Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

Loading...
Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2010 volume:41 issue:6

Article
YIELD AND QUALITY OF TOBACCO AS INFLUENCED BY SOME ELEMENTS AND SOIL TEXTURE
حاصل ونوعية التبغ بتأثير بعض العناصر ونسجة التربة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

An experiment was carred out on the farm of the Dept. of Field Crop Sci./College of Agric./University of Baghdad . This was on two cultivars of tobacco ; Habbana Legaro for cigar and SH for cigarettes . A nursery for transplants was prepared in 2009 and 2010 , then transplants were transferred to plastic house in the field . Spacing were 80×31 cm. In the first year , fertilizers of N,P and K were used , and also ,silica sand , manure , and ash. In the second year , the experiment focused on soil texture mentioned treatments only. At flowering , readings were taken on plant height , leaf area , then leaves were dried and weighed . Combustion test was undertaken on leaves. Results obtained showed that ash treatment plants gave higher leaf area of Habbana cultivar (2.89 m²) , then treatments of manure and sand (2.24 & 1.91 m² ). Habbana cultivar outyielded SH cultivar in all traits studied . Plants of sand treatment gave higher leaf dry weight (164.3 g) , while manure and ash treatments were next (127.5 g and 112.5 g) . Sand treatment plant leaves showed higher combustion (72.5%) for Habbana , while ash treatment was next to it (67.0%). It was concluded that applying more than 80-100 kg/ha of N , P , and K will cause poor combustion. The results showed that higher doses of these elements ; especially N and S will give poor combustion. That , for these two elements cause higher protein which cause poor combustion. Applying sand to tobacco fields is quite recommended.

Keywords


Article
EFFECT OF ZINC AND BORON ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF COTTON
تأثير الزنك والبورون في نمو وحاصل القطن

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

To investigate the response of cotton Gossypium hirsutum cv Lashata to spray with zinc and boron only or together throught critical stages of plant growth of growth and yield. Afield experiment was conducted during 2008 and 2009 season at The Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture/University of Baghdad. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used, This was to compare the treatments: control(spray water only ), foliar application of zinc boron were done at beginning of squar and twice spraying at beginning of squar + beginning of flowering and three spraying at beginning of squar + beginning of flowering + beginning of boll development . The concentrations of nutrients were 75mg Zn.L-1 of Zn and 100mg B . L-1 of B . The results indicated that highest response of cotton to foliar application of Zn +B three sprays ,it gave a significant increasing in seed cotton yield about 33.10% and 35.95% increased and lint yield about 39.83% and 46.88% increased due to producing higher number of open bolls , boll weight and dry weight compared with control during season respectively . Spraying Zn + B three time gave significant of B and Zn concentration in leaves compared with control, while oil percentage did not significantly affected by all the treatments applied on the two season .

Keywords


Article
EFFECT OF PHOSPHOR US ON IMPROVING YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF COWPEA SELECTED BY HONEYCOMB
تأثير الفسفور في تحسين الحاصل ومكوناته في اللوبياء المنتخبة بخلية النحل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of phosphorous fertilizer on the yield and its components of two cowpea varieties selected by honeycomb selection. A field trial was conducted at farm of college of agriculture, university of Baghdad in three seasons. Randomized completely block design with factorial arrangement was used. The honeycomb selection was effective, positive by increasing pod length about 12 , 9.6%, number of seeds per pod 14.5 , 12%, number of pods per plant 57.3 , 32% , seed yield per plant 37.4 , 3.9% in two varieties bonanza and bayader respectively. The selection response was low positive in 100 seeds weight not more 3.9% but was negative reached to -5.8% in bayader as a result of compensation among yield components. Increasing p-fertilization rates from 50 to 100kg p/ha caused significant difference in all traits studied such as seed yield from 122.5 to 140.3g/plant, 100 seeds weight from 17.57 to 18.7g .There were significant interaction between p-fertilization and genotypes in all traits studied .The bonanza variety gave highest seed yield reached to 154.7g/plant at 100kg/ha. The yield and its components are considered quantitative characters; therefore they are controlled by huge numbers of gene pairs with minor effects. The values of heritability in narrow scene were medium about 46 , 42% , 47 , 42% , 42 , 56% in seed yield ,number of pods per plant , number of seeds per plant in two varieties bonanza and bayader respectively except in 100 weight gave a highest value reached to 84 , 89% in two varieties bonanza and bayader respectively. From all above it was concluded that honeycomb selection and two p-fertilization rates were effective to increase seed yield and its components. This will help of developing cowpea varieties with high yielding ability . We recommend the selection must be continued in order to increase the additive gene action particularly for the components of yield as indirect approach to improve seed yield.

