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MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL

مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان

ISSN: 18138500
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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SCIENTIFIC AND REFERRED DENTAL JOURNAL

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Table of content: 2010 volume:7 issue:1

Article
Evaluation the Effect of Different Instrumentation& Obturation Techniques on the Apical Sealing Using Two Types of Sealers

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Abstract

Abstract There is controversy as to which instrumentation &/or obturation techniques to choose with which type of sealer give better apical sealing. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the apical sealing ability of three obturation techniques and two types of sealer. A total of 120 teeth were randomly divided into two groups; roots prepared using step-back and hybrid techniques. Each group of instrumented roots were subdivided randomly into three obturation groups of 20 roots for each; each one of these obturation techniques were used twice; once with ZOE sealer and other with AH26 sealer. Then dye penetration study conducted & samples were examined under the stereomicroscope. Data had been collected from two independent examiners and statistically analyzed using student t-test. Concerning the obturation techniques, warm vertical compaction showed best apical sealing. Regarding sealers, AH 26 sealer had better sealing ability than ZOE sealer with highly significant difference. Warm vertical compaction obturation technique in combination with the AH 26 resin sealer obturates the canals with lesser apical leakage.

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Article
The Effect of Pepsi Cola Beverage on Surface Roughness of Two Composite Resins (In Vitro study

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Abstract An acidic environment causes surface changes of resin composites. Filler particle size and filler distribution also have a direct effect on these surface changes. This in vitro study evaluated the influence of Pepsi Cola drink on the surface roughness of Composan LCM and Composan Ceram over time. Sixteen disc shaped specimens (10mm diameter, 2mm thickness) of each resin composite were fabricated, thereby forming two groups (n= 8). Surface roughness (Ra) was analyzed after 24 hrs before exposure to beverage. The specimens were submitted to a five minutes immersion in Pepsi Cola three times daily interrupted by immersion in deionized distilled water (37 C˚). Surface roughness measurements were done at 10, 30, and 60 days intervals. Data were submitted to paired t-test. There was a statistically highly significant (p <0.001) increase in surface roughness values of the tested composites after 30 days and 60 days immersion in Cola drink. Composan LCM exhibited a significantly (p <0.05) higher surface roughness values than Composan Ceram. The surface roughness of the composite materials are significantly affected by exposure to acidic drink over time, highly filled micro hybrid composites with small filler particle size are significantly more resistant to acid erosion.


Article
Socio-Economic Condition in Relation to Oral and Dental Health Status Through the Study of 184 Iraqi Pupils

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Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the social and economic condition of the studied pupils with the health of oral and dental condition and the manifestations inside the oral cavity of those tested pupils reflected this relation. A sample of 184 pupils was collected form different middle schools with ages ranging between 12-18 years. This sample consists of 84 males and 100 females. The pupils were divided into 3 groups: Group A: pupils with missing fathers and low income level. Group B: pupils with their fathers and mothers work and of high income level. Group C: pupils with their mothers being house keepers and of middle income level. Information related to those groups of pupils were collected and statistically analyzed to obtain the relationships between the socio-economic status of the studied cases of pupils and the following variations: dental caries, teeth extraction, gingivitis, visits to the dentist and asking oral and dental services and psychological and general health status. The obtained results showed that, gingivitis, loss of teeth and dental caries will increase when the socio-economic status decreased and the opposite of that was correct. Which means those pathological conditions decreased when the socioeconomic level increased. Visits to dentists and asking for dental care depending on the dental education and the economic level of the pupils, again psychological and general health status also depend on the socio-economic levels, so according to this study many good psychological and health status were found in high income pupils

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Article
Size and Morphology of Sella Turcica in Iraqi Adults

