Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2011 volume:52 issue:1

Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CERULEOPLASMIN OXIDASE WITH COPPER AND RENAL FUNCTION TESTS IN SERA OF LEUKEMIA AND MULTIPLE MYELOMA PATIENTS DURING THE TREATMENT
دراسة مقارنة للسيروبلازمين اوكسيديز مع النحاس واختبارات وظائف الكلى فى امصال المرضى باللوكيميا والمايلوما المتعددة خلال العلاج

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Abstract

Ceruloplasmin oxidase (CP) activity, Copper concentration (Cu) and renal function was measured in sera of 87 patients with blood cancer (leukemia and multiple myeloma) ,34 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML),20 patients with acute lympholastic leukemia(ALL),13 patients with chronic myeloblastic leukemia (CML), 20 patients with multiple myeloma aged (5-62) years. In addition to 87 healthy individuals of match age and sex were utilized as control throughout this study. The first part of this study was devoted to measure of CP activities in sera of control and patients group before and after the first course of chemotherapy treatment (about 6 weeks). It was found that CP activities significantly higher than control groups (P<0.05) while the levels before chemotherapy were significantly higher than that after chemotherapy (P<0.05).Mean of sera CP levels of patients who passed away were higher than other patients. The second part of this study dealt with follow the changes in some biochemical parameters including blood creatinine (Cr), blood urea (U), uric acid (U.A) and copper (Cu) concentrations to evaluate the renal function as a complication in the studied patients.The results indicated the following:- -The levels of U.A and Cu in sera of patients pre and post chemotherapy were significant more (P<0.05) than that of control group, while their levels before chemotherapy were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that after chemotherapy. -Blood urea U and Cr levels in sera of patients pre and post chemotherapy were insignificant more (P>0.05) than that of control group, the levels of both parameters before chemotherapy were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that after chemotherapy. To check if there is a relationship between CP activity with all of the above parameters before taking any dose of chemotherapy A-significant-positive-correlation was found between CP and U.A (r>0.5) while a non-significant positive correlation between CP and Cr, U (r<0.35). Conclusion of over all results in the present study enable the one to use serum CP, Cu and U.A rather than U and Cr as a biochemical marker to aid in the prognosis the blood cancer throughout treatment. Another conclusion is patients with blood cancer should evaluate their renal function through out taking their chemotherapy (especially first does) by measuring CP, Cu and U.A in their sera.

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Article
FIELD-EMISSION INVESTIGATION OF COMPOSITE ADSORPTION LAYERS OF HYDROGEN AND HYDROGEN SULPHIDE ON TUNGSTEN
دراسة الانبعاث الالكتروني المجالي للامتزاز المزدوج للهدروجين وكبريتيد الهيدروجين على سطح التنكستن

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Abstract

The interaction of H2 and H2S with tungsten, and of H2S with hydrogen-covered tungsten, has bean investigated in the field emission microscope. A number of chemisorbed states with varying heats of adsorption have been identified throughout H2 adsorption at a pressure of 10-5Nm-2 and 78K on tungsten. When H2S was adsorbed at 295K and gas pressure of 10-5Nm-2 on clean tungsten surface a preferential interaction occurred along the (111) zones. An increase in the average work function of 0.3V has been found for the process. Desorption of hydrogen, resulting from H2S adsorption, began at 1270K. Migration of the remaining sulphur began at 1400K while desorption occurred above 1500K and was complete at 1870K. Activation energies for the desorption of hydrogen and sulphur have been estimated. The effect of increasing H2S pressure on the emission patterns of tungsten has also been studies. Addition of H2 had no influence on the emission characteristics and subsequently was heated at 1700K.

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Article
EVALUATION THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LAWSONIA INERMIS :IN VITRO STUDY
تقييم تأثير المضاد البكتيري لنبات الحناء :دراسة مختبرية

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Abstract

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of lawsonia inermis were tested for their antimicrobial activity ;four types of bacteria were selected these are Staphylococcus aureus;Escherichia coli;Enterococus faecalis and Pseudomonus aureginosa .Minimal Inhibitory Concentration(MIC) were determined for both aqueous and alcoholic extracts ; the aqueous exracts was more potent than alcoholic extract regarding MIC 8-64mg/ml and 32-64mg/ml for aqueous and alcoholic extracs respectively .All the selected bacteria showed clear sensitivity for those extracts except the Escherichia coli showed more and greater . The results revealed that aqueous extract of lawsonia inermis is more potent than alcoholic extract in their antibacterial activity and produced bacteriostatic effects so in this study we recommended the use of this plant for superficial skin infections caused by S. aureus;P.aeruginosa and E. faecalis

