Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2006 volume:47 issue:1

Article
Synthsis and Structural Characterization of New Metal Complexes and Mixed Ligand Complexes of 2-N-(3, 4-DIHYDROXY BENZYLIDENE) BENZOTHIAZOLE

Authors: R. A. Majeed --- Ahlam J. Abdul-Ghani
Pages: 1-17
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Abstract

The new Schiff base 2-N-(3,4-dihyroxy benzylidene) benzothiazole (H2L1) was prepeared from reaction of 2-aminobenzothiazol (2-ABT)and 3,4- dihdroxy benzaldehyde. Metal complexes of the new ligand with metal ions Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II), Pt(IV), and Ru(III) were prepared by reacting H2L1. (2 mmole) with the metal ions (1mmole) in presence and absence of triethylamine (Et3N,2mmole) in ethanol . Mixed ligand complexes (ML'LI ) were synthesised by reacting H2LI and other ligands L' acetylacetone, (acac). ethylene diamine (en), 2,2- bipyridyl (bipy), and the Schiff base HLII that has been already prepared from 2-ABT and salicylaldehyde, with metal ions and ET3N in a molar ratio of 1:1:1:2, respectively in ethanol. Structures of the new compounds were characterised by elemental and thermal analyses as well as i.r and u.v- visible spectra. The magnetic properties and electrical conductivities of metal complexes were also determined . Some complexes exhibted biological activities against two types of pathogenic bacteria.

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Article
Spectrophotometric Micro Determination of Gold by Formation of Ion Pair Association Complex with the Drug Ranitidine

Authors: Fadhil Jasim --- Mohammed Al-Hamdany
Pages: 18-22
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Abstract

The drug ranitidine (N-[2-[[[5-[(dimethylamino) methyl] furan-2-yl] methyl]thio] ethyl]-N-methyl-2-nitroethene–1,1–diamine hydrochlorid) forms (λmax=260nm) ion-pair association complex with [AuBr4]-1 at pH range 2-3 extractable with 1,2-dichloroethane under the appropriate experimental conditions. A calibration plot was set up from which some analytical parameters are derived. These parameters include: linear dynamic range LDR (1-80μg.ml-1), RSD (1.9 %), sandell sensitivity (0.0360), detection limit (0.11ppm), Corr. Coef (r) (0.9988), recovery (98.32 %), Erel (-1.68 %) aqueous - to- organic phase ratio (5:4) and the mole-ratio method approved the [AuBr4]-1 : RAN as being 1:1 .

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Article
Template Synthesis, Structures and Spectral Behaviours of Binuclear Bimacrocyclic Pentaaza Complexes of Some Divalent Ions

Authors: Ahlam J. Abdul-Ghani --- Nada A. Al-Najar
Pages: 23-34
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Abstract

Eight new binuclear metal complexes of pentaaza bimacrocyclic rings were prepared by condensation reactions of benzidine, formaldehyde, and o- phenylene diamine (o-p D) with one of the diketones: acetyl acetone (acac), dibenzoyl (DB), or dibenzoyl methane (DBM) in presence of Mn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) chlorides, or with 1,2- dicyanobenzene (DCB) in presence of Zn(II) chloride in molar ratios of 1:4:4:2:2 respectively. Structures and bonding behaviour of complexes were characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, I.R and U.V-Visible spectra together with conductivity measurements and magnetic susceptibility. Octahedral geometries, were suggested for all prepared complexes. Five of the studied complexes exhibited fluorescence behaviour. Transitions and assignments were characterized from positions of excitation and emission bands in comparison with absorption spectra.

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Article
Genetical, Cytological & Biological Studies of OWSWF, Chrysomya bezziana (Vill.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Exposed to Gamma Radiation: VII. Effect on Dispersal & Flight Ability Index
دراسات وراثية وخلوية وحياتية لذبابة الدودة الحلزونية للعالم القديمالمعرضة لأشعة كاما: VII. التأثير في انتشار الآفة وقابلية طيرانها

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Abstract

This study showed that the flight ability index of the irradiated adult of OWSWF, Chrysomya bezziana as 5 days old pupae with the doses ranged 15-90 Gy was not significantly different from that of the control group during an experiment carried out under laboratory conditions. But when the experiment was carried out under field conditions, there was considerable decreases in the flight ability & dispersal of the irradiated flies which irradiated as 5 days old pupae with the following doses of gamma rays 45 & 75 Gy then released at the temperature of (18- 20)C, while an increases in the flight ability & dispersal were noticed if the flies released at the temperature of (31-34)C & the flies irradiated with 60 & 90 Gy of gamma rays as 5 days old pupae. These results indicated the importance of choosing the correct time for releasing sterile insect if an programm for eradicating this pest will be used in near future.

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Article
العد التفريقي لكريات الدم البيضاء في الهامستر الذهبي المخمج تجريبيا باللشمانيا الاحشائية

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Abstract

يعد داء اللشمانيا الاحشائية من الأمراض المتوطنة في العراق وخاصة في المناطق الجنوبية و من ابرز العلامات المرضية لهذا الخمج هو التثبيط المناعي الذي يعاني منه المريض والذي ينعكس بصورة واضحة على صورة الدم وقد هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى متابعة التغيرات الدموية لدى الهامستر الذهبي المخمج باللشمانيا الاحشائية خلال فترات متابعة مختلفة تضمنت الأوقات (100,65,35,20) يوم بعد الخمج وذلك باعتماد العد التفريقي لكريات الدم البيضاء إذ لوحظ انخفاض عام في العدد الكلي لكريات الدم البيضاء و زيادة ملحوظة في النسبة المئوية للكريات الحمضه ووحيدات النوى في الشهر الأول من الخمج أما اللمفاويات فقد لوحظت زيادة معنوية في النسبة المئوية لهذه الخلايا في الشهر الأول والثاني بعد الخمج أما النسبة المئوية للخلايا العدلة فقد انخفضت انخفاضا معنويا في الأوقات(65,35,20) يوم بعد الخمج وعادت إلى النسبة الطبيعية في الشهر الثالث بعد الخمج و من ملاحظة النتائج يمكن الاستنتاج بان الخمج باللشمانيا الاحشائية قد اثر بصورة واضحة على النسب المئوية للكريات البيضاء .

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Article
Effect of Hyperprolactinaemia on Male Rabbits Liver
تأثير فرط إفراز البرولاكتين في كبد ذكور الأرانب

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Abstract

استخدمت في هذا البحث ثمانية ارانب نيوزيلندية من الذكور فقط قسمت إلى مجموعتين. ألاولى تم حقنها بالسلبرايد Suliprid لاستحداث حالة فرط افراز البرولاكتين والثانية حقنت بمادة السلبرايد _مجموعة سيطرة). أدى حقن السلبرايد بجرعة (8 ملغم / كغم) إلى حصول ارتفاع معنوي في مستوى البرولاكتين في مصل الدم.
كما اوضحت الدراسة النسيجية للكبد حصول ارتفاع معنوي في معدل الخلايا البرنكيمية ثنائية النواة ، كما ظهر ارتفاع معنوي في معدل خلايا كفر وزيادة معنوية في معدل قطر الخلايا البرنكيمية الكبدية في النماذج المحقونة بالسلبرايد بالاضافة الى حدوث اتساع في قطر الوريد المركزي واتساع الجيبانيات الدموية ، لوحظ زيادة في هجرة الخلايا اللمفاوية بين الخلايا البرنكيمية . النتائج تشير إلى دور البرولاكتين في التأثير في الوظائف الكبدية.

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Article
HAEMATOZOA of Some FALCONIFORMES (AVES) of Iraq

Authors: Mohammad K. Jasim
Pages: 50-53
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Abstract

Twenty-two out of 97 specimens of falconiform birds collected at different areas of Iraq, which belong to nine species, were found infected with blood parasites. Five species of haematozoa were recovered. Microfilariae were the most common parasite with an infection rate of 12.4% followed by Haemoproteas tinnunculus, Leucocytozoon toddi, Plasmodium fallax, P. relictum and Trypanosoma avium complex with infection rates of 10.3%, 5.2%, 4.1% and 1% respectively. Two species, Leucocytozoon toddi and Plasmodium fallax are found to be new host records.

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Article
Bacterial Detection and Anatomical Descriptions of the Digestive System of the Iraqi Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) in Baghdad Province

Authors: Amer M. Hussin --- Osama J. Kallo
Pages: 54-57
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Abstract

This study was carried on 64 Geckos of different sizes collected from five locations at Baghdad province over a period from July 2002 up to February 2003. Bacteriological examination of 84 swabs taken from the digestive tract of these animals revealed that 81 swabs (96.4%) were positive for bacterial isolates. The most predominant bacteria were Salmonella spp. (50%) followed by E.coli (26.2%) and Klesiella spp. (14.3%), which were isolated mostly from the small intestine and feces. The highest frequency of Salmonella infection was observed in Geckos collected from Al-Mahmodeia and Al-Amereia (100%), (83%) respectively, where as the lowest frequency (26.6%) was found in Geckos collected from Baghdad Al-Jadida. Geckos of large size were more frequently infected in comparison with the smaller size. However the study of the anatomy of the digestive system showed that Geckos have a wide triangular mouth with pointed teeth, the stomach was small and the duodenum was large, the liver had a gall bladder and the pancreas opens in to the duodenum by many ducts. The study indicated that the large size of the duodenum plays an important role in bacterial growth and multiplication. Therefore it could be concluded that Geckos considered to be a source and reservoir for harmful pathogens that could be transmitted to human beings

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Article
The Agglutination Action of Mannan Binding Protein (Lectin) Against Some Local Isolates of Pathogenic Bacterial
الفعل التلازني للكتين المرتبط بالمانن (MBL) تجاه بعض العزلات المحليةمن الجراثيم الممرضة

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Abstract

أظهر اللكتين المرتبط بالمانن (MBL) المنقى من مصل دم الانسان قابلية على ملازنة بعض الاحياء المجهرية المرضية السالبة لصبغة غرام بتقنية الشريحة الزجاجية وقد ابدى قدرة عالية في تلزن خلايا كل من choleraesuis Salmonella وShigella dysenteriae .
كما أختبرت فعالية اللكتين في تلزن خلايا عصيات القولون والكليسبلا الرئوية باستخدام تقنية المطياف الضوئي ولوحظ استمرار تلزن خلايا عصيات القولون لغاية آخر تخفيف وظهور تلزن قوي في التخافيف الثلاثة الاولى . بينما لم تظهر أي فعالية تلازنية للكتين مع بكتريا العنقوديات الذهبية عند جميع التخافيف ماعدا التخفيف 2/1 .

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Article
The Effect of Salicylate Compounds on K. pneumoniae pneumoniae Isolated from Different Clinical Infections
تأثير مركبات السالسيلات في بكتريا KIebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniaeالمعزولة من اصابات سريرية مختلفة

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The effect of Salicylate compounds against Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae was studied by using different concentrations of Acetylsalicylic acid (ACSA), Salicylic acid (SA) and Sodium salicylate (SS). Reduction of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production increased with the increment of Salicylate compounds concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy study showed that the average thickness of CPS for untreated bacteria with Salicylate compounds was 245 nm while 63.5 nm, 54.3 nm and 50 nm for the bacteria treated with 300 μg/ml of ACSA, SA and SS respectively, with reduction percentages of CPS 74.08%, 77.83% and 79.59% respectively. The results of testing the effect of Salicylate compounds on antibiotics sensitivity (Amoxiclave, Cefotaxime, Amikacin ,Ciprofloxacin and Doxycyclin) revealed that the activity of Amoxiclave and Cefotaxime were not affected when MIC values were not changed. However, Amikacin activity increased when MIC values decreased to 2 - 4 folds, while Ciprofloxacin and Doxycyclin activity decreased when MIC values increased to 2 – 4 folds. The results regarding the effect of Salicylate compounds on the adhesion of K. pneumoniae pneumoniae on human epithelial cells showed mild decrease in the number of adhered cells in some of the isolates, with non-significant differences between the treated and untreated bacteria for all compounds. Yet, the differences were significant (P<0.01) between the adherence of resistant and sensitive isolates to antibiotics, hence the adherence ability of the sensitive isolates was weaker than the resistant ones. The effect of Salicylate compounds on phagocytic activity of the polymorphnuclear leukocytes toward K. pneumoniae pneumoniae was demonstrated by the increase in the phagocytic index and percent phagocytosis. The differences were significant (P<0.01) between the untreated and treated bacteria with 300 μg/ml of ACSA, SA and SS .

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Article
Isolation, Identification and Biological Assay of coriander oil from coriandrum sativum as antibiotic

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This study is designed to extract and identify the essential coriander oil from Coriandrum sativum. The Antimicrobial activity of Coriander oil was studied in various microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Eschirichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Proteus vulgaris) using inhibition zone method (Aromatogram). The Extraction process is carried out by steam distillation. Optimum organic extractant determined. The collected oil is identified via Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) using a mixture of Ethylacetate : Tolune (1:9) as a mobile phase. The MIC for each microbes were estimated.

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Article
The Effect of Carbon Black, Graphite Content on the Thermal Conductivity of (Epoxy- Carbon Black, Epoxy – Graphite) Composites

Authors: Z. R. Al-Shammry
Pages: 85-88
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The thermal conductivity of Epoxy filled with carbon black and graphite materials are measured in order to study the effect of these particles on the thermal conductivity of these composite materials. With the increase of content of filler particles, the amount of formed conductive chains increases then the conductive chain tends largely to increase the thermal conductivity of a composite.

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Article
The Effect of Sintering Duration Time and Cooling Condition on High Tc Phase of i-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Superconductor

Authors: S. F. Muter --- S. K. Al-Ani --- M. N. Makadsi
Pages: 89-98
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High-Tc ceramic superconductor compound Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 has been prepared by solid state reaction technique. Three sets of samples were prepared in order to study the effect of cooling conditions after sintering on superconductors, the first set of samples were (furnace cooled samples), the second set was (quenched in air), while the third set was (quenched in liquid nitrogen).Four sintering duration time (50, 100, 150 and 200h) were used to determine the effective time that needed to increase the volume fraction of the high-Tc phase. It was found that the quenched in air samples show high- Tc and sharp superconducting transition, but the quenched in liquid nitrogen samples show low –Tc. The higher Tc obtained was 110 K and the proper sintering time was 150h. The x-ray diffraction pattern was used to identify the phases and the value of lattice parameters (a, b, and c).

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Article
The Effect of High Irradiation Energy (Gamma, UV- light) Radiation on the Energy Gap of Polymers Doped with Anthrancene

Authors: Ahmed K. Abdullah
Pages: 99-103
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This research is related to the study of the energy gap of some glassy polymers (PC,PS and PMMA), we have studied the effect of gamma–ray and UV light radiation on the energy gap of these polymers and then the effect of dyes (anthracene) on the energy gap for these materials for exposure times (0 to 34 hr). It’s found that the energy gap of pure polymers and doped polymers measurement was changed depending on the gamma and UV dose and the mechanism of interaction between molecules of polymers and dye .It was found that the addition of anthracene to polymers leads to a reduction in the energy gap generally.

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Article
The Use of Iraqi Porcelanite Rocks for Purification ofDrinking Water

Authors: Habib Rashid Habib
Pages: 104-110
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The present study was held to evaluate the performance of Iraqi porcelanite rock as a filter media in the treatment of drinking water supplies. The performance of Sand filter and dual media filter composed of porcelanite and sand were also studied.It was concluded that the porcelanite filter and or dual filter can be used instead of sand filter present within the local treatment plants to attain better performance due to expected performance of porcelanite without any mechanical modification of a filter.

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Article
Geochemical Modeling of Water-Rock Interaction in Uppermost Regional Aquifer in Arar Area

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Geochemical modeling technique was used to study the chemical evolution of the Upper most regional aquifer in Wadi Arar area. This aquifer composed from limestone, dolomite and some scattered or interbedded anhydrite and gypsum. Karstic terrains are highly developed in the area. Geochemical calculations showed that the studied groundwater are supersaturated and undersaturated with carbonate and sulfate minerals respectively. Four flow paths were selected to determine the main chemical reactions thought to be responsible for the variation of chemical composition of the system under consideration and also to evaluate the amount of mass transfer of selected mineral phases. Many reaction path models have been identified, mainly calcite precipitation, de-dolomitization and cation exchange of Ca for Na for paths 11 and 12 (eastern parts) and calcite precipitation, dolomitization and cation exchange of the Na for Ca for the western parts, flow paths 2 and 5.

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Article
Simulation of Flow Regime of Dibdibba Dandy Aquifer in Safwan-Zubair Area, South of Iraq

Authors: Ali H. Al-Aboodi --- Alaa M. Atiaa
Pages: 119-137
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A two-dimensional model is constructed to simulate the flow regime of the upper part of Dibdibba sandy aquifer in Safwan-Zubair area, south of Iraq. Although the Dibdibba Formation is a multi-layer system in the surveyed area, the suggested conceptual model which is advocated to simulate the flow regime of aquifer is fixed for one layer, i.e., the activity of the deeper aquifer is negligible. The model is calibrated using trial and error procedure in two stages: steady state followed by transient state. The outcome of the calibration process demonstrated considerable spatial variations in transmissivities and storativites of the aquifer system. A very good similarity between the observed and simulated groundwater levels in the steady state calibration is observed. A reasonable representation of the hydraulic gradient over the mode area which consistent with relative magnitude of hydraulic conductivies is obtained during this calibration stage. Transient calibration is undertaken to calibrate the aquifer storage parameter after the steady state calibration is achieved. The transient calibration results are evaluated by comparing water levels at eight observation wells. Good matches are observed for all cases. The reliabilities of calibrated parameters are checked through sensitivity analysis. Verification test is also added to ensure that the calibrated model could be an adequate counterpart of the actual groundwater system and to verify the reliability of the model results. The model is verified against the measured heads during June 2000. The verified model is utilized to predict behaviour of the aquifer over a planning horizon of 10 years (2000-2010) under two developments scenarios. The management plans are undertaken with continuity of existing trend of growth of pumping wells, i.e., 200 wells per year and without growth and still the situation is similar to that in year 2000. The first run indicates that the decline of groundwater heads of about one meter in the central part of the area and of about 0.5 meter in the northern and western parts is expected. The outcome of the second run demonstrates that no significant changes from 2000 status have occured. The calibrated model can be used, if necessary data is available, to establish the responses of the aquifer to artificial recharge which is suggested to enhance the water availability and rebalance the aquifer in other context.

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Article
Petrophysical Properties of the Kahasib Formation in Missan Region, South Iraq

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The present paper deals with the study of petrophysical and dynamic properties of (207) plugs which were taken from rock cores of Khasib Formation at five oil wells (No.2, AM-1 AM-2, HF-3, and HU-1) located in Missan area, South of Iraq.
A comparison was made for the studied properties deduced from laboratory and from the available well logs. (35) predictive equations are established to estimate the effective porosity, permeability, in terms of the properties that are obtained from resistivity sonic, radioactivity and neutron porosity logs. These equations showed that multiple correlation coefficients ( ) have ranged between weak and excellent. Statistical relations regarding the calculated and the observed values of these properties have also been estimated.
Using the same procedure, another (25) predictive equations were established for (75) plugs of the reservoir unit at the studied wells, in terms of the properties deduced from well logs. The estimated correlation factors for these equations are generally ranged between fair to very excellent. Also some statistical parameters were established to describe the relations between the observed and the calculated properties.

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Article
A Note on Separating Vectors for Operators on A HILBERT Space

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Let H and K be separable complex Hilbert spaces, and let B(H,K) be the space of bounded linear operators from H to K. If H=K we write B(H) for B(H,H).In this note we study separating vectors for separators on B(HK) that have representations of the form , where AB(H),BB(K) and CB(K,H).

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Article
Coquasi – Invertible Submodule

Authors: Adil G. Naoum --- Basil A. Al-Hashimi
Pages: 154-159
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Let R be a commutative ring with identity. We call the proper submodule N of M a coquasi - invertible submodule if the main purpose of this work is the study of the properties of coquasi - invertible submodules. and give definithon of corational submodule. Then show that if M is self projective, then N is coquasi - invertible submodule of M if and only if N is corational in M.

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Article
The Effect of Pseudo-Meiosis Genetic Algorithm on Bit-Coding Stationary Genetic Search

Authors: Bara’a Ali Attea
Pages: 160-165
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Yoshida and Adachi’s diploid genetic algorithm- the so-called pseudo-Meiosis genetic Algorithm (psM GA)- was focused on preserving population diversity and adapting the population quickly to problem changes. The large population diversity provided by psM GA with good adaptation to the problem changes were effective and sufficient to tackle non-stationary traveling salesman problem. They did not apply this genetic algorithm to other problem domains, like bit-coding problems. Hence, in this paper we revisit the psM GA, apply it on bit-coding problems so as to see the effect and search power of this genetic search algorithm on this problem domain.

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Article
Real-Time Gamma Correction Procedure

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In the current research work real time gamma correction (contrast balancing) procedure were performed. The motivation behind this research work is to reproduce an accurate image on the monitor for an uncorrected image on a particular computer system. But, in the real world, it isn't quite this simple, especially when an image needs to look good on different systems, or platforms because most computers, or more specifically, most computer systems, do not work in exactly the same way. However, the current work exploit the advantage that the most monitors work in about the same way with respect to gamma correction to reproduce correction image. Different images from real world were tested using current procedure to illustrate efficiency of it which give good results.

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Article
Improvement of Traffic in Some Streets in Baghdad City Using GIS Pictures

Authors: Amany H. Kadhim
Pages: 172-181
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Traffic collisions may happen in any location of the street for many reasons, careless drivers, narrow roads, badly designed intersections and traffic signals, are some of the reasons. When the collisions are repeated in a specific location, the case must be studied and solutions must be found to eliminate these collisions.A GIS is a kind of super map, computer software that links geographic information (where things are) with descriptive information (what things are like). Unlike a flat paper map, where what you see is what you get, a GIS can have many layers of information underneath its surface. In this paper GIS is used as a tool to examine, analyze, and suggest solutions for areas where traffic collisions have occurred in three selected streets in the city of Baghdad. Al-Kifah Street, Sheikh Omar Street, 14 Ramadan Street (Arbataash Ramadan St.), was chosen for this research. These streets are very busy and old.Data types that are employed are; firstly and more important accidents by location, cause, date, time of day, type of vehicle, and severity (property damage only, injuries, or fatality).It was found that most of the collisions are broadsides and the conclusion is that the traffic signals along these streets aren't giving people enough time to clear the intersection. The suggestion is mainly to keep the yellow light on longer so traffic can clear.

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Article
Hide Information Using Table with Floating-Point Numbers

Authors: Dunia F. Saffo --- Nadia F. Kasto --- A. M. S. Raha
Pages: 182-189
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We present in this paper the development and implementation of a new steganographic method, the information will be hidden in the selected parts of the table with floating-point numbers used as stego cover. The method is implemented by transform each character in the text into numbers, then stores it as part of the floating-point number. The main goal of steganography was fulfilled since the resulted table did not drown any suspicion, the same table can be used by experimental person for the different calculation.

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Article
IFS Coding for Zero-Mean Image Blocks

Authors: Loay E. George
Pages: 190-194
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In this research work a new fractal coding scheme based on IFS-transform for zero-mean range-domain blocks is investigated. Some improvements were performed on the IFS-matching stage, these improvements implies the use of moment indexing as a criteria to filter the domain blocks that suitable to match the range blocks, in addition to the use of stopping search condition based on the monitoring the minimum matching error, these additional coding steps will reduce the required long fractal coding time. The test results indicated that the proposed improvements had reduced the required coding time to more than 10 times without significant degradation in image quality (MSE or PSNR) level. Also the results indicated that the brightness preserved IFS-method gives compression results better than the traditional fractal coding method, and the offset coefficients values could be better encoded by using DPCM.

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Article
Quantitative Assessment of Apodized Square Aperture

Authors: A. T. Mohammed
Pages: 195-202
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Two-dimensional computer simulations are carried out to quantify the quality of apodized square aperture (ASA) in terms of the diffraction limited resolution and the efficiency of detection of faint companions. The study involve the quality of the point spread function (psf), and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a reference star. Annular apodized square aperture (AASA) is also considered in this study. The results are then compared with the classical circular aperture. ASA shows high contrast which increases the possibility of detection of faint companions and AASA demonstrates significant high frequency components which leads to high resolution.

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Article
Speaker Verification Based Fractal Geometry

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Abstract

The research shows that the fractal structure of the speech signal exhibits fractal characteristics. The encouraging analysis results indicated that the fractal dimension have good discrimination capabilities for speech signal, where it gave a speaker recognition percentage about 70% (In the field of research for a single parameter this percentage be valued), and these capabilities are strongly depends on the setting situations of the recording process. The pitch period is the another used parameter supported to the fractal dimension to strengthen the verification decision. Where the pitch period estimated by a new suggested simple method to gave a speaker verification percentage about 90%. The coalition work of the two parameters (fractal dimension and pitch period) gave a speaker verification percentage of about 85%.

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Article
Computer Simulations of Short Exposure Images of A single and Binary Star

Authors: A. J. Tawfiq --- A. T. Mohammed
Pages: 208-219
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Abstract

The problem of atmospheric turbulence has taken a considerable amount of attentions in the literatures. Most of theise studies have not considering the quantitative aspects of the seeing conditions in terms of mathematical representation.The study involves two-dimensional computer simulations of short exposure recording using Kolmogorov approach. The quality of these images is quantified in order to see the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the observed images. This assessment shows clearly the parameters that affect the possibilities of approaching diffraction limiting resolution of the telescope.The results demonstrate that the average frequency components are linearly proportional to the square of the telescope radius and linearly proportional to the seeing conditions. Signal to noise and signal to background ratios of the autocorrelation function of a binary star as a function of telescope diameter and seeing conditions are calculated.

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Article
Principal Component Analysis of Mul ti-Temporal Image Pairs

Authors: Alyaa H. Ali --- Ayad A. Al-Ani --- Laith A. Al-Ani
Pages: 220-226
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Abstract

The PCA is statistical technique that transforms a multivariate data set consisting of inter-correlated variables into a data set consisting of variables that are uncorrelated linear combination. In our project principal component analysis “PCA” was applied for two set of original bands in two dates (bands 1, 5, and 7 in 1988 and bands 1, 5, and 7 in 1990). In this method the PCA of six channel data sets consisting of multi-temporal LANDSAT TM image pairs often generates higher order principal components that are related to the changes in brightness. Although the image produced by the first component summarizes the information’s that are common to all channels, we can see that the first principal component is dominated by the contribution of the infrared band (band 7) in1988. Our result also, show that over 73.5% and 83.7% of the variability lies in the direction defined by the first and second principal component images respectively.

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