Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2011 volume:52 issue:2

Article
HOMO-LUMO, IRFRARED FREQUENCIES AND MOLECULAR GEOMETRY COMPARSION STUDY OF THE STRENGTH OF BORON TRIHALIDES ACIDITY USING AM1 MOLECULAR MODELING
دراسة HOMO-LUMO وترددات أطياف الاشعة تحت الحمراء والشكل الهندسي للمقارنة بين قوة حامضية مركبات ثلاثي هاليد البورون باستخدام الحسابات الجزيئية بطريقة AMI

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Abstract

AM1 Molecular Modeling has been used in the comparison of Lewis acid strength of Boron Trihalide using available opportunities in this method such as HOMO-LUMO gap , infrared frequencies and molecular geometry. HOMO-LUMO separation was employed to evaluate acid strength of BX3, and results show that BI3 is more acidic than others and acidity has decreased up to halogen group. When complex formation between BX3 and dimethylamine was made , N—H bond stretching alters to red shift ( lower frequency) .It was found that I3BNH(CH3)2 has the lowest frequency for this bond .Geometry for these complexes , B—N bond length and degree of X-B-X angle of all mentioned complexes were also studied and pyramidal structure for complexed BX3 were observed.

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Article
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES STUDY OF SOME AZO DERIVATIEVES OF AMINOTHIADIAZOLE DERIVED FROM NICOTINIC AND ISONICOTINIC ACIDS
تحضير وتشخيص و دراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض مشتقات الازو – امينو ثايادايازول المشتقة من حوامض النيكوتينك والايزونيكوتينك

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Abstract

In this study we synthesized the new compounds containing bis-1,3,4-thiadiazole 3(A-D)n through many eaction steps (cyclization, diazotiazation and etherification respectively). The compounds have been characterized by melting point, FTIR and 1HNMR data. All the synthesized compounds have been evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activities against several microbes like: Escherichia coli, Klebsiellia pneumonia, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Serratia marscens and Staphylococcus aureus and the results showed that some of these compounds have very good antibacterial activity.

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Article
EVALUATION THE ACTIVITY OF MYRTUS . COMMUNIS AND NIGELLA. SATIVA PLANT EXTRACT ON THE VIABILITY OF ECHINOCOCCUS PROTOSCOLICES: IN VITRO STUDY
تـقـديـر فـاعلـية مستخلصات نباتي الاس والحبة السوداء فـي حيــويـة الرؤيسات الاوليـة لطـفـيـلـي الاكـياس الـمـائـيــة:دراسة خارج الجسـم In Vitro

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Abstract

This study was aimed to treat the hydatid disease that caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus using two water plant extracts (leaves of Myrtus communis, seeds of Nigella sativa). The effect of these extracts had been studied on the viability of E. granulosus protoscolices in vitro using five concentrations of each of them ranging between ( 30,35,40,45,50)mgml for the plants extracts, The preliminary results revealed that M. communis extract was the most effective in killing the protoscolices in vitr than N.sativa in comparison to the control group.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF MERCURY ON SOME ASPECTS OF LIFE FOR TWO DIETARY LEVELS THE ALGAE CHLORELLA VULGARIS AND CRUSTACEAN ANIMAL SIMOCEPHALUS VETULUS
تأثير الزئبق على بعض الجوانب الحياتية لمستويين غذائيين الطحلبChlorella vulgaris والحيوان القشري Simocephalus vetulus

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Abstract

The present study included the effect concentrations of mercury element (0.05-0.2) mg/l on algae Chlorella vulgaris. The data showed decrease cells number, growth rate and increase inhibition rate with increasing mercury concentration and the elongate of exposure period which showed the toxicity of the element. Also the results showed the toxic effect of mercury at concentrations (0.01-0.05) mg/l on the animal Simocephalus vetulus, by decreasing the longevity rate, growth rate, fecundity, fertility, number of brood per female during 21 days compared to the control.

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Article
STUDY OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG SIX IRAQI WHEAT GENOTYPES USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA
دراسة التغاير الوراثي بين ستة اصناف من الحنطة العراقية بأستعمال تقنية التضخيم العشوائي لتعدد اشكال الحامض النووي الرايبي المنقوص الاوكسجين

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Abstract

The degree of genetic divergence was estimated in six Iraqi soft wheat genotypes, four exotic genotypes, one produced by hybridization and one produced by gamma irradiation, through random amplified polymorphic DNA methodology. A total of 42 DNA fragments were generated by the 3 random primers, with an average of about 7.4 bands per primer. The 42 fragments showed polymorphism among the six wheat genotypes. Jaccard similarity matrix ranged from 25 to 66.7%, which indicated a high genetic diversity among the genotypes. We conclude that random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis can be used for the characterization and grouping of wheat genotypes; these results will be helpful in our wheat breeding program.