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Article
EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS TREATMENT ON HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN SHEEP VACCINATED WITH B. melitensis REV.1 VACCINE
تأثير العلاج بالمضادات الحيوية في الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية في الأغنام الملقحة بلقاح البروسيلا B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different antibiotics administered intramuscularly with a different administration times on the humoral immune response resulted from intraocular vaccination with attenuated B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in sheep. The results showed a significant difference in the effect of different antibiotics used with a significant difference according to the administration time between 0 time, 7 and 14 days from vaccination. Oxytetracycline and amoxicillin significantly inhibit the humoral immune response when administrated at 0, 7 and 14 days of Brucella vaccination comparing with groups treated with sulphadimidine, penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin and the non-vaccinated groups while sulphamethazine – trimethoprim inhibit the humoral immune response when administrated at 0 time of vaccination comparing with groups treated with sulphadimidine, penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin and the non-vaccinated groups. The results indicate that the failure of Brucella vaccination could happen when antibiotics administered within the first 14 days after vaccination.

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Article
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF Ammi visnaga EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS
الفعالية المضادة للبكتريا والفطريات لمستخلصات Ammi visnaga ضد بعض الأحياء الممرضة

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Abstract

Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from fruits of commonly used medicinal plant in Iraq Ammi visnaga was evaluated against eight pathogenic microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Leuconostic mesontroide, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida tropicans and C. albicans over a wide range of concentrations (0.05-50 mg/ml). Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) were determined by In vitro bioassays using hole-plate diffusion method. The ethanolic and aqueous extract from the fruit part of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of (5mg/ml) against Enterococcus faecalis. In addition, the same extract from the plant part demonstrated in antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae with an MIC value of 12.5mg/ml.In yeast it need high concentration of extract to cause inhibition. This study shed the light on the ability of extracts from Ammi visnaga to combat pathogens which will help as natural antimicrobial agents as well as can be used in pharmaceutical and food preservation systems.

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Article
Bacillus Licheniformis BS12 AS BIOFERTILIZER TO IMPROVE MAIZE GROWTH
استخدام بكتريا Bacillus Licheniformis BS12 كمحفز حيوي لتحسين نمو نبات الذرة

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Abstract

The Bacillus was isolated from Rhizosphere of different plants. All the isolates have the ability to produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA)and the BS12 has the efficient strain in the IAA production with 8.4 µg/ml, this strain is able to produce Ammonia, solublize phosphate and fix the Nitrogen and it belongs to Bacillus licheniformis. The BS12 has able to improve the maize growth by enhance to germination percent, shoot high, root high, dry mass and nutrient concentration comparing to control.

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Article
RADON CONCENTRATION IN SOIL OF FALLUJAH, RAMADI, DIAYALA, WASIT AND NEARBY BAGHDAD SITES USING ssntds
تراكيز الرادون في تربة الفلوجة والرمادي وديالى وواسط ومناطق اطراف بغداد باستخدام كواشف الاثر النووي الحالة الصلبة

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Abstract

Solid state nuclear track detectors are increasingly being used to obtain the radon concentration in soil of some regions of Iraq. Several samples of soil were collected from Al – Anbar, Wasit, Diayala and Baghdad nearby sites to evaluate the radon concentration. CR – 39 plastic track detectors was used as a measurement device with cylindrical diffusion Technique. Results shows higher concentration was recorded in Al – Ramadi city which was equal to 143.1 Bq/m3, while the lower radon concentration was found in Diayala governorate which was equal to 21.504 Bq/m3. By making a comparison between results and the permissible limits of radon concentration in soil of ICRP, we found that all sites of the study are in agreement with the permissible limits.

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Article
EFFECT OF KEVLAR FIBERS ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR FOR SOME OF EPOXY CHOPPED CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES
تأثير ألياف الكفلر على السلوك الميكانيكي لبعض متراكبات الايبوكسي- الياف الكاربون المقطعة

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Abstract

This research has been done by reinforcing the matrix (epoxy) resin with two kinds of the reinforcement. One volume fractions was used (30%), Epoxy reinforced with chopped carbon fiber with and second reinforcement was epoxy reinforced with hybrid reinforcements which was the three laminates Kevlar fiber and chopped carbon fibers. After preparation of composite materials some of the mechanical properties have been studied of samples preparation. They were Tensile strength test, flexural strength test, Impact test, and Brinell hardness test The studied show the tensile strength, flexural strength, shear stress and impact strength of the hybried composites values were increased with existence of Kevlar fibers, while the hardness was decrease. But the reinforcement with carbon fibers increases the hardness and decreases other tests.

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Article
MINERALOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF DIBDIBBA Sandstone Formation BEARING FELDSPAR IN ZUBAIR AND SAFWAN AREA’ S , SOUTHERN IRAQ
معدنية وجيوكيميائية رمال تكوين الدبدبة الحاملة للفلدسبار في مناطق الزبير وسفوان جنوبي العراق

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Abstract

Twenty nine sand samples bearing feldspar from Dibdibba sands formation, southern Iraq were studied mineralogically and geochemically in two different Locations: Safwan and Zubair areas, to evaluated their content of feldspar and Quartz . The grain size analyses showed that dibdiba sand deposits is mainly composed of gravel, sand, sandy gravel and gravelly sand. Chemical analysis indicated that safwan samples have high average content of Al2O3, K2O, Na2O and CaO and less average of SiO2 in comparison with their content in Zubair area. X.R.D. analysis shows that mean content of Quartz is 84.3% and 75% in Safwan and Zubair samples respectively, where as the mean of feldspar mineral is 24% and 14%. In general Safwan sand deposits considered to could be use as raw materials for up grading of feldspar by using a flotation method.

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Article
SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS AND THE TECTONIC SETTING OF MANSURIYA OIL FIELD
استخدام برنامج ريفلكس على خطين زلزالين من حقل المنصورية الغازي

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People who work on the analysis of seismic refection data usually use highly sophisticated software particularly when it is related to oil exploration data. In this article it will be shown how simple software like Reflex (2008) can deal with the seismic data with efficiency not less than professional software. Data of two seismic lines that were executed at Mansouriayah Oil field were used. After the filtering and processing reverse faults were detected. These faults isolate the top of Mansouriayah fold to form a gas reservoir. These types of reverse faults, which appear at the south western limb of the Mansouriayah fold, are also noticed for most High Folded Zone mountains. They are Gravity collapse faults that usually develop on both sides of the fold. They were developed following thin skin detachment movements in the basement rocks.

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Article
SOMETIMES-POOL ESTIMATOR OF RELIABILITY FUNCTION OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION FOR TIME CENSORED DATA
مقدر (Sometimes-Pool) لدالة ألمعوليه للتوزيع الآسي باستخدام عينات المراقبة للزمن

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Abstract

A condense study was done for Some times-pool estimator of reliability function of exponential distribution for time concord data. The estimator is adjusted to be We proposed the estimator Study and derivative the equation of bias, MSE, size of data, and relative efficiency for the proposed estimator and compare with similar and classical estimators, and given some numerical results to show the efficiency of propose estimator

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Article
DOUBLE STAGE SHRINKAGE BAYES ESTIMATOR FOR THE VARIANCE OF NORMAL DISTRIBUTION WHEN THE MEAN IS UNKNOWN BY USE THE SHRINKAGE FUNCTION WEIGHTED OF FIRST SAMPLE SIZE .
مقدر بيز المقلص بمرحلتين لتباين التوزيع الطبيعي عندما يكون متوسط التوزيع غير معلوم باستخدام دالة التقلص الموزونة بحجم العينة الأولى

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Abstract

In this articale we depend on Shrinkage function of Bayesian estimator for the variance of normal distribution when the mean is unknown weighted by Shrinkage factor like afunction of first sample size to obtain the double stage Shrinkage Bayesian estimator for the variance when using include double stage Shrinkage estimator formula.

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Article
A CRYPTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE BASED ON AVL TREE
تقنية تشفير جديد تعتمد على شجرة الـAVL

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Abstract

Cryptography provides confidentiality and privacy by scrambling information. This paper presents a new cryptographic method using English letters frequencies and AVL tree to provide an increased level of confidence for exchanging information over networks especially internet which is insecure network. Experiment results of the proposed method provide better security than the classical methods depending on number of parts used to build the key in this method.

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Article
OPTIMIZING CELL TOWERS DISTRIBUTION USING SPATIAL MINING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
توزيع امثل للابراج الخلوية بأستخدام التعدين الجغرافي ونظام المعلومات الجغرافي

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Abstract

The appearance of wireless communication is dramatically changing our life. Mobile telecommunications emerged as a technological marvel allowing for access to personal and other services, devices, computation and communication, in any place and at any time through effortless plug and play. Setting up wireless mobile networks often requires: Frequency Assignment, Communication Protocol selection, Routing schemes selection, and cells towers distributions. This research aims to optimize the cells towers distribution using spatial mining with Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool. The proposed optimized towers distribution done by applying the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) on the image of the targeted area should be covered. DEM applied with two levels of hierarchy, first level for getting the cells and second for getting best location in each cell. The research will apply the spatial association rules technique on the second level to select the best square in the cell for placing the antenna. From that the proposal will try to minimize the number of installed towers, makes tower’s location feasible, and provides full area coverage.

