hay and urea treated straw (G2 and G3) surpassed (P<0.05) the digestion coefficient of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein and crude fiber of the group fed untreated straw (G1). Whereas, there was no significant differences in digestion coefficients of feed elements between G2 and G3. It was concluded that treated straw or adding alfalfa hay will improve lambs feeding efficiency compared to feeding untreated straw.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF SOME AROMATIC PLANTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER OIL
مكونات الزيوت الطيارة لبعض النباتات العطرية وتاثيرها في الثباتية التاكسدية لزيت زهرة الشمس

المؤلفون: Omar Fawzi Abdulaziz عمر فوزي عبدالعزيز
الصفحات: 107-114
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الخلاصة

The constituents of hydrodistilled essential oils from wild Mentha longofolia L. and Thymbra spicata L. grow in Mosul and Duhok regions of Northern Iraq while Salvia officinalis L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. were imported from Syria. The study showed that the major components of the essential oils mentioned above, were carvone (26.47%), carvacrol (67.65%), 1,8-cineole (55.68%) and 1,8-cineole (53.86%) respectively.Further the study showed that the addition of 1000mg/kg of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymbra spicata L. oils had a positive effect while the addition of same ratio of Mentha longifolia L. and Salvia officinalis L. oils gave a negative effect on oxidative stability of Sunflower oil .

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Article
ISOLATING AND PURIFYING OF ANTIMICROBIAL SUBSTANCES PRODUCED BY Bifidobacterium bifidum AND USING IT AS INHIBITOR FOR SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
استخلاص وتنقية المادة المثبطة المنتجة من بكتيريا Bifidobacterium bifidum واستخدامها ضد بعض انواع البكتيريا المرضية

المؤلفون: Al- badrany H . S. غانم محمود حسن
الصفحات: 115-121
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الخلاصة

Bifidobacterium bifidum was isolated from the stool of newly born infant using the morphological and biological tests of the Berge’s Manual,1986.The B. bifidum antimicrobial substances were extracted and purified by Gel-filtration. Results showed that two peptides were found for the bifidin . The inhibition zone of the first peptide for Staphylococcus aureus was 13 mm , whereas the second peptide was 8 mm. The activity of the inhibited substances of the above local strain was increased during the incubation period . The total numbers of B. bifidum were 78 x 106 c.f.u / ml after incubation for 24 hr and decreased to 11 x 106 c.f.u / ml for 48 hr . The inhibition zone was 12 mm after incubation for 24 hr and increased to 15 mm after incubation for 48 hr.Results also showed that heat treatment at 60 , 80 and 100 C° at 30 minutes were not affected and the inhibition zone had been stable. The inhibition zones at these temperatures was 14, 13, 12 mm, respectively . The most effective PH values was 6 PH and the inhibition zone was 15 mm. Staph. aureus was the most sensitive species, whereas E. coli was the most resistant to bifidin and the zone of inhibition, were 15 , 9 mm, respectively . The zones of inhibition for B. subtilis , Proteus vulgaris , Brevibacterium sp. , Klepsella aerogenes , Salmonella typhi were 13 , 12 , 11 , 10 and 10 mm, respectively .In conclusion, due to the bacteriocin and in view of health benefits , the B. bifidum could be used for elongating the shelf life of some fermanted dairy products .

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Article
THE ABILITY OF SOME ENDO-SPORE FORMING ACTINOMYCES AND BACILLI TO PRODUCE ANTIBIOTICS
قدرة بعض أنواع البكتريا الخيطية و العصوية المكونة للسبورات الداخلية على إنتاج مضادات حيوية

المؤلفون: Essra Gh. H. Al-Sammak إسراء غانم حازم السماك
الصفحات: 122-128
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الخلاصة

The ability of 35 isolates from soil which belong to the endo-spore forming bacteria Thermoactinomyces vulgaris , Thermoactinomyces intermedius , Bacillus mycoides and Paenibacillus spp. to produce antibiotics against some gram positive bacteria Corynebacterium spp. , Staphylococcus aureus subsp.aureus , Bacillus cereus and gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Proteus mirabilis , Klebsiella oxytoca , Klebsiella spp. were card out , The antibiotics separated from three strains which gave highest activity against bacteria under study, two strains from Paenibacillus spp. and one strain form B.mycoides, by using thin-layer Chromatographic technique , the spots distinguished by UV and Running factor (Rf) compared with standard antibiotics , The extracted antibiotics from spots were measured by UV spectrophotometry The maximum absorbance of antibiotic extracted from Paenibacillus spp. was 200 nm and Rf = 0.42 which belong to Tetracycline group , while the extracted antibiotic from the second strain which belong to the species and gave Rf = 0.87 and maximum absorbance at 200nm so ,which indicate this antibiotic belong to the β-Lactams also the antibiotic extracted from the strain belong to Bacillus mycoides developed Rf = 0.63 and 200nm which appearance this antibiotic belong to β-Lactams group. The presence more than one spots on TLC plate may indicate that the bacteria had produced other secondary metabolites or the antibiotic is broad spectrum and produced more than one antibiotic. Strains which belong to species Thermoactinomyces intermedius and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris had a weak effect against the bacteria under the study.