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Article
THE USAGE OF ß-GLUCAN WHICH EXTRACTED FROM Saccharomyces cerevisiae YEAST CELLS WALL AS IMMUNOMODULATOR
استعمال ß-glucan المستخلص من جدار خلايا خميرة Saccharomyces cerevisiae كمحفز مناعي

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Abstract

Carbohydrates (polysaccharides ) were extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall by hot alkaline solution, the polysaccharides concentration was 96 mg /ml , while protein concentration was 500 µg /ml ,then primary purification method was done to separated carbohydrates from other protein materials, at this time , carbohydrates concentration was 250 mg /ml, while protein concentration was 148 µg /ml .Then partial purification using Ion exchange technique was done, and the results revealed ,four peaks were separated ,every peak was collected ,dialysed , and measured the carbohydrates concentration which were 300, 50, 33.4 and 32 mg/ml respectively, while Lawery method did not detect any protein materials in samples. The four peaks were examined as immunomodulator through the animal (mice) that were divided into 4 groups which depend upon the peaks series, were injected intraperitoneal and orally administration with constant concentration 500 µg /ml twice, then read the blood picture for immune cells, the second group was reported a significant increasing in all cells which are (2.968 ± 0.316 ), (1.56± 0.3), (0.546 ± 0.291) Lymphocyte, Granulocytes and monocyte respectively while the cell percentage for first, third, and fourth peaks were for lymphocyte (2.292 ± 0.3) ,(1.83 ± 0.32 (and )2.67± 0.5) respectively, for Granulocytes (0.83 ±0.23) ،(0.53 ± 0.22) and (0.6 ± 0.35 (respectively, while for Monocytes (0.3 ± 0.19) ،(0.03± 0.01) and (0.3 ±0.02) respectively when compared with control group. Organs crossly examination was showed hypertrophy of liver and spleen, while microscopically, there were infiltration of lymphocytes around the blood vessels in liver, lung, and peritonea, and in white pulp of spleen.

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Article
STUDYING OF SENSORS OPERATION STABILITY ENET WEB CAMERA AS A FUNCTION OF CAPTURED IMAGE STATISTICAL PROPERTIES (MEAN &STANDARD DEVIATION) FOR DIFFERENT INTENSITIES BY FLORESCENT LIGHT
دراسة أستقرارية عمل متحسسات الويب كاميرا نوع (Enet)كدالة للخصائص الأحصائية (المعدل والأنحراف المعياري ) للصور الملتقطة لشدات أضاءة مختلفة لمصباح الفلورسنت

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Abstract

The distortion, which occurs to the image often affects the existing amount of information, weakens its sharpness and decreases its contrast and thus leads to overlap the details of various regions and decrease image resolution. White test images are used to determine the image quality and reveal the analysis ability of different visual systems where we depended in our study on white test images, studying distribution of the light intensity of the image and figure out the relationship between the average and the standard deviation to the picture to study the optical intensity function by using the test image and the result to restrict the efficiency of the optical system. The technological results of contrast calculate are near to other different RGB colour band and gave more precise measurement in evaluating the quality as a function of the light intensity .

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Article
COMPUTATION OF TWO-COMPONENT TRANSITION RATES OF PREEQUILIBRIUM STATES
حساب معدلات الانتقال ثنائية المركّبات للحالات قبل المتوازنة

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Abstract

Different transition rates of the nuclear preequilibrium states in the exciton model were numerically calculated in the present work, as well as the state density and matrix element of the nuclear interaction. The calculations were based on the two-component version of the exciton model. Some comparisons were made with earlier calculations, and the results showed a good agreement. The results were explained on the bases of the effects of the differences in the particle and hole numbers, as well as the type of the incident particle and its energy. The conclusions indicated that preequilibrium nuclear reactions induced by protons differ only by small fraction from those induced by neurons at low exciton states. At higher exciton states with n>3, the transitions of the types and differed significantly between neutron and proton transitions, which may indicate distinguishable nuclear reaction mechanisms.

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Article
QAIYARA CRUDE OIL RECOVERY IMPROVEMENT USING HOT WATER WITH SURFACTANT
تحسين انتاج حقل نفط الكيارة باستخدام خليط من الماء الحار واحد مركبات الشد السطحي

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Abstract

The work is a method of an improving "Qaiyara" crude oil recovery using a mixture of hot water with surfactant. Laboratory system was designed. Using this system, four tests of hot water with surfactant under various condition were conducted. The first three tests are conducted under temperatures 50, 60, 80oC respectively with mixture of hot water + 2% wt. surfactant. The fourth test is done under 80oC and mixture of hot water +4% surf. The result obtained show the efficiency of hot water with surfactant in improving the recovery. The results show proportioned relation between temperature and surfactant concentration with oil recovery.

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Article
THE TIGRIS RIVER CREEP PHENOMENON RELATIONSHIP WITH BANK STONE CLADDING WITHIN BAGHDAD CITY
ظاهرة الزحف لنهر دجلة وعلاقتها بالتكسية الحجرية في مدينة بغداد.

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Abstract

Tigris River meanders in Baghdad in several areas. Al-Jadiriyah, Al-Kadimia and Al-Atafia are the most important meander that meanders sharp and distinctive with sinuosity reach 4.1, 2 and 1.5 respectively Maps, aerial photographs and satellite images have been used, also surveyed field study, and by matching these maps, reflect and show the increased distortions intensity and slowly in the first half of the last century because of the impact of repeated high discharges and for the erosion in the concave side and the process of deposition in the convex side. After the middle of last century high discharges decreased due to the construction of dams and hence the lower the activity of the river and stopped the river migration and confined within the boundaries of the river downstream. The deposits of the study area represented by Holocene deposits of sand, silt and clay. The nature of the energy of deposition is determined by the river where the sand deposited first at the bottom of the river bed, which represents the beginning of the sediment cycle, the more fine grains to the top phenomenon fining upwards, a phenomenon characteristic of the fluvial meandering environments. The stone walls made on the banks of the Tigris River within the city of Baghdad, the work of the cladding stone to the sides of the river and did not reached the bottom of the river making it easier to erosion of coarse river deposits, and thus the collapse of cladding with stone usually sites, thereby requiring processors engineering the most important of throwing large Dolomite stones to prevent this process occurs.

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Article
CERTAIN TYPES OF SEPARATION AXIOMS IN TRI-TOPOLOGICAL SPACES
بَعْض أنواعِ بديهياتِ الفصل في الفضاءات التبولوجية الثلاثية

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Abstract

In this paper, we introduce and study new types of separation axioms in tri-topological spaces, where we defined it using new types of closed set but not necessarily closed sets. Several properties of these concepts are proved.

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Article
ON GENERALIZED(, )- REVERSE DERIVATIONS OF PRIME RINGS
حول تعميم مشتقات(, ) - المعكوسه للحلقات الاوليه

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Abstract

In this paper we will introduce the concept of (, ) reverse derivation, generalized (, ) reverse derivation and generalized left (, ) derivation. Let R be a 2-torsion free prime ring and U a Lie ideal of R such that u2U, for all uU. The main result of this paper states that if F is a generalized (, ) reverse derivation on R which also acts as a homomorphism or as anti- homomorphism on U, then either d=0 or UZ(R) Further, as an application of this result it is shown that, if every generalized left (, ) derivation on R which also acts as a homomorphism or as anti- homomorphism on U, then either d=0 or UZ(R).


Article
WATERMARKING IN IMAGE USING SLANTLET TRANSFORM
العلامة المائية في الصورة باستعمال تحويلة المويّلّ

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A watermarking scheme based on slantlet transform, an orthogonal discrete wavelet transform with two zero moments and with improved time localization, is presented in this paper. The watermark is embedded into mid band frequencies of slantlet coefficients in the transform domain, which leads to very small distortion and guarantees the visual quality of the watermarked image. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with embedding watermarking system using wavelet transformation the result show promising performance of the proposed system where the increasing in PSNR is approximately 20 dB.


