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ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES

مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية

ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

AlNhrain Journal for Engineering Sciences is a refereed scientific engineering journal published by the College of Engineering, Nahrain University two times per year. The journal publishes the scientific output of researchers from Iraq and abroad in the fields of architectural, chemical, civil, computer, electrical, information technology, laser and optoelectronics, mechanical and medical engineering as well as in related fields. Papers written in Arabic and English are accepted and they are subjected to proper evaluation and accordingly classified as follows:
• Original research papers and papers on novel design, analysis or construction methods of great value to the engineers which include basic and practical results.
• Short communications or short discussions on papers which have already appeared in the journal provided that whose text should not exceed 800 words.

The material of the paper should not violate any intellectual property right of any person or entity and should not contain any subject matter that contravenes any laws and should meet ethical standards applicable to the research discipline.

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Contact info

Editor-in-Chief
College of Engineering Journal
Al-Nahrain University
P.O. Box 64040 , Al-Jadyriah
Baghdad-Iraq.
e-mail: journal.engineering@nahrain-eng.org
jourengnah@gmail.com
Phone: +964 (0) 7817 202 662

Table of content: 2008 volume:11 issue:1

Article
Experimental and Finite Element Investigation of Composite Beams
دراسة عملية وبطريقة العناصر المحددة للروافد المركبة المكونة من عتبات خرسانية مسلحة مصبوبة في حديد الساقية

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Abstract

Four reinforced concrete beams of rectangular crosssections and four corresponding composite ones consisting of reinforced concrete prisms cast into steel channels with shear connectors were manufactured, loaded, and tested in the laboratory to measure mid-span deflections, and to observe fracture criteria. The reinforced concrete prism of each of the four composite beams is of rectangular cross-section and identical to its corresponding reinforced concrete beam. Load-deflection behavior and fracture pattern at failure obtained experimentally for each of the eight beams were compared with those predicted by a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis using the analysis system computer program (ANSYS V. 5.4) in which the reinforced concrete, the steel channel, and the interaction between reinforced concrete and steel channel were modeled by isoparametric eight-node brick elements, four-node shell elements ,and the five-node interface elements ,respectively. High agreement between the experimental tests and the numerical models was obtained for loaddeflection behavior represented by maximum differences of 11% and 7% for composite and noncomposite beams, respectively. In addition, a perfect coincidence in predicting fracture pattern at failure by the two methods was realized. Comparisons between flexural behaviors for each of the present four pairs of correspondent composite and non-composite beams show that introducing the integrated steel channels highly increases the ultimate load capacity by 155% to 500% -depending on the ratio of steel channel area to gross concrete area, and decreases the ductility ratio by 26.4% to 36.7% - depending on the ratio of steel channel area to tension reinforcement area. A parametric study on the effect of flange width of the steel channel show that a 40% increase in the ultimate load capacity can be realized by a one-third increase in that parameter with a slight decrease in ductility ratio.

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Article
Effect of Shape and Slenderness Ratio on the Behavior of Laterally
تاثير الشكل ونسبة الرشاقة على تصرف الركائز المحملة بقوى جانبي

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Abstract

In case of piles subjected to lateral loading, the failure mechanisms of short pile under lateral loads are different from that of long pile case. The lateral load capacity of pile is limited in lateral deformation of the pile that effected directly on the contact surface area. The results of the 3D finite element analysis for the problem of a single pile under lateral loadings are presented in this paper. The effect of pile shape for both circular and square crosssection on pile response was investigated. Also the influence of slenderness ratio L/B on the pile deformation was discussed in this study. Linear elastic model was used for modeling the piles. Mohr-Coulomb model was used to simulate the surrounded soil. The pile soil interaction composed of 16-node interface elements. A good correlation between the experiments and the analysis was observed in validation example. It was found that the pile response is affected by the amount of loading, the pile cross sectional shape and pile slenderness ratio. The lateral resisting of pile increase in proportioned to the square shape of the pile. In both pile shape, a short pile (L/B = 8.3) gave a small amount of lateral tip deflection than the long pile with a slenderness ratio more than 8.3 for the same amount of loading. Also, the negative base deflection is high for short pile and reduces to zero for long pile.