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Article
EFFICIENCY OF PLOWING SYSTEMS ON WEEDS DENSITY AND GROWTH IN BARE FALLOW UNDER DRY LAND FARMING IN NORTHERN IRAQ
كفاءة اداء نوعين من المحاريث في كثافة ونمو الادغال في المناطق المبورة تحت الظروف الديمية في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: A.M. Sultan احمد محمد سلطان
الصفحات: 129-137
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الخلاصة

Weed control study on bare fallow was conducted during growing season 2008/2009 at field of Agricultural College,Mosul University to determine the efficiency of two plowing ( disk plow,chisel plow and without plowing),time of plowing (winter,winter + spring,spring) and duration time for weed samples taken from the field (1st April,14th April,11 May)on narrow or broadleaf weed control in dry land farming.Result indicated that there is high density of weeds/m2 in untreated plowing up to137.1 . Disk plow gave the best treatment for weed control which reached up 96.8% when compared with chisel plow 65.5%. related to unplowing treatment.Disk plow was reduced numbers,dry weight and moisture content in weeds. Also plowing at winter + spring gave agood weed control when compard with other treatments while duration time for weed sampls which had been taken from different treatments were unsignificant . Disk plow showed suppriority in weed control when was used at different time of plowing (winter,winter + spring,spring) which gave efficiency in weed control until 11 May.Therefor, it is desirable to use disk plow in winter + spring or in spring to get 100% weed control of narrow or broadleave from beginning to mid April.

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Article
GENETIC STABILITY FOR CULTIVARS AND LINES OF CHICPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) UNDER RAINFALL CONDITIONS IN NORTHERN OF IRAQ
الاستقرارية الوراثية لأصناف وسلالات من الحمص Cicer arietinum L. تحت الظروف الديمية في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: Mohammed Y. H. Al-Fahady محمد يوسف حميد الفهادي
الصفحات: 138-147
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الخلاصة

22 chickpea genotypes (cultivars and lines) were growing in five different environments under rainfed conditions in north Iraq(Mosul and Alkosh in season 2004-2005 and the same locations beside Al-Rashidia in season 2005-2006) to evaluate stability of seed yield, its components and protein content .Combined analysis showed a significant differences at 1% level for genotype, environments and their interactions for all characters. Local variety exhibited the highest stability order for no. of days to 50% flowering and 90% maturaty with four stability methods. Dijla variety showed the highest rank for plant height and protein content. Rafidain gave the highest order for no. of secondary branches, no. of pods per plant and seed yield (kg/ ha) in most stability methods.

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Article
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOME BARLEY GENOTYPES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS UNDER NORTHERN IRAQI CONDITION
دراسة مقارنة عدة تراكيب وراثية من الشعير في الحاصل ومكوناته تحت ظروف شمال العراق

المؤلفون: M.A.Mohammad محفوظ عبد القادر محمد
الصفحات: 148-152
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted on the farm of Agric. and Forestry College, Mosul Univ. for three seasons (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008) to compare grain yield and it,s components of eight barley genotypes namely (Local black, Rehan, Jazeera (1), native white, Sameer and strains No.11, 21, 31) using RCBD with three replicates for evaluating the best one or more genotypes suitable under northern Iraqi condition. The result showed that the strain No.11gave higher number of spike/m2 for the three seasons. Significant increasing was detected in the number of grain/spike of each of jazeera (1) and strain No.31. The strains No. (21, 31) had the highest grain and straw yield and harvest index during each season and the cumulative of all seasons.

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Article
RESPONSE OF YIELD AND SOME TRAITS FOR TWO COTTON VARIETIES PLANT SPACES AND ANALYSIS OF CORRELATIONS AMONG YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS TO DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS
استجابة حاصل وبعض صفات صنفين من القطن لمسافات الزراعة بين النباتات وتحليل الارتباطات بين الحاصل ومكوناته إلى تأثيرات مباشرة وغير مباشرة

المؤلفون: Kh. Kh. Al-Guboory خالد خليل الجبوري
الصفحات: 153-161
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الخلاصة