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Article
COMPARED TO THE STRAIGHT LINK TO THE STATISTICAL MODEL AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
مقارنة الارتباط القويم النموذج الاحصائي والشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية (دراسة تطبيقية)

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Abstract

Canonical correlation as agenral method instating the relation tow groubs of variables,which are regarded more grneral infields of scince ,and we chose of apply them on the accounting. Department in the college of administrator and economcas/university of Baghdad in the practical part. It has been chose the student performance in four years gradudates 2003-2002 from where degrees classes from thirteeth dewasslass four after cancilling material culture national order to know the performance of the student through the four years and the possibility to reduce waist in educational system whether in training powers and other reguirements to reach a top valuables scientific level with aless possible expenditures and assuming theirs performance using the model of canonical correlation analysis and artificial neural network model to reach and comperare the result ln tow models to get a best model. artificial neural network model part theory of network in operation research.

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Article
OPTICAL SYSTEM DESIGN FOR HUMAN EYE USING GENETIC ALGORITHM
تصميم المنظومة البصرية للعين البشرية بأستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية

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In this paper, an accurate optical system for human eye is designed using new approach based on the genetic algorithm (GA). The eye is assumed consists of two optical elements: cornea and eyelens, the remaining contents are just a supplements for these optical elements. The optimal eye design is obtained by GA with some restrictions related to the determination of the generic structure of the eye. The resulted eye is then tested by comparing its optical functions; once with that of the perfect eye, and another with that in literatures. As a results, the genetic eye was identified the characteristics of the real-life eye, which ensure the efficiency of the evolutionary methods to achieve an intended optical design.

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Article
STUDY OF STAR FORMATIONS IN LAMBDA COLD DARK MATTER MODEL
دراسة تكوين النجوم في نموذج لامدا للمادة الداكنة الباردة

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Star formation inside a box of size (120Mpc/h)3 was studied using Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model by simulating one million dark matter particles and one million gas particles. The particles were simulated from early Universe, z=30 (450 million years) to z=0 (13.4 billion years). In the simulation galaxy clusters, voids and filaments were constructed at low redshift, z=0. Stars were formed from redshift z=5.99. The formations increased with decreasing redshifts but at some redshifs stars were not formed and the total number of star formed in the box was 28443 stars. The gadget-2 code was depended in the simulation and sixteen processors of high performance supercomputer of Nottingham University-England were used

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Article
ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF YEAST FROM CATTLE AND BUFFALOES IN BASRAH PROVINCE, IRAQ
عزل وتشخيص ودراسة مناعية للخمائر المعزولة من الأبقار والجاموس في محافظة

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Two hundred samples taken from cattle and buffaloes (50 samples from each urine, blood, tracheal and vaginal swabs) were collected. The study showed that C.albicans was the most common isolates from the total samples. In cattle, it was isolated in a percentage of 50% out of 52 samples, followed by C.krusei 19%, C.parapsilosis 11.5%, C.tropicalis 10%, and C.rugosa 1.9%, on the other hand other isolated yeasts were Cryptococcus neoformans 3.8%,Geotricum candidum 1.9%, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa 1.9%. In buffaloes C.albicans was also found as a predominant isolates. The total isolates of C.albicans was 43.9% out of 41 samples, followed by, C.tropicalis 22%, C.krusei 19.5%, C.parapsilosis 4.9% and C.rugosa 2.4%. Other yeasts were also identified such as Geotrichum candidum 4.9% and Trichosporom cutaneum 2.4%. C.rugosa was firstly isolated from urine samples taken from cattle and buffaloes and considered as newly recorded species from Iraq. Statistical analysis showed significant difference (P<0.01) between C.albicans isolation comparable with other yeasts in cattle and buffaloes. Using Indirect Immunofluorescent antibody technique, the causative agent can be detected after 12 and 20 days after experimental infection of mice with C.albicans. The result of using disc diffusion method for seven antifungal drugs showed significant differences P<0.01 and P<0.05 on susceptibility of the tested isolates toward antifungal drugs.

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Article
THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HUMAN GIARDIASIS AND ABO AND RHESUS BLOOD GROUPS
العلاقة بين الإصابة بطفيلي Giardia lamblia وفصائل الدم وعامل الريسس في الإنسان

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Giardia lamblia is considered as one of most parasites that causes diarrhea in human. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between giardiasis and ABO and Rhesus blood groups among local population. ABO and Rhesus blood groups were determined for 94 patients who gave positive result for Giardia infection. The ABO and Rhesus blood groups of these patients were compared with those of 196 non infected patients. The frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in infected patients does not differ significantly from those in non infected patients. ABO and Rhesus blood groups may not interfere with Giardia infection.

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