Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:53 issue:1

Article
THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL STUDY OF SOME SURFACTANTS AND USE IN TREATMENT OF WATER IN CRUDE OIL (W/O) EMULSIONS
دراسة نظرية وعملية لبعض منشطات السطوح واستخدامها في معالجة مستحلبات الماء في النفط الخام (W/O)

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Four types of surfactants derivatives of phthalic anhydride and alkyl amines consist of different length of hydrocarbon chains were prepared. The prepared surfactants were characterized by Infrared spectrophotometer and CHN analysis. The physical properties of the prepared de-emulsifiers were measured i.e. (pH, density, viscosity, CMC, molar conductivity and flash point). The efficiency of the prepared de-emulsifiers were studied with time and long side chain substituted. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) was calculated. The polarizability and dipole moment were studied by PM3 quantum mechanical method using the Hyperchem series program. The theoretical results were compared with the practical results.

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Article
KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AMOXICILLIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION
طرق طيفية حركية لتقدير الاموكسسلين بصورته النقية وفي مستحضره الصيدلاني

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Two simple, sensitive and economical kinetic spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of Amoxicillin in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations.The methods based on the oxidation of the studied drug by a known amount of potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and subsequent determination of manganate ion(Method A)and unconsumed potassium permanganate(Method B),at a suitable λmax=602 and 524 nm,respectively.The reacted oxidant was found to be corresponding to the drug content. The initial rate and fixed time (at 30 minutes) methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges of (0.5–9.0) μg.ml−1 and (1-11) μg.ml−1 using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The two methods have been successfully applied for the determination of the studied Amoxicillin in commercial dosage form.

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Article
KNOEVENAGEL CONDENSATION OF 5-SUBSTITUTED FURAN-2-CARBOXALDEHYDE WITH INDAN-1,3-DIONE
تكاثف نوفيناجيل لمشتقات 5-فيوران-2-كاربوكسالدهيد مع مركب الاندان_3,1_دايون

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A series of new heterocyclic compounds of2-(5-substituted -Furfurylidene)-Indane-1,3-dione, were prepared and identified by their melting points, Infrared,Ultraviolate, and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrua. Key wards: Knoevenagel condensation, Furfurylidene ,Indan-1,3-dione

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Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF SOME INHIBITOR FACTORS ON PRODUCTION OF SOME VIRULENCE FACTORS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND THEIR ABILITY FOR ADHESION TO CONTACT LENSES
دراسة تاثير بعض العوامل المثبطة في انتاج بعض عوامل الفوعة لبكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa و قابليتها على الالتصاق على العدسات اللاصقة

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Two isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from contact lenses weares with eye infection. P. aeruginosa isolates were able to produce gelatinase, elastase and protease. The P. aeruginosa isolates serotypes were A:p9 and F:P12 . The sensitivity of the isolates to the antibiotics was tested, the results showed that both isolates were resistant of the used antibiotics except Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin. The ability of P. aeruginosa isolates to adhere to soft contact lenses was tested. The effect of the antibiotics )Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin), soft contact lenses care solution, normal saline and sterilization solutions (drops) like Methadin and Nazordin and enzymes (Papain,Neuraminidase) on production of protease and elastase. The results showed that Nazordin and Methadin were reduced the production of protease and elastase (residual activity of protease 47%&42% respectively), and (the residual activity of elastase 42&%49% respectively).The effect of antibiotics (Chloramphenicol,Ciprofloxacin),lens contact care solution , normal salin, Methadin Nazordin and enzymes (papain ,Neuraminidase) on P. aeruginosa adhesion to contact lenses was tested. The results showed that sterilization drop (Nazordin) was more effective ratio on the bacterial adherence, the inhibitory ratio of Nazordin was 90.68%, and the inhibitory ratio of Methadin was 72.06 ℅ of cells from adhesion to contact lenses. While the enzymes (Papain, Neuraminidase ) did not reduce adhesion.