The experiment include eight factorial treatments, represents the combinations between the two cotton varieties Lachata and SP8886 and four spaces between plants (15, 20, 25 and 30 cm), that carried out at Al-Hawyja, Karkuk Governorate during the season of 2007 using randomized complete block design with three replications. The seeds were planted through mid April using rows 60 cm apart. The data were taken for characters: plant height, number of fruiting branches, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed index, lint index and seed cotton yield. The results showed significant differences among varieties and planting spaces for all characters except number of fruiting branches, the differences among varieties for lint index were not significant. The interaction between varieties and spaces was significant for plant height, number of fruiting branches and boll weight. Trend analysis revealed that the regression relationships of plant spaces was linear with seed index, lint index and boll weight, and cubic with plant height, number of bolls per plant and seed cotton yield. It was shown that seed cotton yield had positive highly significant correlations with boll weight and seed index, and negative highly significant correlations with plant height and lint index. Path analysis results indicated that plant height and lint index had higher negative direct effects on seed cotton yield and important indirect effects through most of other characters, which indicates that these two characters could be used in breeding programs to improve yield, and stepwise regression analysis revealed that the best regression equation for seed cotton yield prediction was that which contained these two characters with determination coefficient equal 88.09%.

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Article
MANUFACTURING DIFFERENT TINE SHAPES FOR SUBSOILER AND THEIR FIELD PERFORMANCE EFFECT IN THE SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
تصنيع أشكال مختلفة لسلاح المحراث تحت التربة وتأثيرها حقليا في الصفات الفيزياوية للتربة

المؤلفون: Yassen H. Al-Tahan ياسين هاشم يونس الطحان
الصفحات: 162-173
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الخلاصة

The first step of this study was manufacturing two shapes of subsoiler tines in a local work shop in Mosul city, they were: tapered-top with constant width and tapered-top with gradual width tine according to the conventional tine dimensions. The field performance of these tines Then compared with the conventional tine in silty clay soil field. Three depths of subsoiling have been studied, 20, 30, 40 cm in two cases of soil cultivated and uncultivated. This was done through measuring several indicators; disruption area, soil moisture content, soil penetration resistance at/beneath the depth of subsoiling in the middle and end of season, and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity at subsoiling depth in the end of season. Randomized Complete Block Design by using Split-Split design was followed. The main results are: The tapered-top tine with gradual width has achieved the highest values for disruption area and soil moisture content at/beneath subsoiling depth in middle and end of the season, and achieved the lowest values for soil penetration resistance at subsoiling depth in middle and end of season. While the tapered-top tine with constant width has achieved the lowest values for soil penetration resistance beneath subsoiling depth in middle and end of the season. The subsoiling depth of 40 cm has achieved the highest values for disruption area and soil moisture content at/beneath subsoiling depth in the middle and end of season, While the subsoiling depth of 20 cm has achieved the lowest values of soil penetration resistance at/beneath subsoiling depth in the middle and end of season and soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. The cultivated soil case has achieve the highest values for disruption area, soil moisture content at/beneath subsoiling depth in middle and end of season and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity.

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Article
IDENTIFICATION OF THE CAUSAL AGENTS OF ALFALFA WILT DISEASE IN THE MIDDLE ZONE OF IRAQ
تشخيص مسببات أمراض ذبول ألجت في المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

المؤلفون: Emad M. Al-Maaroof عماد محمود المعروف
الصفحات: 174-179
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الخلاصة

A Systematic survey was conducted in alfalfa fields in the middle zones of Iraq during June to November, 2001 and 2002, to detect the occurrence and distribution of alfalfa wilt disease and identification the causal agents in each field. Results revealed that the disease symptoms were very clear in most of alfalfa fields in the area. High disease incidence 37.5 and 23.3% were detected in Baghdad and Wasit respectively. Some soil borne pathogens were isolated and purified from alfalfa root samples. Fusarium solani , Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium alboatrum were the most frequent among the isolated fungi,Mean while Pythium sp and Pencillium sp . were with low frequency. Furthermore, three Corynebacterium isolates were isolated from the infected alfalfa plants with high frequency and purified. Results revealed that Verticilium alboatrum and Corynebacterium 1 caused 49% and 45% pre-emergency damping off alfalfa seedlings respectively and also killed 100% and 95% of alfalfa plants after one month respectively when compared with the control, followed by isolate 3 of Corynebacterium and F. oxysporum 1 which killed 44 and 34% of the seedlings pre –emergency and 30 , 45% post-emergency respectively. According to these results we can consider that Verticillium alboatrum, F. oxysporum and Corynebacterium isolates are the principle causes of alfalfa wilt disease separately or in combination in alfalfa fields in the middle zone of Iraq.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAl AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SOME PEAR VARIETIES ON THE BIOLOGY OF THE LACE PEAR BUGS
تأثير بعض الصفات المظهرية والفسلجية لبعض أصناف الكمثرى في حياتية بق الكمثرى المطرز