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Abstract To measure the size and describe the morphology of sella turcica on true lateral cephalometric radiographs; and to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in the size of sella turcica regarding the genders and skeletal classes. The sample included 130 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs (67 female and 63 males) with an age range between 17-25 years, collected from the Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. The sample was divided according to ANB angle into 3 skeletal classes. The size of sella turcica (length, depth, and diameter) was measured and its morphology was determined. Frequency distribution and percentage described the morphology, independent samples t-test was used to test genders difference, while ANOVA test was performed to show if there is any statistical significant difference in the size of sella turcica among the skeletal patterns. Males had slightly higher sella turcica measurements than females with a nonsignificant difference between genders; on the other hand, class III sample had higher sella turcica measurements with a non-significant difference among the skeletal classes. In addition to the normal morphology, six distinct variations of sella turcica were identified with the highest percentage to the normal morpholgy. All the linear measurements of the sella turcica were within standard range. Neither gender nor skeletal patterns showed significant differences in sella turcica linear measurements. Normal morphology of the sella turcica was found in the majority of subjects.


Article
Periodontal Health Status Of A Group of children with Down's syndrome, in Baghdad-Iraq (A comparative study)

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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the periodontal health status and oral hygiene in Down's syndrome children at (9-11) years of age in Baghdad city in comparison with normal children. Forty eight Down's syndrome children were selected randomly from Down's syndrome institution; their age from 9-11 years old. The assessment of gingival health condition was performed using by Löe and Silness, while plaque index by Silness and Löe was used to measure the amount of plaque, and calculus index by Bjorby and Löe. The results revealed a greater severity of gingival, plaque and calculus indices in Down's syndrome children compared to the normal children


Article
Microleakage of Dyract AP compomers in class V preprations of deciduous teeth after air-dried versus not dried salivary contamination at the occlusal wall (in vitro study)

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This in vitro study was conducted to asses the affect of salivary contamination in case of air dried or not dried (kept moist) before the application of the bonding agent (prime and bond NT) on the microleakage of Dyract AP compomers (advance performance) in primary molars at the occlusal wall of class V preparations and compare it to the standardized technique of application. Sixty class V cavities were prepared in 30 teeth (exfoliated primary molars), the cavities were prepared in the middle third of the buccal and lingual surface of each crown and randomly divided into three groups (each group consists of 20 cavities) Group (I): air-dried after salivary contamination, Group (II): not dried after salivary contamination (kept moist), Group (III): with out salivary contamination. After the teeth were filled, stored in distilled water for 24 hours, thermocycled, stained with basic fuchsin dye, sectioned to record the extend of dye penetration under stereomicroscope. Results revealed that there is no difference in the linear microleakage among groups at the occlusl wall. Although the differences were not statistically significant, greater microleakage was found in group (I) indicating that if salivary contamination occur, it is better to leave the preparation moist rather than complete air dryness


Article
Measurement of Mesiodistal Axial Angulation of the Teeth in Class I Malocclusion in Adults

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Abstract This study aimed to provide a description of the mesiodistal axial angulation of the maxillary and mandibular teeth in cases of class I malocclusion. The values of the mesiodistal axial angulation of the teeth were measured for 20 subjects (10 males and 10 females) from orthopantomograph using computer program and comparisons were made between the right and left sides and between males and females. The mean values of the mesiodistal axial angulation of the teeth were higher in males than in females, and higher on the right side in upper and lower arches than on the left side for males, females and total sample, however; there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. This study provided a good description of the mesiodistal axial angulation of the maxillary and mandibular teeth in cases of class I malocclusion.


Article
Brackets bonding failure after in-office bleaching in vivo

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The aim of this in vivo study was to determine the effect of high concentration 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent on metallic brackets bonding failure. Forty patients who received first orthodontic treatment phase, were included in this study. A split mouth technique was used; one arch exposed to in-office bleaching gel containing 35% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes, while the unbleached arch served as the control. Patients were divided into four groups: First two groups, the brackets bonded 48 hours after bleaching while the third and fourth groups, brackets bonded 3 weeks after bleaching. The bracket failure was computed using independent T-test. The higher bracket failure occurs in mandibular bleached group 48 hours before bonding (18.33%) while the lowest bracket failure occurs in unbleached groups (1.67 %). Significant differences were showed in bracket failure between the mandibular bleached teeth 3 weeks before bonding and those 48 hours before bonding. Adhesive Remnant Index scores revealed that the majority of failure in bleached teeth occurred in the enamel/resin interface. The 48 hours bleached teeth before bonding significantly had a high bracket failure. We should increase the time lapse between bleaching and bonding procedure more than 3 weeks to improve the bracket bondingstrength.


Article
Periodontal Health Status among 6-12 years patients with Beta- thalassemia Major Syndrome in Baghdad –Iraq.

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Abstract Thalassemia constitutes a form of anemia that has clear problems in relation to oral and dental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and severity of periodontal diseases among patients with β-thalassemia major (βtm) at (6-12) years of age in Baghdad city in comparison to healthy control. Our study sample comprised 50 patients of both sexes were examined ,who were attending the thalassemia center in Al-Karama Hospital .A similar number of healthy control matching with age and gender were involved . Plaque index of Silness &Löe (1964) and Calculus index of Ramfjord (1959) were used to assess oral cleanliness (dental plaque and dental calculus respectively). Gingival index of Löe &Silness (1963) was used for recording gingival health condition. Results were generally observed a poor oral hygiene .Highly significant difference in means of plaque index (1.902±0.68, 0.9384±0.51) and gingival index (1.390± 0.94, 0.840± 0.46) between βtm and control groups respectively, while not significant in mean of calculus index (0.470± 0.63, 0.3362± 0.42) between groups. The present study showed that most patients with β-thalassemia major were affected by gingivitis of moderate type (38%), while most of control of mild type (76%).


Article
Traumatic dental injuries of the permanent incisors and its relation to malocclusion in patients attending the pedodontic clinic in College of Dentistry, BaghdadUniversity

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Dental trauma is a public health problem in young aged patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the percentage and severity of dental trauma and malocclusion and their correlation, as well as analyze the general risk factors like the effect of age, gender, causes of the trauma and malocclusion in anterior permanent teeth. The sample of the present study include patients who came to the Pedodontic clinic in the Pedodontic and Preventive department at the College of Dentistry/Baghdad University seeking treatment of traumatized anterior permanent teeth. The traumatized teeth were examined clinically (according to Garcia-Gody classification) and radiographically. Types of occlusion was determined according to Angle’s classification, while the over jet and overbite were recorded according to the coding criteria described by Kinnan’s study. In all age groups, the most frequent cause of trauma was found to be falls (61.4%). Enamel and dentin fracture was the most frequently seen type of injury(38.6%) in which upper central incisors were the most affected teeth from dental trauma(47.7%).Regarding malocclusion, patients with class II malocclusion represent (71.9%) from the total sample, while those with increased over jet (26.3%) in which (66.7) of them seek treatment for two fractured teeth. However, the number of injured teeth per child was 1.54. Increased overbite was correlated with more sever type of dental trauma. There is a relationship between malocclusion and fractured anterior teeth in which malocclusion will increase the number of fractured teeth as well as the severity of dental trauma.


Article
Accuracy of measurements made on digital and study models (A comparative study)

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Abstract Background: Dental study models are a cornerstone in the armamentarium used by orthodontists to both classify malocclusion and formulate treatment plans. Recent technological advances have allowed the generation of digital dental models that can be saved, digitized, measured with software tools, viewed threedimensionally, and retrieved with a computer. Prearrangement with Cadent Company of USA performed this service. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of digital measurements made on digital models made by OrthoCAD system and compare it with manual measurements made on study models by the use of vernier caliper. Methods: Twenty students (8 males and 12 females) with normal Class I occlusion were selected from 175 students aged 16-25 years with certain criteria. Double impressions for each dental arch were taken to each student with the bite registration. The impressions were immediately poured with stone and with the collaboration of Cadent Company (Fairview, NJ, USA), twenty sets of stone models were sent with the bite registrations to them for digital processing and the other twenty stone models remain for manual measurements. Such an arrangement is for the first time in collaboration with an American institute. Tooth size, arch widths, arch length, space available, and the space required were done on both digital and study models. Results: This study revealed statistically non–significant differences with high strong correlation between the two methods of measurements. Conclusions: Digital models are an accurate, efficient, and easy to use alternative to stone models. With the current technology and future applications, digital models have potential to advance the practice of orthodontics, with the advantage of reducing the time necessary for measurements. OrthoCAD could revolutionize the way in which study models are utilized, stored, viewed, and managed.


Article
Relationship between permanent maxillary canine and floor of the maxillary sinus through aging

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Abstract The maxillary sinus are pyramidal shaped cavities in the mid-facial aspect of the skull; they are bilateral structures, located beside each nasal fossa. Knowledge of the relationship between the root apex and the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus is crucial for diagnosis and treating a sinus pathosis as well as in assisting dental implantation, endodontic procedures and orthodontic treatment. Thirty patients attending Al-Ma’amoon dental centre were selected in this study according to a special criteria. Four digital periapical x –rays were taken for each patient using dental x – ray machine two views demonstrated both right and left permanent canines to measure the length of each tooth by direct double click technique, the other two views were taking with concentration on the apical area of each tooth, to measure the exact distance between the apex of the tooth and the floor of the maxillary sinus. Results of this study found that the distance between the apices of right permanent maxillary canines and the base of maxillary sinus was greater than that of left side and the distance between the canine apex and the floor of maxillary sinus increasing with increasing age.


Article
The Influence of Unerupted Lower Third Molars on the Occurrence of Mandibular Condylar Fractures

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Abstract Background and Aims: Condylar region of the mandible is the most vulnerable site to fracture due to its anatomical weakness. It has been noted that mandibular third molars may reduce the occurrence of condylar fractures. This study was conducted to verify this hypothesis. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 398 patients, older than 18 years, with 464 mandibular fractures. The panoramic radiographs of 182 patients with condylar fractures were examined for the presence of unerupted mandibular third molars. Results: Condylar fracture was two times greater in those with missing or completely erupted mandibular third molars as compared to those with unerupted ones (p<0.001). Displaced and dislocated condylar fractures were significantly less in those with unerupted third molar , as compared to those without unerupted ones(p<0.001). Presence of unerupted lower third molar significantly reduce the degree of displacement or dislocation of condylar fractures (p<0.001).Unerupted mandibular third molar position also influence the occurrence of condylar fracture. Most fractures occurred in Class I, Class A and mesioangular impactions. Conclusion: unerupted mandibular third molars significantly reduced the occurrence of condylar fractures.


Article
The effects of local pulsed magnetic field with intraosseous implant on clotting time and calcium level

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Background: Many researches indicated that magnetic field had effect on clotting time and serum calcium level when it was used for stimulation of bone healing and growth. This in vivo study was carried out to evaluate the effect of local pulsed magnetic on clotting time and serum calcium level when used for stimulation of intraosseous implant. Materials and Methods: Forty eight oryctologus cuniculus male rabbits were used in this study, they divided into two controlled groups and two experimental groups and each group consist of 12 animals, all experimental groups exposed to (50 gauss) pulsed magnetic field strength. Clotting time and calcium level measured at intervals of time (2, 4, 6and 8) weeks of healing periods. Results: the result indicated that theirs no significant differences between the controlled group and other groups for (50 Gauss) pulsed magnetic field which indicate no harmful effect of magnetic field on clotting time and calcium level. Conclusion: The use of (50 Gauss) pulsed magnetic field show no noticeable affect on serum calcium level and clotting time


Article
Oral squamous cell carcinoma in Iraq: clinical analysis

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Abstract Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of oral mucosa. Oral cancer is one of the prevalent cancers of the body and is the most common cause of the death, in Iraq little is written regarding the occurrence of oral cancer. Clinical details of 129 (80 males and 49 females) patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were collected from the Institute and Hospital of Radiotherapy And Nuclear Medicine Center in Baghdad during the period 2003-2006.The aim of the current study is to find out the prevalence of oral cancer in different governorates of Iraqi patients in relation to gender, age and site. The highest prevalence was observed in tongue 72 (55.81%) while the lowest prevalence was found in the floor of the mouth 5 (3.87%). The age groups 51–60 years were highly affected by squamous cell carcinoma 45(34.88%), while the lowest affected age groups were <10 years and 11-20 years 1 (0.77%). Baghdad governorate had the highest prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma 53(41.08%) .Abstract Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of oral mucosa. Oral cancer is one of the prevalent cancers of the body and is the most common cause of the death, in Iraq little is written regarding the occurrence of oral cancer. Clinical details of 129 (80 males and 49 females) patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were collected from the Institute and Hospital of Radiotherapy And Nuclear Medicine Center in Baghdad during the period 2003-2006.The aim of the current study is to find out the prevalence of oral cancer in different governorates of Iraqi patients in relation to gender, age and site. The highest prevalence was observed in tongue 72 (55.81%) while the lowest prevalence was found in the floor of the mouth 5 (3.87%). The age groups 51–60 years were highly affected by squamous cell carcinoma 45(34.88%), while the lowest affected age groups were <10 years and 11-20 years 1 (0.77%). Baghdad governorate had the highest prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma 53(41.08%) .


Article
Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate in Erbil City

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Aims: This study was conducted to assess the epidemiology and some of the possible risk factors causing cleft lip and palate in Erbil city. Materials and Methods: the data were obtained from the records of Raparin paediatric and maternity hospital in the center of Erbil city. The file records of live births during a period from January 2000 to January 2008 were reviewed for the occurrence of cleft lip and palate. The cleft cases were evaluated for site and type of cleft and sex of the infant. and some risk factors. Results: 121 cleft lip and/or palate cases out of 60418 live births were registered. The overall incidence was 2:1000 live births. The percentage of cleft lip and palate, cleft palate only, cleft lip only was 55%, 30%, and 15% respectively. The ratios with respect of left or right or bilateral cleft was approximately 4.5:2:1.The infant sex and site of family residence showed no significant influence on the incidence of clefting. Maternal age of more than 30 years, maternal smoking, and positive family history of clefts, consanguineous marriage and low infant birth weight significantly increased the incidence of cleft lip and palate. About 7.4% of cleft cases were associated with other congenital anomalies, most frequently congenital heart disease. Conclusion: The incidence of cleft lip and/or cleft palate is 2:1000 births. The incidence of cleft lip and palate is two times greater than cleft palate alone, and three times than cleft lip alone. Cleft lip was two times greater on the left side than on the right side. The incidence of clefts was greater in males than females.


Article
Modification of some denture cleaning agents employed with mechanical cleansing methods

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Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of 5 cleaning agents (dettol soap, whitening tooth paste, sodium bicarbonate powder, and ethanol hand sanitizer gel and siwak powder) on color alteration of heat-polymerized acrylic resin and to compare it with that of distilled water. 60 specimen strips of heat-polymerized acrylic resin material were prepared measuring 5mm width, 40mm length and 2mm thickness; five specimens were used for each group. After two weeks of immersion in tea solution, the light transmission percent value for each specimen was determined at 400nm and 700nm wave lengths by a spectrophotometer device. Then the half of the stained specimens were cleaned by the cleaning agents by brushing with a hand brush , and rest specimens were cleaned by the same cleaning agents by an electrical dental brush and again measure the light transmission percent value for each specimen by the spectrophotometer device. The result obtained in this study showed that ethanol gel specimen group has the highest mean value for light transmission among all the specimen groups of hand and motor brush at the two wave lengths, followed by tooth paste, siwak powder, sodium bicarbonate powder & dettol soap groups but distal water group has the lowest one. Furthermore, there were no measurable differences between the hand brush and the electric tooth brush with respect to staining removal from the acrylic resin specimens for all cleaning agents groups used in this study.


Article
Comparative study of maxillary complete denture base retention using different impression materials

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Abstract An impression taking for edentulous ridge is the first step in the fabrication of the complete denture prosthesis. Various theories have been proposed by different authors as how to achieve an optimum impression in different ways. The purpose of this study was to compare the retentive forces required to dislodge maxillary complete denture bases fabricated by using different impression materials. Twenty completely edentulous patients were selected and three types of impression were made for each patient. The 1st group; final impression were made with zinc oxide eugenol "ZOE", 2nd group; final impression were made with light body addition silicone impression material and 3rd group; final impression were made with condensation impression material. Three stone casts were obtained for each patient and three denture bases were fabricated by short curing cycle, retention force examined and compared using strain gauge force transducer. Statistical analysis for the data collected using descriptive statistic, ANOVA and LSD, the result revealed that group A "Impression with ZOE" and B "Impression with addition silicone" show nearly the same results while group C "impression with condenation silicone" significantly less retentive force than that of group A and B. Retention of complete denture bases is greater in denture bases produced by zinc oxide eugenole final impression material than the other examined final impression materials.


Article
Association between periodontitis and the main components of metabolic syndrome

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The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide, and it appears to increase independently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Periodontitis has been shown to have an association with the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between periodontal status and the main components of metabolic syndrome, singly, and in combination in type 2 diabetic patients. One hundred and seventy five patients (96 males and 79 females) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the study. The following clinical characteristics were reported: age and gender, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. Periodontal status was assessed using periodontal disease index which includes plaque, calculus, and periodontal component of the index. An assessment of serum lipid analytes included estimation of serum triglycerides (TG) and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). There was a significant difference in mean value of periodontal disease index (PDI) between normotensive and hypertensive diabetic patients (3.31±0.83 vs. 3.82±0.65, P<0.001). Also there was a significant difference in PDI between normal and high TG groups (3.49±0.73 vs. 3.81±0.61, P<0.01). There was a significant increase in TG level in hypertensive compared to normotensive diabetic patients (P<0.01). Only in presence of hypertension and obesity in addition to diabetes that PDI was significantly increased in comparison with diabetic hypertensive non obese patients (4.1±0.58 vs. 3.62±0.64, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in TG level between obese and non obese diabetic patients while there was a significant increase in TG level in patients who were hypertensive obese compared to normotensive non obese (174.64 ±61.39 vs. 150.80±54.96 respectively, P<0.05). Presence of two or more characteristics of MetS has resulted in a significant increase of PDI when compared with patients who had only diabetes (P<0.001). In conclusion, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia as main components of MetS are singly associated with periodontitis in T2DM and the presence of any two studied components of MetS in addition to diabetes will attain the worst deterioration in periodontal status.


Article
Chronic periodontitis chief complaints: gender and age distribution; their correlation with plaque indeand probing pocket depthx

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To determine the most common chief complaints of chronic periodontitis patients to assess the public awareness about this disease symptoms, their distribution among males & females and their correlation with age and some of periodontal parameters (PLI & PPD). Chief complaints of 1115 (641 males & 474 females) chronic periodontitis patients attending the College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad seeking treatment. The age range was from 23 to 67 years; the mean age was 46.1. The patients divided according to age groups & according to gender. The majority of patients expressing symptoms of chronic periodontitis were mainly between 40 and 60 years old. A highly significant difference between males and females in referral and bleeding (P value= 0.001), a significant difference in mobility, altered gingival appearance, and pain (P value= 0.004, 0.022, and 0.002 respectively); the other chief complaints (pathologic tooth migration and malodor) showed no significant differences between the two groups (males & females)(P value= 0.909, and 0.872). The highest complaint was bleeding (about 31%) followed by referred patients (19.6%), while the malodor was the least reported chief complaints (5.5%). An obvious correlation between chief complaints and age with PPD and PLI for all chief complaints groups. This study showed that there is an ignorance of the nature of periodontal diseases on a community level which calls for more education programs to be carried out by dental team members concerning the proper oral hygiene measures instruction and motivation to reverse or at least minimize the effect of periodontal disease(s).

Table of content: volume:7 issue:1