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Article
THE ACTIVITY OF BOVINE MILK, COCONUT MILK AND SOYA BEAN MILK ON GROWTH OF ENTAMOEBA HITOLYTICA TROPHOZOITE IN VITRO
فعالية حليب البقر وحليب جوز الهند وحليب فول الصويا على نمو الاطوار المغتذية لطفيلي الاميبا الحالة للنسج في الزجاج (in vitro)

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Trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were isolated from a stool sample, and then cultivated and maintained axenically by using Locke-egg medium (LEM). The effect of supplementation of two different milk sources on the growth and activity of the parasite was investigated. The first source which is an animal (bovine milk) and the second is plant source (coconut & soybean milk). Different concentrations of milk (1, 5, and 10 %) have been added to the Locke-egg medium that is specified to the growth of E. histolytica. The ability of these three types of milk in inhibiting the E. histolytica growth was examined after 24 and 48h of incubation in addition to morphological changes that parasites underwent were observed. The results showed that bovine & soybean milk were active in the inhibition of the

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Article
SEROPREVALENCE OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION IN PRE- MARITAL WOMEN IN SOME BAGHDAD HOSPITALS
الانتشار المصلي لفايروس التضخم الخلوي في النساء ما قبل الزواج في بعض مستشفيات بغداد

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One hundred and sixty one serum samples collected from pre-marital women in Baghdad province, without any clinical evidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, were screened for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against CMV by ELISA test. The IgG antibodies were detected in 58 which gave prevalence rate of 36%, while the IgM antibodies were detected in 16 (9.9%). The number of both IgG and IgM sero positive was 50 (31.1%) and the number of both IgG and IgM sero negative (control) was 37 (23%). rising in seropositivity was observed with young women, reaching to maximum of 46.6% in age group 15-19 years.While the lower percentage 9(5.6%) showed in the age group of (30-35) years. Seroprevalence rate was also found to be more in women from urban area than those from rural area, and the difference was statistically highly significant (p > 0.01).

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Article
INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTIC-KILLE STAPHYLOCOCCUS XYLOSUS ON MURINE RENAL SYSTEM
المقتولة بمضادات الحياة في الجهاز Staphylococcus xylosus التاثير الالتهابي لبكتريا البولي للفئران

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Abstract

One hundred and fifty urine specimens were collected from patients with urinary tract infection, visiting Alyarmouk, Alkarama, and Madinat Altib hospitals in Baghdad. Staphylococci were isolated from 51 urine specimens, 39 isolates were coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Seven isolates (4.5%) were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus. Most of isolates are multiresistant to more than one antibiotic; all the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and resistant to erythromycin, the isolate S. xylosus S4 was elected because of its susceptibility to more than one antibiotic. In order to testify the pathogenicity of antibiotics-killed S. xylosus S4 in murine urinary tract system, mice were injected with S. xylosus S4 supernatant which previously exposed to Ampicillin, Cefotaxime, Gentamicin, Rifampin, Erythromycin, Co-Trimoxazole, or Ciprofloxacin at concentration of 200, 600, 200, 100, 300, 100, 500 µg / 0.2 ml respectively via intraurethral catheter. Organs of mice (kidneys and bladders) treated with beta-lactam-killed S. xylosus S4 showed different pathological changes in kidneys included infiltration of inflammatory cells, haemorrhage and vaculation of blood vessels, whereas the bladders developed dekeratinazation and infiltration of inflammatory cells. However, kidneys and bladders maintained normal state after exposure to supernatant of S. xylosus S4 with antibiotics other than beta-lactam.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF AL-THARTHAR –EUPHRATES CANAL ON THE SOME ECOLOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF EUPHRATES RIVER
تأثير قناة الثرثار- الفرات على بعض الخصائص البيئية لنهر الفرات

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The present study was designed for two targets , the first, to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physic-chemical parameters of Al-Tharthar-Euphrates canal and River Euphrates and the second is explain the possible effects of canal on some ecological properties in Euphrates river. Water samples were collected seasonally from both sides for a period of spring (April) 2009 to winter (February) 2010. Twenty two parameters were studied included temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, electrical conductivity , total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, lead, manganese, copper, nickel, iron and zinc. These parameters were compared with water quality standards to evaluate the quality of water in canal and river for public usage. The almost water quality parameters remained within the safe limits through the study period except total hardness, chloride, calcium manganese, copper, lead and nickel were recorded concentrations in some seasons higher than the permissible limits values for drinking water. The results also showed that the Al-Tharthar-Euphrates canal contributes in significant increase for the total hardness values and significant decrease of EC , TDS, TSS, K, Na, Cl and NO3 in Euphrates river.