المؤلفون: Nazar M Al-Mallah نزار مصطفى الملاح
الصفحات: 180-189
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الخلاصة

The study of the effect of some physiological and morphological features of some pear varieties Zafarania, Othmani, Le-Conte and Calleryana on biology of the lace pear bug showed that the average number and length of small hairs per ml2 have an effect on the average number of eggs per female. The number of eggs laid was 142.4 egg per female on Le-Conte variety which has surpassed other varieties in the average number of small hairs whose length was the least. Females were not able to lay eggs on Calleryana variety as its leaves were void of small hairs. There has been a significant difference between pear varieties in the average number of osmic pressure; which were 20.7, 20.4 atmospheric pressure Zafarania and Othmani varieties respectively. While they were significantly different with Le-Conte and Calleryana varieties whose have 19.6, 25.5 atmospheric pressure respectively. Results have shown that the water content was accompanied by an increase in egg's number. An increase in the osmic pressure resulted in a decrease in the eggs laid number compared to the Calleryana variety with low water content and high osmic pressure, where females have laid no eggs on its leaves. Results have also shown a different effect of water content and osmic pressure upon other insect's biological features depending on pear variety. The study has shown that the decrease of chlorophyll, carotene and lipids in Calleryana in the leaves an inhibit the growth and biogenesis of the insect on its leaves compared to other pear varieties. The results also exhibited a superiority of Le-Conte variety in the average increase of insect with 0.20% compared to Zafarania and Othmani variety where it has reached 0.182% and 0.186% respectively, and were significantly different from Calleryana variety.

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Article
STUDY OF SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HONEY IN SOME REGION BELONGED TO ERBIL GOVERNORATE, IRAQ
دراسة بعض الصفات الكيميائية والفيزيائية للعسل في بعض المناطق التابعة لمحافظة أربيل / العراق

المؤلفون: Mohammad Hassan Sallow محمد حسن سلو
الصفحات: 190-197
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at the of Agric- College Labs., University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq to evaluate some physicochemical and natural characters of the honey being produced in four regions (Khabbat, Erbil Center, Cedican and Haji Aumran) belonge to Erbil Governorate. Chemical analysis results which had been done by the Agricultural Research center – Food Technology Research Institute – Cairo / Egypt showed some differences in physicochemical and natural composition of different honey specimen's which effect the preference degree by the consumer Khabbat honey had grade A, its percentage of humidity , fructose, glucose, sucrose, and total saccharide were (16%, 34.68%, 31.25%, 4.34% and 77.02%), respectively, while Haji Aumran and Erbil honey had grade B and C respectively and the latest grade was D (Forth grade) for Cedican honey which had the following percentage (17.2%, 36.31%, 32.28%, 5.03% and 77.11%), respectively .

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME ADDITIVES ON SOME PATHOGEIC BACTERIA AND AFLATOXINS ON LOCAL IRAQI MEAT PRODUCTS (BASTURMA) DURING STORAGE
تأثير بعض المضافـات في بعض أنواع البكتريا المرضيـة وسموم الافلا في منتج اللحوم العراقي(البسطرمـة) أثناء الخزن

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الخلاصة

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of adding ascorbic acid, nitrate and nitrite, sodium phosphate, lactic acid and acetic acid at different concentrations on the growth of some pathogenic bacteria that contaminate the locally manufactured "basturma" during storage period under natural climate conditions from March till June 2006, and also on aflatoxins content . Results indicated that the additives decreased the growth of some studied microorganisms during storage based on the type and concentration of the additives . In general, using different concentrations of ascorbic acid decreased the content of Staphylococcus aureus, coliform sp., , Bacillus sp., and Clostridium sp.bacteria, and resulted in a complete inhibition of Salmonella sp., and Shigella sp. growth along with the period of storage. Different concentrations of nitrate and nitrite played a general role in reducing the counts of Coliform sp.and Bacillus sp., and complete inhibition of Salmonella sp., Shigella, S. aureus and Clostridium. Using different concentrations of sodium phosphate decreased the counts of S.aureus, Coliform sp. and Bacillus sp., however at higer concentrations, this compound inhibited most types of these bacteria and resulted in ellimenate Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and Clostridium sp..Combination of ascorbic acid plus nitrate and nitrite resulted in reducing S. aureus and ellimination of Coliform, Salmonella, Shigella, and Bacillus. The treatment of meat before grinding with 5% of both acetic acid and lactic acid generally led to the decrease of Coliform sp. count, and a complete inhibition of Bacillus sp., Clostridium sp., S.aureus, Salmonella sp.and Shigella sp.. Results demonstrated that the content of aflatoxin B1 and G1 in basturma was significantly reduced during storage period

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