Keywords


Article
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION FREQUENCY AND DEPTH IN GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE. 1- SOME FIELD CHARACTERISTICS
دور جدولة الري وعمقه في نمو وحاصل الذرة الصفراء 1. بعض الصفات الحقلية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A field of experiment was conducted at the Field of Crops Research Station / Abu-Graib during 2008 & 2009 seasons, to study the effect of irrigation frequency and irrigation depths on some field characterize of maize. The layout of the experiment was a split – plot in RCBD with four replications . Irrigation frequency ( 5 and 10 days ) were the main plots while the depths (6,9 and 12 cm) refers to water quantities (900,1350 and 1800 liter) were used as sub-plot. Seeds of the "5012" synthetic variety of maize was planted in the 15th of March and 15th of July for both spring and fall seasons, respectively. Results shows that irrigation every 5 days was superior in days to 90% an thesis reaching 73.6, 72.3 , 70.3 and 69.2 days; physiological maturity reaching 107.3, 107.8, 106 and 104 days ; leaf area plant reaching 0.4953, 0.5160, 0.5149 and 0.5280 m2 ; roots dry weight reaching 32.5, 35.8, 34.5 and 35.8 gm ; stem dry weight 77.8, 79.8, 79.6 and 81.1 gm ; leaf dry weight reaching 50.9, 52.8, 52.9 and 53.7 gm ; for both spring and fall seasons , respectively plant height reaching 177.8 and 185.4 cm for both fall seasons , respectively. Also 12 cm depth was superior in days to 90% anthesis reaching 73.6, 71.1, 69.9 and 69.3 days ; physiological maturity reaching 108, 108.3, 106.5 and 106 days ; leaf area reaching 0.4726, 0.4983, 0.5018 and 0.5156 m2 ; root dry weight reaching 30.9, 35.3, 32.1 and 34.3 gm ; stem dry weight 75.6, 76, 77 and 80.1 gm , and leaf dry weight reaching 47.1, 49.1, 49.6 and 50.9 gm for both spring and fall seasons respectively. So we concluded that field trails was superior in fall seasons compared with spring seasons, we recommended the using of irrigation every five days. This will be helpful in field trails. Scheduling and repeating of irrigation for saving portion of water may be useful in future agriculture expansion.

Keywords


Article
ROLE OF IRRIGATION DEPTH AND FREQUENCY IN GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE 2. WATER USE EFFECIENCY, GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS
دور جدولة الري وعمقه في نمو وحاصل الذرة الصفراء 2- كفاءة الاستهلاك المائي وحاصل البذور ومكوناته