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Article
Path Profile Analysis of a LOS System Using 3-D Digital Map

Authors: Jabir S. AZIZ
Pages: 28-37
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Abstract

Exponential growth of mobile communications, radio links and wireless networks has increased interest in many topics in radio propagation. Much effort is now devoted to refine radio propagation path-loss models for urban, suburban, and other environments together with substantiation by field data. Diffraction of a radio wave front occurs when the wave front encounters an obstacle that is large compared to the wavelength of the ray. The actual amount of obstruction loss is depended on the area of the beam obstructed in relation to the total frontal area of the energy propagated and to the diffraction properties of the obstruction. The objective for the system designer is to provide sufficient clearance of the obstacle without appreciable transmission loss due to the obstacle. The degree of intersection between the obstacle and the first Fresnel zone gives a good measure for obstruction loss. Remote sensing technologies (satellite images, aerial photography, and image processing) give attractive facilities which can be sacrifice to determine the topography differences and the path profile between any two points on the image of the area under test. Merging these facilities with the principle of wave propagation (First Fresnel Ellipsoid) represent the proposed idea of this paper. Data of path profile extracted from 3D remote sensing image by using ERDAS IMAGINE was used and analyzed by MATLAB tools to test the validity of any suggested path.


Article
Modeling of Neuropathic Bladder Lesions Diagnosis Using Neural Network
مُحاكاة تَشخيص أمراضِ المثانةِ العصابيةِ

Authors: Dr. Ammar Azeez M. A. Hasan
Pages: 38-42
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Abstract

The urinary bladder is probably the only visceral smooth-muscle organ that is under complete voluntary control from the cerebral cortex. Normal bladder function requires interaction of sensory and motor components of both the somatic and autonomic nervous system. Recent advances in the understanding of neural pathways and neurotransmitters have shown that most levels of the nervous system are involved in the regulation of voiding function. Therefore many neuralgic diseases causes changes in the bladder function [1]. In this paper, Number of patients selected from Ibn-Alkiff hospital (for treatment and rehabilitation of Spinal cord injuries), in Baghdad, who were referred to the urology department for complains of some urinary symptoms, and examined by cystometry in the urology out patient and/or inpatient department. These cases were selected randomly who already consult these departments and were followed up and managed by the expert urosurgeons. They were adults complaining of general neuropathic bladder disorder symptoms like frequency, urgency, dysuria, urinary incontinence and were diagnosed as having neuropathic bladder disease, whether: 1. Upper motor neuropathic bladder lesions. 2. Lower motor neuropathic bladder lesions. And finally they were examined by cystometry. The collections of data from patients were about: 1. Accommodation (compliance). 2. Bladder capacity. 3. Contractility. 4. Sensation. 5. Voluntary control. These data with the final definition diagnosis about the neuropathic bladder lesion were processed to 3- layers Neural Network algorithm that was constructed in a matlab computer package. Consequently after all data processing, the neural network model was tested by its capability of processing an already diagnosed neuropathic bladder case and its accuracy in explaining the real neurological bladder behavior of that selected patient.

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Article
The Deflection Control of a Thin Cantilever Beam by Using a Piezoelectric Actuator / Sensor

Authors: Waleed Khalid. Al-Ashtari
Pages: 43-51
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Abstract

In this research, the governing equation of the thin smart beam transverse deflection was derived by the same procedure that the Bernoulli-Euler equation derived but with some additional mathematical terms to be valid for describing the smart beam. The engineering control techniques were used to obtain the solution of the proposed differential equation for the smart cantilever beam where with some auxiliary equations and modifications a block diagram for any type of applied load (static, or cyclic) as the input and the beam deflection as the output was constructed. For insuring an efficient reduction in the beam deflection an integrated system with a voltage amplifier and lead controller was designed. Many cases were studied and simulated including the variation of load nature, and the number of collocated piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs and in all cases a valuable deflection reductions were obtained.