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Article
EFFECT OF FENUGREEK SEEDS EXTRACT ON LIVER CELLS AND ENZYMES OF ALBINO MALE
تأثير مستخلص بذور الحلبة في خلايا وانزيمات الكبد في ذكور الفئران البيض

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The present study included the studies the effect of Fenugreek extract seeds on Glutamic oxaloacetic transminase (GOT), Glutamic pyruvic transminase (GPT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on liver cell of male albino mice. Group (1) of mice were administrated orally with fenugreek solution at a concentrated of (150 mg/kg of body weight) for 21 days for control treatment 10 mice was administrated with normal saline solution at adose of 0.1 mg/kg of body weight. At end animals were killed and their liver were removed and kept in formaline solution to histological study and another part of liver kept in 0.9% saline solution to measure specific activity of liver enzymes and tissue study. The result: indicated no significant reduction in liver enzyme (GOT, GPT, ALP) and no change in tissue of liver only few that there is used light microscopic during histological study.

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Article
EFFECT OF TAMOXIFFEN ON HEPATIC CELL OF FEMALS ALBINE MICE ON THE ELECTRON MICROSOPICAL STUDY
دراسة تأثير عقار ثاموكسفين على خلايا الكبد في اناث الفأر الابيض على المستوى الخلوي

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The effect of tamoxiffen which used in the breast cancer treatment were studies on liver tissue of 10 females white mice,Both groups (control and treated)were drinked with(0.4 mgkg) for 90 days. Clanges in liver tissue were seen through the examination of tissue and studied at the cellular level.The study aims to identify the damage caused by drug tamoxiffen on the liver tissue and its effects for long period

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Article
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF OLIVE CULTIVARS IN IRAQ USING AFLP MARKERS
التوصيف الجزيئي لبعض أصناف الزيتون المزروعة في العراق باستعمال المؤشرات الوراثية AFLP

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Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to study the genotype relation among ten different olives varieties from al- zafrania and al-mosel station ministry of agriculture/Iraq Shami, Sorani, Manzanilla ,Kaissy, Arbequine ,Jlot, Baaskika ,Dahkan, Nabali, Khodeir , Nine primers combinations were used which produced about 250 amplified fragment. . One hundred and forty fife of these loci (59.8%) were polymorphic over all the genotypes tested. Dendrogram and matrix of similarity were obtained by the Unweighted Pair-GroupMethod analysis (UPGMA).study showed four group 1 : Jlot , Dahkan , Kiassy, Basskika 2 : Manzanilla, Khodeiri, Sorani, 3 : Nabali, Arbequine 4 : Shami . AFLP has a powerful tool for detecting genetic relationship among cultivars , and help in known the pedigree of relatives and ancestors .

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Olive --- PCR --- AFLP --- Molecular Markers


Article
BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF IRAQI PAPER CURRENCY NOTES IN CIRCULATION & RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA TO ANTIBIOTICS
التلوث البكتيري للعملة الورقية العراقية المتداولة ومقاومة البكتيريا الممرضة للمضادات الحيوية

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The present study was carried out to determine the type and nature of bacterial contamination of Iraqi paper currency notes (Dinar) in circulation. 100 paper currency notes of different denominations were randomly collected from different places and different occupational groups in Baghdad city. Identification and characterization results showed bacterial contamination of all 100 samples with 100% contamination. A total of 114 bacterial isolates were obtained from the one hundred samples made up of 12 different bacterial species. Bacteria isolated from Iraqi paper currency notes include: Bacillus spp. (28.1%)، Coagulase negative Staphylococci (21.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.9%)، Proteus spp. (7.9%), Escherichia coli (6.1%),Citrobacter spp. (6.1%)، Klebsiella spp. (5.3%)، Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.4%),Enterobacter spp. (4.4%), Salmonella spp. (3.5%),β- hemolytic Streptococcus (3.5%),α- hemolytic Streptococcus (1.8%). All the denominations were contaminated with Bacillus spp. And Coagulase negative Staphylococci, also the small denominations were more contaminated than high denominations. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogenic bacteria isolated from Iraqi paper currency notes showed resistance to some used antibiotics with different percentage. Key words: Bacterial contamination, Iraqi paper currency notes, Pathogenic bacteria, Antibiotics