Article
MATHEMATICAL APPROACH FOR RECOVERING ENCRYPTION KEY OF STREAM CIPHER SYSTEM
تقنيـة أسترجاع مفتاح التشفير لأنظمة التشفير المستمــر بأستخدام الأتجاه الرياضي

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Stream cipher system plays an important role in many practical encryption systems. Moreover it can be an ideal source in random number generation. Shift registers are the backbone of such systems. This paper presents a method for attacking and recovering the basic key for the general stream cipher systems. Different criteria should be studied carefully when a key stream generated via these systems. Depending on the type of feedback connection of different stages, the output stream may be classified as linear and nonlinear. Different parameters specify complexity degree of the output of these systems. Proposed system achieved to recover the initial cipher key via two modules. The First module focuses on simulating some general stream cipher systems including shift registers with different lengths, while the second recovers the basic or the initial key which is generated from the first module. Recovering key attached by normalizing polynomial equations to set of linear equations. Nonlinearity output normalized to linear equation before recovering the key. The proposed technique overcomes the complexity parameter of linear and nonlinear stream sequence compared with other techniques in this field. C++ version 4.5 where used in implementing the proposed system.

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Article
NEW MOON DATES AND COORDINATES
تاريخ ولادة القمر الجديد وإحداثياته

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Abstract

Computer simulation have been developed to calculate the dates, ecliptical, equatorial and horizontal coordinates every month at al Najaf holy city. The new moon starts at the moment when the ecliptic longitude of the sun matches that of the moon, i.e., the difference between them vanishes. The program can be used to predict the birth dates of the moon for the next ten year or more.

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Article
ANT COLONY SYSTEM WITH MEDIAN BASED PARTITIONING FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND CLASSIFICATION
نظام مستعمرة النمل مع التجزئة الوسيطية لتقطيع الصور وتصنيفها

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The motivation we address in this paper is to find out a generic method used to segment and classify different types of conceptual images. A novel median based method was proposed as primary stage for image segmentation, in which the image is partitioned into fixed sized quadrants called kernels. The size of kernels in a specific image is determined according to the spectral uniformity measurements. Later, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is used to find out the optimal number of classes may exist in the image, and then classify the image in terms of the determined classes. Different types of images with different semantic concepts were used to test the proposed classification method. The results obtained by ACP ensure the success of the proposed method and the effective performance of classification.

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Article
SERUM CONCENTRATION OF INTERLEUKIN -1α AND INTERLEUKIN-8 ASSOCIATED WITH ABSOLUTE MONOCYTE COUNT IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA (ALL)*
التراكيز المصلية لبين ابيضاض 1 الفا ( (IL-1α وبين ابيضاض 8 ( IL-8 )المقترنة مع الاعداد المطلقة للخلايا الوحيدة في مرضى ابيضاض الدم اللمفي الحاد

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Interleukin-1α( IL-1α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) have a major role in initiation of immune response. These two cytokines are secreted mainly by monocyte. This study aimed to evaluate the initiation of immune response in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood samples were collected from 36 patients with ALL (26 treated and 10 untreated ). Other 10 blood samples were collected from healthy individuals as control group. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to estimate serum concentration of IL-1 and IL-8. Absolute monocyte count in each blood sample was determined. The study showed a significant decrease in serum concentration of IL-1α in treated and untreated patients, whereas, serum concentration of IL-8 and blood absolute monocyte count showed significant increase in untreated patients. Dropping in IL-1α and elevation of IL-8 with increasing absolute monocyte count may indicate suppression of gene expression for IL-1 but not for IL-8.

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Article
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PARAMPHISTOMUM CERVI IN CATTLE IN BABYLON PROVINCE
دراسة وبائية ومرضية نسجية لديدان Paramphistomum في الابقار في محافظة بابل

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The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of infection with Paramphistomum in the digestive tract of cows. A total of 268 slaughter cows were examined in Al-Hilla Abattoir from 1 March to the end of November 2009. The rate of infection was 3.73% and the highest rate of infection was at summer months (6.45%) while lower infection rate was shown at Autumn (1. 2%). Rate of infection in calves at age less than 2 years reached 3.44% and in cows at age between 2-4 years reached 4.23 %. Lower percentage at age more than 4 years was reported (3.17%) Males cows recorded rate of infection with Paramphistomum 4.76% and in females cows reached 2.47%, while the infection rate in hybrid cows was more than the local cows (4.87% and 2.75% respectively). Pathological changes at necropsy finding showed slight changes with high numbers of parasites in the lumen of rumen attached to the mucosa of rumen at the keratinized layer. In addition, changes were noted at microscopical examination, which were characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells in lamina propria for the mucosa and there was dilation of blood vessels. No changes observed in duodenum and jejunum with no presence for immature parasite which gave an indication that most of the infection was with the mature stage.

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