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at Field Crops Research Station / Abu - Ghraib during 2008 - 2009 Seasons to study effect of irrigation depth and frequency on corn yield and components. The layout of the experiment was a split - plot in RCBD with four replications. Irrigation frequency 5 and 10 days were the main plots while the depths (6, 9 and 12 cm) refers to water quantities (900, 1350 and 1800 liter) were the Sub-plots. The results shows that irrigation every 5 days was superior in ears numbers per plant, seeds per ear , seed weight and plant yield which reach 138.6 and 159.6 gm / plant for both spring seasons and 154.5 and 174.7 for both fall seasons , respectively. Grain yield reaching 8.673 , 9.990 and 9.674 , 10.938 ton/h. Irrigation depth 12 cm was superior in ears number per plant , Seeds per ear , seed weight and plant yield which reach 116.3 , 136.8 gm / plant and 142.1, 160.1 gm / plant . Water used efficiency reached o.549 , 0.638 and 0.558 , 0.627 kg/m2 for both spring and fall seasons , respectively. In conclusion , an increasing in plant's yield in fall season was observed as compared with spring season . This would reflect the positive influence of high temperature or both . Propagation and elongation and temperate temperature on pollination and fertilization of the plant . It was recommended the using of irrigation every five days . This will be helpful in yield increasing . Scheduling and repeating of irrigation as well as high water quality availability during each irrigation of the maiz were also recommended . This will be necessary to prevent the surplus of water and to increase the awareness of irrigation concepts . This will lead to the availability of excess irrigation water that be useful in future agricultural expansion.

Keywords


Article
USE OF SOME GROWTH REGULATOR TO IMPROVE YIELD,STORAGE LIFE AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF OYSTER MUSHROOM
استخدام بعض منظمات النمو في زيادة الإنتاج والقابلية الخزنية والعلاجية للفطر المحاري

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Four experiments were conducted in the mushroom production unit in the Dep. of Hort. starting in Sep. 15. 2009 . Oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jaq: Fr ) ) was imported from Jordan. Mushroom spawn was added to a sterilized and moist wheat straw and transferred to incubation room at 25 ± 2°C for one month, then to the growth room. Humidity was raised to 80-90% and light was raised to 400 lux. In the first experiment Gibberellin ( GA3 ) was used in the beging of the pinhead stage in the following concentrations : o ppm or 250 ppm or 500 ppm or 1000 ppm GA3 . In the second experiment Benzyl Adenine ( BA ) was used in the same stage and in the same concentrations. In the third experiment the fruiting bodies were stored in cold incubators at 2 ± 1°C for three weeks to determine the kind and the concentration of the chemicals with the medicinal properties using HPLC. The results showed that fruiting body weight and total yield and the biological efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of GA3. Using 500 ppm of GA3 increased fruiting body weight to 12.5g and the total yield to 910.8g / kg of substrate and the biological efficiency to 91%. While using 500ppm BA increased fruiting body weight to 11.7g and total yield to 621.6g / kg of substrate and the biological efficiency to 62%. Treatments whit BA reduced protein loss after storage. While GA3 have no significant effects on protein loss after storage. Use of 1000ppm GA3 reduced the percentage of decay from 20.3% to 16.46% while the same concentration of BA reduced the percentage of decay from 20.3% to 11.1% after three weeks of storage at 2 ±1°c. The concentration of all the chemicals with the medicinal properties increased in the fruiting bodies with the increase of GA3 or BA concentration. Treatment with 500ppm GA3 increased gallic acid from 5.55mg /g to 8.62mg / g of dry matter, and increased B-glucan from 12.24mg / g to 14.86mg / g of dry matter. The concentration of Lectin, statin and chitin were increased two times above the untreated ( Control ).There were no significant differences between GA3 and BA in their effects on the concentration of the above chemicals . Treatment with 500ppm of BA reduced the loss in the concentration of B-glucan and Statin after storage.

Keywords


Article
ROLE OF POTASSIUM PERMENGANATE IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDES OF APPLE FRUITS
المعاملة ببرمنكنات البوتاسيوم والأضرار الفسلجية لثمار التفاح

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This experiment was conducted on apple trees cvs. Golden Delicious and Red Delicious grown in Ineshky orchard, Dohuk-Iraq, and the Central Laboratory of the College of Agriculture, Dohuk University to study the effects of dipping apple fruits in potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on storage characteristics and physiological disorders of the two apple cultivars fruits. The experiment was factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates. Golden Delicious and Red Delicious apple fruits harvested in 24 and 27 Oct. in both seasons ( 2005 and 2006 ) were classified into five groups, three of them were dipped in solutions of potassium permanganate at the concentrations 0%, 1% and 2% for one minute, dried, and put in non perforated polyethylene bags and closed tightly, while the other two groups of fruits were put in non perforated polyethylene bags with 10 or 20g KMnO4/ bag in Petri dishes. The five groups stored in cool rooms at 0 ± 1°C and 85-90% RH for 6 months. All KMnO4 treatments especially KMnO4 dip treatments significantly reserved the fruit firmness and increased acidity of Golden Delicious and Red Delicious apple fruits after 6 months of storage in comparison to those non treated in both seasons, but significantly decreased the rate of respiration for the both apple cvs. especially when the fruits dipped in 2% KMnO4. Also all KMnO4 treatments especially 20g KMnO4/ bag (which was the least) reduced significantly superficial scald incidence in 2005 and 2006. As well as all KMnO4 treatments significantly reduced senescence breakdown for the two cvs. in 2005 and 2006 , and for Red Delicious fruits in 2006 only. Some non treated Golden Delicious apple fruits were cracked after storage during 2006 , while treated fruits with KMnO4 were less incidence.

Keywords


Article
USE OF LIQUORICE ROOT POWDER TO IMPROVE YIELD, STORAGE LIFE AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF OYSTER MUSHROOM
استخدام مسحوق عرق السوس في تحسين القابلية الإنتاجية والخزنية والعلاجية للفطر المحاري

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Four experiments were conducted in the cold storage unit in the Dept. of Hort. /College of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad starting in Feb. 1 / 2009. The white strain spawn of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jaq: Fr ) ) was imported from Jordan. Plastic bags were filled with 1 kg of sterilized and moist wheat straw and 50g of mushroom spawn was added to each bag. The bags were transferred to the incubation room at 25 ± 2°C for one month, then to the growth room. Humidity was raised to 80-90 % and light to 400 lux. Liquorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ) root powder was added to the wheat straw before spawning and before extracting the water soluble substances in the following percentages : 0 or 5% or 10 % or 15 % , W / W. In the second experiment the water soluble substances were removed from liquorice root powder by boiling with water and squeezed by cloth bag. The remaning insoluble powder was dried and added to the straw before spawing in the same percentages used in the first experiment. The fruiting bodies of the oyster mushroom were dried and used to determine the kind and the concentration of the chemicals with the medicinal properties using HPLC. The results showed that total yield and fruiting body weight and the biological efficiency increased with the increase of the percentage of both kinds of liquorice root powder. The concentration of all the chemicals detected in the fruiting bodies were increased with the increase of both kind of the powder used. Using 15 % of the unextract powder icreased the concentration of gallic acid from 5.68 mg / g to 8.61 mg/g of dry matter, and increased of Lectin from 1.24 mg / g to 9.29 mg / g of dry matter, and of B-gluca from 11.39 mg / g to 26.93 mg / g of dry matter and increased statin from 2.10 mg / g to 9.78 mg / g of dry matter, and increased chitin from 2.71 mg / g to 10.42 mg / g of dry matter and increased ergothionine from 10.96 mg / g of dry matter to 30.23 mg / g of dry matter. Storage of the fruiting bodies three weeks at 2 ± 1°c reduced the concentration of all the chemicals significantly.

Keywords


Article
MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF IRAQI AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE BANK THROUGH PAY-BACK EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL LOANS FOR THE PERIOD 2003-2008
قياس أداء المصرف الزراعي العراقي من خلال الكفاءة التحصيلية للقروض الزراعية للمدة 2003- 2008

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The objective of this research is to measure the performance of Iraqi agricultural bank through the payback efficiency of loans by using some indicators which give whenever applied a clear evidence on the bank performance during the period (2003-2008).These indicators are pay-back ratio , delayed loans repayment ratio , time classification of delayed loans , ratio of delayed amount for gross loans , ratio of repayment with respect to delayed loans and repayment index.Data for given loans , pay-back loans and delayed loans were used, The most important results of the research was the low level of pay-back efficiency criterion which refer to the deterioration of the bank performance during the study period .The results showed that the highest value of pay-back ratio indicator was 19.21% for the year 2007, while the pay-back ratio of delayed loans for the year 2008 was 3.49% which is the heighest ratio. The results also showed that the delayed loans time classification indicator was 53.63% for the year 2008 which is the highest ratio. The ratio of delayed loans to gross loans was 1.54% for the year 2008. The pay-back ratio was superior in comparison with delayed loans ratio , as the highest ratio for pay-back was 19.21% against 3.49% as a highest ratio for delayed loans , the highest ratio for repayment index was 0.19% for the year 2007.The study forwarded some recommendations which may enhance the performance of agricultural bank in Iraq.

Keywords


Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF NET PROTECTION COEFFICIENTS FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD 1980-200
تحليل اقتصادي لمعاملات الحماية الاسمية الصافية للمنتجات الحيوانية في العراق للمدة 1980 2005-

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this study is to shed light on the nature of net protection coefficients for animal products produced in Iraq for the period (1980-2005).Consequently the protection structure for these products could be traced , which is considered as an indicator for the protection extent of agricultural sector in Iraq . This was achieved through the usage of simple mathematical models to calculate the net protection coefficients for animal products (eggs, red meat, and chicken meat). A weighted average of net protection coefficient for these products will be calculated. to arrive at approximate idea about the nature of net protection coefficient of agricultural sector in Iraq for the study period. In developing countries agricultural sector suffered from indirect taxes through some macroeconomic policies such as exchange rate and trade policies . The results showed that net protection coefficients values were less than for most years of study period which indicated that there was no protection for animal products except the years for sheep meat (80-98) add to (95) for chicken (80-98) add to(99) for eggs (98 , 96 , 95 , 88 , 83) in which the net protection coefficients were more than (1) which means that there was a positive protection for these years. The same thing could said about the weighted average of net protection coefficients and their sum which indicated the absence of protection for agricultural sector in Iraq for the study period . some recommendations were forwarded to improve the performance of agricultural sector in Iraq.

Keywords


Article
EFFECT OF HARROW TYPE AND DRILL SEEDER S SPEED ON SOME MACHINERY UNIT TECHNICAL ,ECONOMICAL AND ENERGY REQUIREMENT PARAMETERS.
تاثير نوع المنعمة وسرعة البذار في بعض المؤشرات الفنية والاقتصادية ومتطلبات القدرة للوحدة المكنية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

An experiment was conducted on a farm belong to College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad to the year 2009 in a silty-clay soil , New Holland tractor with two type of Harrow’s and drill seeder was used. Treatments were laid out using split-plot with randomized complete block design in three replicates .The study consist of two factors : first factor was Harrow Type with two Level’s (Rotary Harrow and Spring Spike tooth Harrow) which represented Main Plot’s , second factor was drill seeding speed with three Levels (6.28, 7.61, 11.43)km/hr, which represented sub plot’s .Some of machinery unit performance parameters were determined which include : slippage percentage , Effective field capacity , Field efficiency and fuel consumption , Total operation cost of machinery unit (Tractor with drill seeder) was calculated , and as well as machinery unit Energy requirement .Results obtained indicated that drill seeder with spring spike tooth Harrow showed significant superiority in comparison with the drill seeder with rotary harrow in recording lower slippage percentage (8.453%), higher value effective field capacity (0.8233m/hr), higher value of field efficiency (68.128%), Lower value of Fuel consumption (10.194L/ha), Lower Total operation coast of machinery unit (18322 ID/ha), and Lower value of machinery unit Energy requirement (36.87 kw.hr/ha). Third drill seeding speed significant superiority in comparison with other speeds in recording higher value of Effective Field capacity (1.0806 ha/hr), Lower value of Fuel consumption (8.112L/ha), Lower value of total operation cost’s (13593 ID/ha) and Lower value of machinery unit Energy requirement (22.40 kw.hr/ha), It can be concluded that drill seeder with spring spike tooth harrow on third speed showed significant superiority in comparison with drill seeder with rotary harrow and other speeds in recording best of machinery unit technical,economical and energy requirement parameters,And therefore it can be recommended using the drill seeder on third speed after harrowing by spring spike tooth harrow .

Keywords


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SEASONS OF THE YEAR ON THE PREGNANCY RATE IN MARES IN IRAQ.
تأثير مواسم السنة المختلفة على نسبة الحمل في الأفراس في العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasons of the year on the pregnancy rate, early embryonic death (EED), and abortion in mares in Iraq. One hundred seventy three mares from different breed (Arabian, Thoroughbred and cross breed) type with the history of at least one foaling, age < 5 years were used in the current study. This study was conducted during one year calendar (2006) in a private equine station south west of Baghdad. Obtained results showed that the percentage of pregnancy in mare was occurring in spring (30.13%) which significantly higher (p<0.05) than the percentage recorded during the other seasons. Meanwhile high percentage of pregnancy (13.69%) was recorded in the mares bred in August and October. In the same season the percentage of non pregnant (60.98%) were significantly higher than the percentage of pregnant mares in winter. The incidences of early embryonic death differed according to the season of the year, it was higher in winter and autumn as compared to spring and summer, the high percentage of abortion was recorded during ِAutumn. In conclusion the breeding season is not obvious in mares in Iraq and most mares can be bred during different months and seasons of the year.

Keywords


Article
OSMOTIC EVAPORATION OF TOMATO JUICE BY USING CaCl2.6H2O AND MgCl2.6H2O AS OSMOTIC SOLUTION
التبخير الازموزي لعصير الطماطة بأستخدام CaCl2.6H2O و MgCl2.6H2O كمحاليل ازموزية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The osmotic pressure (atm.) of tomato juice at different concentrations and temperatures were determined. Two kinds of salts, namely, CaCl2.. 6H2O and MgCl2.6H2O were used as osmotic solutions with different molarities, temperatures and periods. The total soluble solids (TSS) in tomato juice was adjusted to 4.5%.The development in total soluble solids percentages by using 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 M osmotic solutions at 25, 30 , 35 , 40 , 45 and50o C , for 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165 and 180 min. were determined. Using the selected molarities; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 M CaCl2.6H2O as osmotic solution and running the process from 15 to 180 min., the total soluble solids (TSS%) in tomato juice have developed from 8.1 to 23.1% at 25o C; 9.1 to 24.1% at 30o C; 9.9 to 24.9% at 35o C; 10.5 to 25.5% at 40o C; 11.0 to 26.0% at 45o C and 11.4 to 26.5 at 50o C, respectively. Repeating the experiment with MgCl2.6H2O as osmotic solution the total soluble solids (TSS %) in tomato juice have developed from 10.8 to 30.7% at 25o C; 12.1 to 32.1% at 30o C; 13.2 to 33.1% at 35o C; 14.0 to 33.9% at 40o C; 14.6 to 34.6% at 45o C and 15.2 to 35.2% at 50o C respectively. The water fluxes declines in juice, in the course of osmotic evaporation processes had been studied. The final products were judged by the team work itself. The sensory evaluation of taste, odor and color has shown similar values in rediluted concentrations as compared with fresh juices. A loss between 16-24% in ascorbic acid content is associated with osmotic evaporation process, especially at high temperatures (45 and 50o C).

Keywords

Table of content: volume: issue: