جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 40 العدد: 6

Article
RESPONSE OF SOME MELON CULTIVARS TO INFECTION BY CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
استجابة بعض أصناف البطيخ للإصابة بفايروس موزائيك الخيار تحت الظروف الحقلية

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to test the response of melon cultivars, Local1 , Local2 , Local3 , Local4 , Local5 , Local6 , Local7 , Local8 , Local9 , Ananas 2nd generation1 , Ananas 2nd generation2 , Emerlad to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The virus was isolated from infected melon plants, and identified by mean of symptoms on indicator plants, aphid transmission, and immunostrip test. Chenopodium murale was responded to inoculation by the virus by necrotic local lesion on inoculated leaves, Ch. amaranticolor by chlorotic local lesions on inoculated leaves, Datura stramonium by small chlorotic local lesions on inoculated leaves, developed later to mosaic. Cucurbita pepo was responded to the infection by the virus by chlorotic local lesions on inoculated leaves developed to mosaic on the other leaves, and Lycopersicon esculentum by vein clearing, yellowing of leaves and filliform shaped. The immunostrip specific for CMV showed positive reaction with extracts from infected melon plants, negatively with extracts from healthy melon plants. Melon cultivars were cultivated in the field of Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture, exposed to the natural infection by CMV from infected cucumber plants infested with the vector Myzus persicae, posed at different sites of the field. 2 weeks after cultivation. Samples from melon cultivars were taken after one month and submitted to virus detection by bioassay on cucumber plants, immunostrip test, and transmission by aphid. Symptoms of mosaic was manifested on cucumber leaves mechanically inoculated by extracts from Local1 , Local2 , Local3 , Local4 , Local6 , Local7 , Local8 , Local9 , Ananas 2nd generation2, or exposed to aphids fed on these cultivars. Also, results of immune strip test showed the presence of CMV in these cultivars. No symptoms were observed on test plants when mechanically inoculated with extracts from Local5 , Ananas 2nd generation1 and Emerlad, or exposed to aphids fed on these cultivars. No reaction observed by CMV immunostrip with extracts from these cultivars. This indicates that these cultivars were resistant to CMV.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EVALUATION THE EFFICACY OF BAKING YEAST , SOME NUTRIENTS AND SALICYLIC ACID TO CONTROL MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA
تقويم فاعلية خميرة الخبز و بعض العناصر وحامض السالسلك في مكافحة الماكروفومينا

المؤلفون: Nahida M.Saleh ناهدة مهدي صالح
الصفحات: 9-16
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الخلاصة

Damping off caused by Macrophomina phaseolina has become among the most dangerous diseases for melon (Cucumis melon L.) in Iraq . Thus a trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , some nutrients and salicylic acid to control the disease . Results indicated that yeast showed a potential as a biological control agent against the pathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina and inhibited the growth of pathogen at 45.4 and 64.8 % when used at concentrations 2 and 5 gL-1 respectively . To achieve 50% inhibition (IC50) , 2.8 gL-1 of yeast was required . Result also indicated that application of silicon, copper , salicylic acid , S. cerevisiae and Benomyl resulted in a significant reduction of seedling pre –and post- emergence damping off in comparision with the control treatment (inoculated with pathogen only ). Combination of S. cerevisiae with the silicon was prevented pre- and post –emergence infection . While the post emergence damping off was prevented by the antagonistic yeast in combination with salicylic acid .Also , it was found that application of S. cerevisiae improved the dry weight of shoots and roots and plant height at 2.61g .1.09g and 52.8 cm respectively .Results reveald that combination of S. cerevisiae with silicon significantly increased dry weight of shoots and roots and plants height comparted with the other treatments .

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Article
NEW RECORD OF WHITEFLY SPECIES IN BAGHDAD
تسجيل جديد لنوع من الذباب الابيض لاول مره قى بغداد

المؤلفون: Iman M. AL-Malo ايمان محمد المالو
الصفحات: 17-20
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted in Baghdad from Grayait and Mansooro on Jasminu sambac during season 2006-2007.the whiteflies insects was appeared on different location in he world , the group of insects belong to order Hemiptera and sub order Sternorrhyncha and family Aleyrodidae which contain 1556 species in 161 genera in the world, they infesting wide rang of host plants ,some species as a pests of crop , ornamental plants and forestry plants and wide spread in the world ,there are four immature stage ,the last three stage are completely sessile similar to scale insects, the fourth stage known as the pupa ,ideated to genera and species of whiteflies dependent on pupal case which product of moulting the fourth instar nymph .there are many research and study was conduct in the world to record new species yearly. This species Bemisia giffardi (k.) belong to sub family Aleyrodinae infected citrus, ornamental plants, It has been recorded from Palaearctic region ,Oriental region, Australia region. The new record of Bemisia giffardi (K) in Baghdad on Jasminum sambac during June and July .the species was identity due to taxonomist key and drawing by Camera Lucida which use pupal case. that is elongate and with a pair of ridge from cephali to vasiform orifice. .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EVALUATION OF SOME IPM ELEMENTS FOR THE CORN BORER Sesamia cretica LED. (PHALAENIDAE:LEPIDOPTERA) ON SORGHUM
تقويم بعض عناصر المكافحة المتكاملة لحفار ساق الذرةعلى الذرة البيضاء

المؤلفون: Musa M. Al-Hassnawi موسى محمود الحسناوي
الصفحات: 21-29
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الخلاصة

Field experiments were carried out at the fields of the college of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib, during the fall season/2008 to evaluate the effectiveness of some cultural and chemical methods to control the corn borer, Sesamia cretica Led. on sorghum fields. Results indicated that the delay of the sowing dates of sorghum to the end of July, significantly reduced the infestation percentage of S. cretica and seedling dead heart to 5.03%, 4.74% respectively, compared with that of control treatment of 17.02% and 35.12% respectively. Results also revealed that sowing two rows (lines) of corn in the middle of the sorghum plots, significantly reduced the infestation percentage of S. cretica and seedling dead heart to 4.56%, 16.22%, and even to the lower values of 2.35, 8.91% respectively, When two rows of corn were planted on each side of the sorghum plots, compared with that for the control treatment 17.25%, 34.03% respectively. Results of the effects of the six insecticides tested indicated that IGR's Match and Hi-Catch were most effective and significantly reducing infestation percentage of sorghum plants by the corn borer to (4.19%, 5.92%) and seedling dead hearts to (8.09%, 10.2%) respectively, while its reached a 23.1%, 31.79% in the control plots. The yield of all treated plants was significantly higher than that of untreated plots. However, insecticides can be divided into 3 groups according to their effects on yield of sorghum. Match and Hi-catch treatments were the most effective which lead to increase of yield by 50%, followed by 43% for Sinoprid and( 23.33-26% )for the last group of insecticides, Diazinon 10%,Crusier350FS and Furdan10G.The role of sowing dates, intercropping with corn, and the chemical insecticides tested in the IPM for the corn borer, Sesamia cretica also discussed.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
IDENTIFICATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RACES OF ASCOCHYTA RABIEI (PASS.) LAB. THE CAUSAL AGENT OF ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT ON CHICKPEA BY DIFFERENTIAL HOST
تحديد السلالات الفسيولوجية للفطر Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab. المسبب للفحة الاسكوكايتا على الحمص باستخدام العوائل المفرقة في محافظة نينوى

المؤلفون: F.T.R.AL-Dulaimy فراس طارق رشيد الدليمي
الصفحات: 30-40
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الخلاصة

Chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. is one of the most important leguminous crops in Iraq .The crop is cultivated in northern area of Iraq, but still very restricted due to many agricultural problems and ascochyta blight , which is considered as a limiting factor to the cultivation of this crop . Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.)Lab. ,the causal agent of the disease is frequently undergoes genetic variation leading to the appearance of new strains which may cause resistance breakdown of the cultivated cultivars. This study was conducted to determine the genetic variations among fungus isolates by differential hosts.Results showed the existence of significant differences between the isolates, concerning disease severity. The disease severity was found to be 99.8% ,the highest, on the sensitive cultivar ˝Marakishy˝ and 47.63% , the lowest, on the resistante line ILC3279. Depending on these results , the isolates were considered as 4 physiological races. Race 1: is the weakest with disease severity above 66.6% on the cv. Marakishy and line ILC1929, Race 2: the mild one with disease severity above 66.6% on cv. Marakishy, ILC1929,cv. Rafidain, and line ILC482, Race 3: the agressive race with disease severity above 66.6% on most cultivars except line ILC3279, Race4: the highly aggressive race with a disease severity above 66.6% on all the test genotype. It was found that these races belong to 3 pathotypes: Pathotype Ι, the weakest one including race 1. Pathotype ΙΙ, the mild one, including races 2 and 3, and pathotype ΙΙΙ, the most severe one, including race 4

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Article
GENETIC MODIFICATION OF RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY IN BREAD WHEAT
التعديلات الوراثية لكفاءة استخدام الاشعة الضوئية في حنطة الخبز

المؤلفون: Radhi T.Al-Assafi راضي ذياب العسافي
الصفحات: 62-77
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الخلاصة

In this reveiw, most important factors affecting radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat yield and some traits related were discussed . RUE of a crop is a function of several interacting physiological phenomena, each of which can be discussed independently from the point of view of genetic improvement .There is no a large increase in RUE by plant breeder but, the theoretical calculations state that a wide scale for improving it . Selection for higher rates of leaf photosynthesis at saturating light intensities (Amax) has not resulted in improved RUE of crops, perhaps most leaves in a canopy are not light-saturated . Genetic transformation of Rubisco to double its specificity for CO2 would theoretically increase Amax by 20% , and some evidence suggests that photosynthesis at sub-saturating light intensities would also be improved , especially by manipulation of leaf angle or by optimum distribution of leaf-N throughout the canopy. Improved RUE may be achieved by increasing sink demand (kernel number) if excess photosynthetic capacity exists during grain filling, as suggested by a number of studies in which source–sink balance was manipulated. Balancing source-and sink-strength is a complex genetic challenge since a crop will change between source and sink limitation as conditions vary during the day.Selection for superior segregants can be accelerated using rapidly measured physiological selection traits, such as stomatal conductance or canopy temperature depression . The genetic control of photosynthetic regulation may be explained in the future through the application of genomics

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF DRY MATTER IN BLACK SEED PLANT AS AFFECTED BY GROTH REGULATORS AND SOWING DATES
توزيع المادة الجافة في نبات الحبة السوداء بفعل منظمات النمو النباتية ومواعيد الزراعة

المؤلفون: Basheer. A.Abraheem بشير عبد الله إبراهيم
الصفحات: 78-84
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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted using the randomized complete block design in split plot arrangement with three replications. This was to estimate the effect of sowing dates and plant growth regulators on distribution pattern of dry matter among plant parts of black seed. during 2003/2004 season at the experimental farm of Field of Crop Dept./ College of Agriculture. The sowing dates were 1/11,15/11and 1/12/2003 represented the main plots ,while the subplots included plant growth regulators. Those were; coconut milk ,gibberlin and ethiphon with concentrations of 100000 l/l ,100ug/ml and 100Microl/l ,reprectively as well as control (water) .Dry weights were differing with differing . growth regulators, which were 26.91g for coconut milk ,25.90 g for gibberllin an 17.27 g for ethephon The control treatment was 18.51 g Coconut milk and gibberllin increased capsule weight of 21.2 and 20.50,respectively. Ethephon decreased capsules weight of 1.25 g less than control .But the yield was increased 41.5% Stem and leaves were decreased fram 22.87 and 11.92 , respectively .The capsule plant weight ratio 23.68 by an increase ratio of 6.69 more than control.The first and second dates were superior over the third one They gave 3.37 ,2.85 and 2.47 g/plant respectively .The total dry weight was increased by being early in sowing dates of 28.18 g/plant for first datewhich was clearest than the next date 20.93 and 14.96 g /plant ,respectively.

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Article
THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC INVESTMENT ON GROSS AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT IN IRAQ DURING 1974-1994
اثر التخصيصات الاستثمارية الحكومية في الاستثمار الإجمالي الزراعي في العراق للمدة 1974-1994

الصفحات: 85-94
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الخلاصة

The objective of this research was to trace the impact of public investment expenditure on agricultural investment in Iraq through the analysis of functional relationships between different variables affecting investment. To avoid inflationary effects which happened at the end of the 1980 and 1990 of the last century fixed prices were used (1988) as a base year. The study of investment is considered one of the important issues particularly in the agriculture sector. The researchers have different opinions about the factors that could affect the gross investment(public and private).The applied researches in this area have indicated many important factors that affect the investment such as the rate of national income growth, and the rate of investment in capital stocks, and in return the investment itself could affect the size of National income and its stability. The results showed a weak relationship between public investment and agricultural investment during the study period .Accelerator value was 0.02.when investment as a component of aggregate demand used for agricultural investment it was found that it had a limited effect as the marginal propensity to invest was 0.3only . It was insignificant in private investment and fixed capital formation function for private sector. This was because investment were not directed to production investment directly and also financing investment was dependant completely on oil revenue .This was not accompanied by increasing the level of agricultural gross domestic product .This caused a decrease in average investment and consequently the fixed capital for agricultural sector. This requires reformulation of macroeconomic policies especially the expenditure policy in a way to serve the objectives of raising the level of agricultural capital formation as it is one of the important factors in increasing the rate of growth in agricultural production.