Article
ENHANCEMENT THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC SULFIDE THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS
تحسين الخواص البصرية لأغشية كبريتيد الزنك الرقيقة لتطبيقات الخلايا الشمسية

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In this work, semi-conducting ZnS compound was prepared as thin films onto glass substrates at two different substrates temperature (673, 723) K using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction was studied for the prepared films, the results shows that the films was polycrystalline with a wurtzite (hexagonal) structure. The optical properties of the films were studied by using VIS-UV spectrophotometer, the absorbance and transmittance spectrum have been recorded at wavelength within the range (300-900) nm. The optical characteristics were studied as a function of the photon energy at the mentioned wavelength. The results appear that the transparency of the films at visible region is rise from 70% to 90% at high substrates temperature. The refractive index was estimated within the visible wavelength at 500 nm, it was 2.45 at substrate temperature 673 K and its value will decrease at the highest substrate temperature. The direct optical band gap of the allow transitions for the deposits films prepared at both substrate temperatures (673, 723) K were varied from 3.2-3.4 eV respectively.


Article
SOLAR RADIATION ABSORPTION BY PLANT LEAVES
امتصاص الاشعاع الشمسي بواسطة اوراق النباتات

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The aim of this research is to implement the model for solar radiation absorption by plant leaves to study the effects of season and time of the day on the absorbed amount of solar radiation. The effect of leaf area index, leaf angle distribution, leaf absorption coefficient were also considered. Calculations for the radiation flux densities for sunlit leaves, the radiation flux densities for shaded leaves, and the Absorbed total Photosynthetically Active Radiation on the leaves were carried out for Baghdad city (Latitude 33o N). The results showed that the behavior of sunlit leaves and shaded leaves behave differently as season and time of the day change. The leaf parameters have significant effect on the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the leaves.

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Article
MEASUREMENT OF WATER DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR UPE/PVC BLEND REINFORCED WITH E-GLASS FIBERS
قياس معامل انتشار الماء لخلائط UPE/PVC المدعمة بالالياف الزجاجية

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The objective of this work was to study the influence of weight percentage ratios of (Unsaturated Polyester/Poly vinyl chloride) blends and E-glass fibre content on the diffusion coefficients of the blends from the relationship between water weight gain Mt and diffusivity for water immersed samples. Unreinforced and reinforced ( by one or two layers of chopped E-glass fibers) samples were prepared by hand lay up method with the ratios (95%UPE+5%PVC, 90%UPE+10%PVC and %85UPE+15%PVC), the prepared samples were immersed for 60 days in water to get the absorption curves. The results of laboratory examinations show the absorption curves of water gain Mt against the square root of the immersion timet are gradual increase until saturation then deviate lower due to weight loss of the immersed samples. The diffusion coefficients values have been calculated from the plotted curves, the calculated values reveal diffusion coefficients values increased with the increasing of PVC weight percentage and fibre content.

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Article
ESTIMATION OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN BADRA-JASSAN BASIN USING ANNUAL WATER SURPLUS METHOD
تخمين تغذية المياه الجوفية في حوض بدرة – جصان بطريقة الموازنة المائية السنوية

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Badra - Jassan basin is one of the Iraqi border basins which recently has been reconstructed of its regions and expanded of its irrigated land to serve the Citizens of the area. In terms of hydrological condition, Galal Badra River Basin is divided into two parts where the first part located in Iran, and this part supports most of the discharge of the river basin according to achieved runoff within the area. Second part of the river basin is located in Iraq covering area of (300 km2). Depending on climate data measured in Badra meteorological station for the period (2001-1994), the climate was characterized to be continental semi-arid with annual total rainfall reached (221) mm and the evaporation from basin class A reached (3156) mm. Water balance were calculated in the basin using two methods, the first one depends on monthly averages for rainfall and actual evapotranspiration during the period (2001-1994). While in the second method, the water surplus was calculated depending on calculation of each parameter in each year separately and use mathematical formula to calculate the runoff achieved in River basin of Badra. The results showed that in the first method of calculation the water surplus was (24.89) mm and in the second one was (45.93) mm and it is the most accurate method to calculate water surplus in hydrological basins, where this surplus is distributed into (6.93) mm runoff and (39) mm natural groundwater recharge.

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Article
Influence of sewage water on the water quality of Diyala River in Baqubah City
تاثير مياه الصرف الصحي على نوعية مياه نهر ديالى ضمن مدينة بعقوبة

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(10) Water samples were collected from Diyala River within Baqubah City, in addition to two water samples, one sample from Diyala River before Baqubah city and the other one after the city. (4) Sewage water samples were collected to the influence of sewage water on the quality of Diyala River which is discharged directly to the river without treatment, sampling campaign achieved in February / 2011. Chemical analysis were conducted to measure the concentrations of major contents & trace elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu & Ni) to estimate the environmental situation for Diyala River and its uses for different purposes. The results revealed that the water samples have high concentration of some major contents especially (Mg & Ca) whereas the sewage water has high concentrations of (K, SO4 & Ca) according to the drinking water criteria of (WHO), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) in the water samples was less than (10) & it’s suitable to use as irrigation water according to their Sodium content while the mean of total hardness (TH) was above the international limits according to the drinking water criteria of (WHO) and Iraqi limits, therefore it’s classified as hard water, Water type for the most water samples was (Ca- Mg- SO4 – Cl – Bicarbonate). The comparison with drinking water criteria was done to see the possibility of using the water of Diyala River as drinking water as well as the obtained results compared with animal’s drinking water criteria and with the irrigation water criteria. Some trace elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu & Ni) were chosen to measure their levels in Diyala River; the concentrations of (Pb, Cd & Ni) were above the international limits according to the drinking water criteria of (WHO) whereas (Zn & Cu) were under these limits, the increasing in the concentrations of some trace elements is due to the sewage water & domestic waste which discharge directly to the Diyala River without treatment.


Article
TRIANGULAR MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS FOR SOLVING SINGLE AND MULTIOBJECTIVE FUZZY LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM.
دالة الانتماء المثلثية لحل مسائل البرمجة الخطية المفردة والمتعددة الاهداف الضبابية

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In this paper, fuzzy single and multiobjective linear programming models are presented. Both the objective function and the constraints are considered fuzzyly.The coefficient of the decision variable in the objective functions and the constraints, as well as the right-hand side of the constraints are assumed to be fuzzy numbers with triangular membership functions. The possibility programming approach is utilized to transform the fuzzy model into its crisp equivalent form, and then a suitable method will be used to solve the crisp problem. Keyword: Fuzzy multiobjective linear programming, possibility programming

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Article
THE IMPACT OF DISEASE AND HARVESTING ON THE DYNAMICAL BEHAVIOR OF PREY PREDATOR MODEL
تأثير المرض والحصاد على السلوك الديناميكي لنظام الفريسة والمفترس

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In this paper, a harvested prey-predator model involving infectious disease in prey is considered. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution are discussed. The stability analysis of all possible equilibrium points are carried out. The persistence conditions of the system are established. The behavior of the system is simulated and bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters. The results show that the existence of disease and harvesting can give rise to multiple attractors, including chaos, with variations in critical parameters.

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Article
SEMI-ANALYTIC TECHNIQUE FOR SOLVING HIGH ORDER NONLINEAR ORDINARY INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM
الطريقة شـــبه التحـلـيلية لحــــل مسائل القيم الابتدائية الاعتيادية غير الخطية ذات الرتب العالية

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The aim of this paper is to present method for solving high order nonlinear ordinary differential equations with initial conditions using semi-analytic technique with constructing polynomial solutions. The original problem is concerned using two-point osculatory interpolation with the fit equal numbers of derivatives at the end points of an interval [0, 1] and give example illustrate suggested method and accuracy, easily implemented. The accuracy of the method is confirmed by compared with conventional methods ( RK4, RK-Butcher, DTM ). The existence, uniqueness and sensitivity of the solution is discussed.

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Article
STABILITY ANALYSIS OF AN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM CONSISTING OF A PREDATOR AND STAGE STRUCTURED PREY
تحليل الاستقرارية لنظام بيئي يتكون من مفترس وفريسة ذات مراحل عمرية مركبة

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In this paper, a mathematical model, consists from a predator interacting with stage structured prey, is proposed and analyzed. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution of the proposed model are discussed. The existence and the stability analyses of all possible equilibrium points are studied. The global stability of these equilibrium points are performed with suitable Lyapunov functions. Finally, the dynamical behavior of the model is investigated numerically.

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Article
REMARKS OF THE INTERSECTION OF YOUNG'S DIAGRAMS CORE
ملاحظات حول تقاطع قلب مخططات يونك

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In this research, many simple new techniques will be used supported by numerical and theoretical proofs of the methods of the intersection of for any partition of ; which represented by Mahmood in 2010, in which he could appoint the location and the number of beads using "Guide value" and "The main diagram" methods

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Article
THE EFFECT OF ADDING COLD-STANDBY REDUNDANCY ON THE INCREASE OF SYSTEM RELIABILITY
تاثير اضافة المجانبة الباردة على زيادة معولية النظام

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In this research, we study the effect of adding cold-standby redundancy in increasing system reliability. Cold-standby redundancy is essential in the study of maintenance polices.

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Article
UNSTEADY MHD FLOW OF A VISCOELASTIC FLUID WITH THE FRACTIONAL BURGERS' MODEL
الجريان اللامستقر في حقل مغناطيسي لمائع لزج من النمط بيركر ذو المشتقات الكسرية

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The aim of this paper is to study the effects of a magnetic field on unsteady flow of a viscoelastic fluid with the fractional Burgers' model between two parallel plates .The fractional calculus approach is introduced to establish the constitutive relationship of the viscoelastic fluid. Closed form solutions for velocity and shear stress are obtained by using the finite Fourier sine transform and discrete Laplace transform of the sequential fractional derivatives. For a=b=1 the solution that are obtained are going corresponding to ordinary Oldroyd-B fluid. Finally, the effect of the material parameters on the velocity profile and shear stress profile spotlighted by means of the graphical illustrations.

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Article
DESIGN ASSEMBLER BASED ON LEX AND YACC
LEX وYACC تصميم المجمع الصلب باستخدام

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LEX and YACC are very useful tools for constructing the assemblers; they generate functions that perform standard operations of a lexical analysis and parsing without any effecting on the organization processes for semantic analysis, machine code generation and listing source of compilation. In this work, the cross assembler was designed using some compiler development tools like LEX and YACC having the ability to implement the lexical analyzer and parser, for generating the syntax and parsing modules in a short period of time. These activates are expressed in form of actions, the bigger number of lexical and grammar rules are used by these actions in a simpler way.


Article
ON USING THE SYMMETRIC GROUP IN A CRYPTOSYSTEM
حول أستخدام زمره التناضر في نظام التشفير

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This paper propose to overcome the negative point of the cryptosystem based on the symmetric group that had been suggested by (Doliskani,Ehsan and Zakerolhosseini)[1], which is the relatively large memory and bandwidth requirements for storing and transmitting permutations (symmetric group elements), our suggestion is to get benefit from the bijection between permutations and integers and modify the way we encrypt plaintext ( ) from converting to a permutation (as it is in there suggestion) to converting the permutation (which used to encrypt the plaintext to an integer and then the cipher text ( . ) will be an integer and not a permutation which can be decrypted by multiply it with the number .By such modification we get the benefits of using the symmetric group elements in our public key such as non commutative, high computational speed and high flexibility in selecting keys which make the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) resistant to attacks by algorithms such as Pohlig-Hellman.


Article
PRODUCING HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRAL BANDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MULTI-BANDS IMAGES, USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS “PCA” TECHNIQUE
إنتاج حزم طيفية عالية التحليل من صور واطئة التحليل متعددة-الحزم بإستخدام تقنية تحليل العناصر الأساسية “PCA”

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Abstract

Image data fusion is the process of setting together information gathered by different heterogeneous sensors, mounted on different platforms. This research presents an effective multi-resolution image data fusion methodology, which is based on utilizing the Principal Component Analysis “PCA”. The first principal component “PCA1” involves much of the variability in the spectral data; while the reminder PCAs contain the remaining variability in a descend order. The low resolution multispectral bands are, firstly, resized (i.e. enlarged) into the high resolution “panchromatic” image size, then transformed into several PCAs. As first step the panchromatic image is normalized to have the same number of gray levels as the PCA1, then replacing the PCA1 of the low- resolution-multispectral image in the PCA transformed domain. The high-resolution-multispectral images are produced by inversely transform the modified PCA’s file.

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Article
REMOTE SENSING MONITORING OF CHANGES IN SOIL POLLUTION A CASE STUDY IN A REGION IN BAGHDAD, IRAQ
استخدام تقنية الاستشعار عن بعد لرصد التغيرات في تلوث التربة، دراسة حالة منطقة في بغداد، العراق

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Abstract

One of the main environmental problems which affect extensively the areas in the world is soil salinity. Traditional data collection methods are neither enough for considering this important environmental problem nor accurate for soil studies. Remote sensing data could overcome most of these problems. Although satellite images are commonly used for these studies, however there are still needs to find the best calibration between the data and real situations in each specified area. Landsat satellite (TM & ETM+) images have been analyzed to study soil pollution (Exacerbation of salinity in the soil without the use of abandoned agricultural for a long time) at west of Baghdad city of Iraqi country for the years 1990, 2001 & 2007. All of the three scenes consist six bands (without the thermal band), changes are determined by applying supervised classification (Maximum Likelihood) technique. Then using Raster to Vector (R to V) Transform technique. ArcGIS 9.1 program is used to apply the supervised classification and the R to V transforms techniques in order to determine the results.


Article
THE EVOLUTION OF PLANETARY NEBULAE(PN) AND FADING TIME ACCORDING TO SYNTHETIC MODEL
نشوء السدم الكوكبية (PN) وزمن الخفوت وفقا الى النموذج التركيبي

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Abstract

Planetary nebulae (PN) represents the short phase in the life of stars with masses (0.89-7) M☉. Several physical processes taking place during the red giant phase of low and intermediates-mass stars. These processes include :1) The regular (early ) wind and the envelope ejection, 2) The thermal pulses during Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB ) phase. In this paper it is briefly discussed how such processes affect the mass range of Planetary Nebulae(PN) nuclei(core) and their evolution, and the PN life time, and fading time for the masses which adopted. The Synthetic model is adopted. The envelope mass of star (MeN ) and transition time (ttr) calculated respectively for the parameter (MeR =1.5,2, 3×10-3 M☉). Another time scale is of capital importance for the understanding of PN and their nuclei, it is the fading time ( tf). The results indicated that for each observed nebulae( ttr < tPN) also the fading time is sensitive to mass core(MH) of star, the mass with 1.2 M☉ takes only (25 yr ) to fading, while the mass with (0.66 M☉) takes about ( 4715 yr) years to fading. The calculations showed that (ttr) increases with the increasing of final mass( Mf). The initial nebulae radius will also increase with (Mf) thus will correlate with the location of nucleus on the HR diagram.

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Article
VIDEO DATA IMAGE COMPRESSION USING LIFTING SCHEME WAVELET-BASED TRANSFORM Ebtesam Fadhel Kanger
ضغط بيانات الصور الفديوية باستخدام اسلوب مختصر لتحويلات الموجة المصغرة

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Abstract

Video data image compression is now essential for application such as storage and transmission in image sequence. This paper proposes a new lifting scheme wavelet-based transform for compressed the data image more over is used to improve the quality of the resulted decompressed image. Also a new adaptive motion estimation technique was produce.

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