Article
Effect of Molecular Weight on Turbulent Drag Reduction with Polyisobutylene
تأثير الوزن الجزيئي على تقليل الإعاقة الاضطرابي بواسطة بوليمر الايزوبيوتيلين

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Abstract

Turbulent drag-reduction efficiency of polyisobutylene with three different, very high molecular weights was studied in a build-up closed loop gas oil circulation system. The turbulent mode was produced via a positive displacement gear pump to avoid mechanical degradation of polymer chains during the experimental period. Three molecular weights 2.9*106, 4.1*106 and 5.9*106 g/mol dissolved in reformate were used as additives in order to investigate the effect of molecular weight on drag-reduction rate. The effect of polymer concentration was investigated over a range up to 70 wppm in gas oil flow Reynolds number 8341 to 35747 as well as in 1.25 inch inside pipe diameter. A gradual increase of drag reduction and throughput was achieved by increasing the polymer concentration and gas oil flow rate. Friction factor was calculated from the experimental data. For untreated gas oil pipelining, friction factor values lies near Blasuis asymptotes. While by addition of polymer drag reducer into the flow, the friction factor values were positioned towards Virk maximum drag-reduction asymptotes, noticeably for the highest molecular weight type. Furthermore the investigation showed that the degree of molecular weight is significantly in drag reduction performance. Correlation equations were suggested to predict the effect of flow parameters, concentration, flow rate and finally polymer molecular weight on pressure drop reduction. The results of the correlations showed good agreement between the observed and predicted pressure drop reduction values, with a higher than 97% correlation coefficient


Article
Bubble Column Hydrodynamic Study with Experimental Investigation and CFD Computations

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Abstract

By achieving simulation of hydrodynamics in a bubble column reactor, have taken an important step towards designing an efficient slurry reactor for large-scale conversion of synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons. The simulation allows determining gas holdup, a key variable affecting the reaction rate of gas-to-liquid (GTL) conversion using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry. This work have two parts, the first part experimental work with bubble column with specific conditions and the second deals with computational fluid dynamics CFD for bubble column have the same geometry and operating conditions. This study is to clarify experimentally the effect of superficial gas velocity on the gas holdup, and the mass transfer coefficient (kLa) where each of them increases as the superficial gas velocity increase. NaCl addition will increase the transition velocity and the gas holdup for certain concentration and superficial gas velocity 2-D simulation was applied in this work. Gas holdup computational results using ANSYS CFX used on Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model have been compared to experimental data. These results for air-water system were encouraging against the experiment results.

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Article
Performance Evaluation of Multimode Fiber-Based Optical
تقييم أداء منظومة أتصالات الألياف البصريه متعددة النمط المعتمده على طريقة تضمين تقسيم التردد المتعامد

Authors: R. S. Fyath
Pages: 70-83
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Abstract

The most significant limitation of data transmission in Multimode Fibers (MMFs) is intermodal dispersion due to the propagation velocity of each of the guided mode is different. This paper addresses this problem by adopting optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) scheme to compensate intermodal dispersion and to enhance the bandwidth-distance product of MMF. The optical OFDM scheme adopted here is based on treating the signal fading due to intermodal dispersion in MMFs in a similar manner to that caused by multipath effect in wireless channels. A MATLAB simulink model is developed for the optical OFDM system. Simulation results are reported for 1Gbps link operating with different digital subcarrier modulation schemes to assess the impact of various parameters on system performance. The results indicate clearly that a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-5 can be achieved for a 1Gbps, 1km (10ns-dispersion) link operating with 1550nm, -23.6dBm laser and 16- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) subcarrier modulation scheme.


Article
Developing a Sniffer Detector for Windows Operating Systems

Authors: Dr. Mumtaz AL-Mukhtar
Pages: 84-90
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This paper presents the design and implementation of a sniffer detector system which can be used to detect any host running a sniffer on an Ethernet network. The proposed detection system is based on two effective detection techniques: the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) detection technique and the Three-way Handshaking detection technique. The first technique, the ARP detection, attempts first to send trap ARP request packets with faked hardware addresses, to a suspicious sniffing host. Then, based on the generated responses of the suspicious sniffing host, a decision is made on whether or not the suspicious host is running a sniffer. In case of no response the second technique, the Three-way Handshaking detection, is used to detect active sniffer which did not respond to the first technique by sending trap TCP-SYN packets with faked IP address, to a suspicious sniffing host. Based on the generated responses of the suspicious host, a decision is made on whether or not it is running a sniffer. The two techniques are implemented in a system that automatically gives the system administrator a helping hand regarding the detection of sniffers on an Ethernet network. The proposed system is tested in comparison with three other available anti-sniffers (L0pht AntiSniff, PromiScan, and PromiscDetect). The results showed its enhanced performance.


Article
Design And Implementation Of High Speed Complex Multiplier Using Fpga

Authors: Ali Mohammed Hassan Al-Bermani
Pages: 91-97
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Abstract

Multiplication is an important part in real-time digital signal processing (DSP). The present work deals with the design and implement of complex multiplier/mixer using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip with low cost and high speed. Two devices of FPGA are chosen to implement the design; to achieve the task of mixer system implementation. The rules that are important for such implementation are proposed in order to reach the minimum cost and high speed requirement for the individual component of mixer system. These components are software simulated using VHDL language, with software called MODELSIM version SE-EE5.4a. Since mixer is important in any digital receiver because of high speed need, so different multiplier method are proposed with different data resolution and different worst case of additional noise. To achieve high speed data, a parallel tree multiplier is used with Wallace tree method which is optimal in speed but it has a complicated routing that makes it impractical to implement, because of this, we present a modification for fast parallel multiplier using both Wallace tree and Booth algorithm to achieve a sufficient design for most of DSP application. The proposed design of mixer is simulated using ISE4.1i and results in successful achievement of its desired specification. The final implementation of programmable (4, 8, 16, 32 and 64) bit mixer data input resolution is achieved using Virtex-II devices and also implemented in LP-2900 CPLD device. The resulting performance depending on multiplier method are viewed in mixer cost. However, the routing is much more regular with great reduction in FPGA cost and it is achieved for the desired mixer when compared with other methods.


Article
Performability Estimation of Token Ring Network

Authors: Abdul-Kareem A. Al-Aloosy
Pages: 98-106
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Abstract

The work reported in this paper presents a new method for the performability evaluation of the token ring network. Performability is a term used to describe performance and reliability. Performance is defined as “quality of service provided the system is correct”. Reliability is “the property of a system which allows reliance to be justifiably placed on the service it delivers”. However, the problem that arises from evaluating these items separately is that performance depends on reliability. Thus, it is obvious that combining performance and reliability was needed for a complete evaluation; the issue was how to combine them. The method used for performability evaluation of token ring network is based on analysis describing the action of the token ring network. It was assumed that the Mean Time Frame Transfer (MTFT) to be the main measure of the performability which is composed of the Mean Waiting Time (MWT) for a free token and the Mean Real Transfer Time (MRTT) of a data frame (together with the acknowledgement receipt), taking in consideration all possible malfunctions. In addition, the influence of the effective parameters [number of nodes (N), length of the link (L), channel bandwidth (b), exponential distribution ratio of the user access probability (λ) and ratio of malfunctions (km)] on MTFT and its components were investigated. As a general conclusion the present investigation provides a new method for evaluation of performability of the token ring network. It was found that the Mean Time Frame Transfer and its two main components vary linearly with number of nodes, length of the link, exponential distribution ratio of the user access probability and the ratio of malfunction and vary inversely with channel bandwidth.

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Article
Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing Experiments In Rose Bengal Dye Doped Gelatin Film

Authors: Ahmad Y.Nooraldeen
Pages: 107-111
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Optical phase-conjugation (OPC) was observed in Rose Bengal dye-doped gelatin films via Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) using continuous wave of SHG of Nd-YAG laser radiation ( =532 nm) of total power 50 mW. Various parameters which influence the phase-conjugate (PC) signal during the DFWM process were studied. The PC signal contributions from induced holographic transmission and reflection gratings were measured. It observed a maximum PC beam reflectivity of 0.15% in these dye-doped gelatin films.


Article
Effect of Aperture shape on Visibility of Quantum Cryptography System

Authors: Adawiya J. Haider
Pages: 112-130
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The main goal in Quantum Cryptography is high security and this can be achieved by using single photon sources, thus we have studied the entangled photon source and how the coincident count rate and visibility could be affected by the optical elements of the system setup. The present work is a theoretical analysis devoted to investigate the interference pattern of biphoton amplitude generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a nonlinear crystal (BBO) pumped by femto-second optical pulses. We have studied the visibility as a function of optical path delay for different parameters, such as the crystal length, aperture diameter, size and shape of the aperture The shape of interference pattern can be enhanced by using different shapes & sizes of aperture. So in the case of continuous wave ( CW )pumping, when using circular aperture the visibility is highest and symmetry shape occurs at lower aperture diameter (b=0.5mm). Asymmetry and wide dip pattern is occurred at larger aperture diameter (b=10mm), when using shifting ring, a negative peak was appeared. In case of pulsed pump asymmetry, patterns occur and increase with increase of crystal length and decreasing aperture diameter. When using slit aperture (vertical and horizontal direction), the coincident count is more symmetric in horizontal with dimension (1x7) mm. All the results of this work are based on several numerical techniques and different programming codes. For example, adaptive Simpson quadrator method have been used to numerically evaluate the double integral in some equations. And adaptive Lobatto quadrator method has been used to numerically evaluate a single integrals. The later method is more efficient when required a high accuracy or a smooth integral.


Article
ANN-Based Prediction of Kidney Dysfunction Using Clinical
الذكاء الاصطناعي للتنبؤ بالفشل الكلوي من خلال تحاليل المختبر السريرية

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This paper presents the prediction of Kidney dysfunction using probabilistic neural network (PNN). Six hundred and sixty (660) sets of analytical laboratory test have been collected from one of the private Clinical laboratories in Baghdad. For each subject, Serum urea and Serum creatinin levels have been analyzed and tested by using clinical laboratory measurements. The collected Urea and cretinine levels are then used as inputs to the Artificial Neural network model in which the training process is done by PNN which is a class of radial basis function (RBF) network is used as a classifier to predict whether Kidney is normal or it will have a dysfunction. The accuracy of Prediction, sensitivity and Specificity were found to be equal to 99%, 98% and 99% respectively for this proposed network .We conclude that the proposed model gives faster and more accurate prediction of Kidney dysfunction and it works as promising tool for predicting of routine kidney dysfunction from the clinical laboratory data

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Article
Wavelet Neural Network Based Emg Signal Classifier
الذكاء الاصطناعي لتصنيف اشارة العضلة

Authors: Ali Hussein Ali Al-Timemy
Pages: 137-144
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Classification of EMG signals is an important area in biomedical signal processing. Several algorithms have been developed for classification of EMG signals. These techniques extract features, which are either temporal or a transformed representation of the EMG waveforms. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained with BP algorithm classifies the applied input EMG to an appropriate class which either normal or abnormal muscular responses. This paper shows an approach for EMG signal processing based on ANN and transform domain (Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in order to perform automatic analysis using personal computers. The Neural Networks (NN) are introduced to solve different pattern recognition problems associated with EMG analysis. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) NN is used in the present work with Back Propagation (BP) algorithm to train the proposed network.

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Article
Effect of feed temperature on concentration polarization and efficiency of reverse osmosis systems

Authors: Taha Yaseen Khalaf
Pages: 145-152
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of temperature in order to improve the efficiency of the RO desalination process, and analyze the concentration polarization in spiral wound salinity water membrane elements. In this study the commercial reverse osmosis membrane (cellulose acetate) have been used to treat medium concentrated (NaCl) salt solutions up to 1200 ppm. The results of the experiments show that the polymer membrane is very sensitive to changes in the feed temperature, and the concentration polarization variation with increase in flow rate and with decrease in temperature. The nonlinear equation obtained is solved numerically using the Marquardt method to determine various parameters. The k values estimated from the model show a marked variation that may be attributed to the presence of reflection coefficient in the Spiegler-Kedem model. It is suggested that the combined Spiegler- Kedem/film theory model may be the best method for establishing the mass transfer correlation for a given membrane of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

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Article
Detection of Abnormal Fetuses Using Biorthogonal Wavelet Analysis
الكشف عن الأجنة الغير طبيعية باستخدام تحليل المويجة ثنائي التعامد

Authors: Rand Kasim Mohammed
Pages: 153-161
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Biomedical signals are generated by complex self-regulating systems that process inputs with a broad range of characteristics. Many physiological time series, such as the fetal heart rate, are extremely inhomogeneous and non-stationary, fluctuating in an irregular and complex manner. In this project, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation of fetal heart rate frequency was studied using analysis called wavelet transform. The nature and maturational changes of low-frequency fluctuation of the FHR in normal fetuses were investigated and probability distribution of FHR wavelet coefficients was studied from 28 wk of gestation onward. The value of the parameter a of this distribution did not exceed 1.939 regardless of the gestational age in a normal condition. The value of index a range from 2.1585 up to 3.1652 in fetuses from pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension. This project also presents a system capable of calculating index for the fetal heart rate low-frequency fluctuation distribution value and uses it to identify the fetus condition using the MATLAB 7.3 package. FHR data of 12 normal fetuses and 18 fetuses from pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension all between 28 and 38weeks of gestation were studied. First, the cardiotocography tracing was converted from CTG paper images into digital series using image processing so that the system can analyze it. The FHR was then converted to inter-heart beat time series. Biorthogonal wavelet transform was used to analyze inter-heart beat time series. The histogram of the absolute value of resulting wavelet coefficients was analyzed then probability distribution of wavelet coefficients frequency was used to calculate the fluctuation parameter a. Statistical analysis methods where used to compare between the results. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to test the significance of the difference among the parameters obtained; Pearson’s test was used to test goodness of fit of the distribution function. In addition, the t-test was used for other statistics. Index a values were used in last stage of the system to identify sick fetuses. When analyzing fetal heart rate of 18 fetuses from pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension the system succeed to identify the presence of a problem in 6 fetuses

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Article
Effect of the New Science Philosophy on The Urban Design of Neo – Realist and Neo Rationalism
أثر فلسفة العلم الحديث على التصميم الحضري للواقعية الجديدة والعقلانية الجديدة

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There are many intellectual thesis emerge in philosophy of science, which interest with unity and integration between sciences, and their effect on the other fields of knowledge. This direction changes the old vision about rupture between sciences. We can see this rupture by western philosophers in the Rationalism and Empiricism knowledge – in spit of the intellectual thesis of Moslem philosophers about the unity of science fields – so as we can there are effects of the new science philosophers on the urban designers works in the Post Modern Architecture ( Neo Realist & Neo Rationalism ). Carl Popper & Thomas Kuhn submit new concepts in the new science philosophy, we can see their reflection on the works of the urban designers in the Neo Realist ( Geoffrey Broadbent & Bill Hillier ) and Neo Rationalism ( Aldo Rossi & Leo – Rob Krier ). The research deals with their intellectual thesis to determine their reflection on the urban design projects.

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