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Article
USE OF TWO PROBIOTICS AND THEIR COMBINATION IN PRODUCTIVTY PERFORMANCE OF HY-LINE LAYERS
استخدام نوعين من المعزز الحيوي ) البروبايوتك ) وخليطهما في الأداء الإنتاجي لدجاج هايلاين

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الخلاصة

The experiment aimed to study the effect of diet supplementation with locally prepared probiotic ( Iraqi probiotic ), probiotic (Aspergillus.niger) and their mixture on some productive traits of acclimated Hy-Line layers . A total of 120 Hy-Line hens , 44 weeks old , were randomly allocated into four treatment groups with three replicates for each treatment . The treatment groups were: the control ( T1) which fed on common diet. Laying Hens in T2 and T3 were fed a standard diets supplemented with localy prepared probiotic in treatment 2 (T2) and probiotic (A.niger) in treatment 3 (T3) at a rate of 5g / kg die for each . Hens in treatment 4 group (T4) were fed with diet supplemented with mixture of two types of probiotic which contained an equal quantity of local prepared probiotic and probiotic(A.niger) , i.e. 2.5 g local prepared probiotic and 2.5 gm of probiotic (A.niger) . Results showed that the dietary supplementation with localy prepared probiotic , probiotic (A.niger) and their mixture resulted in a significant improvement in hen day production and egg weight . There were no significant differences between the treatment groups and control as regards livability percentage .

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Article
KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF SIDE DAMAGES OF HORTICULTURAL GROWERS WHEN USING EXCESS FERTILIZERS
المستوى المعرفي لزراع البساتين بالأضرار الجانبية عند استخدام الأسمدة الزائدة

المؤلفون: Yusuf A. Mahmoud يوسف أحمد محمود
الصفحات: 101-107
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الخلاصة

Knowledge in a thing is considered an essential condition for its proper application , so the knowledge and awareness of farmers in dealing safely with fertilizers leads to a safe and secure application of them and achiere their objectives in improving the properties of soil and supplying plant with feeding elements , so this research aimed at knowing the level of knowledge of the horticultural growers in the area of Tarmiya – Baghdad in the side damages of excess use of fertilizers, in addition of determining the level of growers knowledge in each of the areas ( soil , plant , environment , and farms ) , as well as discovering the relationships between the level of knowledge and each of the following independent variables ( tenure, funding , and educational level ) Research population included all orchard farmers in Tarmiya area numbered (1200) , a random sample of a size (10%) (120 farmers ) was taken from it . The research found the following results : with regard to the level of knowledge of horticultural growers in the side damages in the use of fertilizers, it was medium tends to a relative decline , the results also showed a significant relationships between the level of knowledge of farmers , and each of the following variables ; funding and educational level . Therefore the researchers recommended to find an extension team which take care of field environmental extension , and activate this subject in the curriculum of the agrienltural colleges.

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Article
ROLE OF PHOSPHGYPSUM IN MOVEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF SALTS IN CALCAREOUS SOILS
دورالجبس الفوسفاتي في حركة وتوزيع الأملاح في الترب الكلسية

المؤلفون: Akram A. Al-Hadethi أكرم عبد اللطيف ألحديثي
الصفحات: 108-117
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الخلاصة

To study the effect of phosphogypsum addition in the movement and distribution of salts in the calcareous soils, a columns experiment were conducted using the plexiglass columns. Two calcareous soils were used, the first silty clay loam and the second sandy loam. phosphogypsum levels were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 tons ha-1 with the first of 5 cm. Distilled water Add daily to the all columns transactions with a fixed depth through Marriott Bottle Technique. The filtrates were collection daily, after stopping the addition of water, the soil was separated from the soil columns and then cut each column into four layers. Electric conductivity and dissolved ions (Na+ and Ca+2 and Mg+2) in filtrates were measured and then sodium adsorption ratio were calculated (SAR). Results showed that the addition of phosphogypsum to the sandy loam soil did not affect salt distribution at various stages of leaching. While in silty clay soil the relationship between EC and the depth of filtrates was significant decline after the first stage of leaching in the control treatment about the difference filtrates of leaching, which have been added phosphate gypsum. These results were reflected in the high values of the sodium adsorption ratio in the control treatment. Either by cutting the soil columns after the leaching process, the results indicate an increase in the values of electrical conductivity with the increase in the level of addition of phosphogypsum.

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Article
ROLE OF POTASSIUM SULPHATE AND CHLORIDE IN NPK UPTAKE BY CUCUMBER UNDER PROTECTED CONDITIONS AND DRIP IRRIGATION
دور سمادي كبريتات وكلوريد البوتاسيوم في امتصاص عناصر NPK للخيار تحت الزراعة المحمية والري بالتنقيط

المؤلفون: Y.M.Abu-Dahi يوسف محمد ابو ضاحي
الصفحات: 118-127
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الخلاصة

A Field experiment was conducted during fall season of 2003/2004 under heated plastic house conditions and drip irrigation belongs to AL-Mekdadiya company for agricultural materials south of Baghdad in a silty clay loam texture soil (Typic Torrifluvent), classified as MM4 at the series Level to compare the effect of potassium sulphate 41% K and potassium chloride 50% K fertilizers on dry matter production and uptake of NPK nutrients by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), Shuaa cv. The (RCBD) was used with three replicates . Results showed that the potassium sulphate fertilizer had significant effect for total dry weight per plant and these effect increased with increasing the levels of both potassium fertilizers and potassium sulphate had the superiority compared with potassium chloride fertilizer for dry weight per plant . The level of 100 kg K . ha-1 had significant effect for all added levels for both potassium fertilizers . The highest effect obtained by the 100 kg K . ha-1 that were 390.73 and 382.70 g dry matter . plant-1 for potassium sulphate and potassium chloride respectively , while the control treatment gave only 300.80 gm per plant . Results showed also , that potassium sulphate fertilizer had significant effect for the uptake of K , N and P nutrients per plant and the effect increased with increasing the levels of both potassium fertilizers but the potassium sulphate fertilizer had the superiority compared with potassium chloride fertilizer . The levels of 100 kg K . ha-1 gave the highest effect of K, N and P uptake per plant , that were 24.03 and 23.45 gm . plant-1 for K – uptake per plant , 13.15 and 12.77 g dry matter . plant-1 for N – uptake and 3.26 and 3.20 g . plant-1 for P – uptake for potassium sulphate and potassium chloride respectively , while they were 12.36 , 7.88 and 2.29 g . plant-1 for the uptake of K , N and P by the control treatment (K0) respectively .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Standard Free Energy of Formation of Borate Minerals in Zubair Wells of Irrigation Water
الطاقة الحرة القياسية لتكوين معادن البورات في مياه ري آبار الزبير

المؤلفون: Haifa J. Al-Tamimi هيفاء جاسم التميمي
الصفحات: 128-133
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الخلاصة

An empirical method has been developed to estimate the standard free energy of formation (Δ Gf,298) values for hydrated borate minerals in twenty one wells in Zubair location. Water samples were analyzed for pH ,electrical conductivity(E.Ciw),Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Boron concentrations. Ionic strength of water samples was calculated from electrical conductivity, and ionic activity taking into account ion pairs that were likely to be present in these samples. Solubility data for a number of alkali borate minerals, Pinnonite Mg[B2O(OH)6], Inderite Mg[B3O3(OH)5].5H2O, Inyoite Ca[B3O3(OH)5].4H20, and Borax Na2B4O7.10H2O were compiled and analyzed according to Bassett(2). Data of experimental data and the standard free energy of formation were compared with findings of other researchers. Results indicated that borate mineral Pinnonite Mg[B2O(OH)6], Inderite Mg[B3O3(OH)5].5H2O, Inyoite Ca[B3O3(OH)5].4H20, and Borax Na2B4O7.10H2O) were not founded in the studied wells water because the standard free energy of their formation was less than the values of standard free energy of formation founded by Bassett(2) and Mattigod & Sposito(11).The method is completely general, and the parameter used in the computation is the number of Boron atoms in the polyanion unit of mineral. The standard free energy of formation value appeared that some borate minerals are dissolve and this will the problem of boron toxicity in well irrigation water. Results indicated that Boron concentration was ranged between 0.0231 to 0.462 mM.L-1 in the mean value of 0.158 mM.L-1 and equal to 0.254 to 5.082 mg.L-1 with the mean value of 3.477 mg.L-1 , that means most of studies wells water (80.95% of total wells ) are above the critical level concentration of boron and toxicity symptoms may appear on plants when it may irrigated with it .

الكلمات الدلالية

جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: