Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2011 volume:52 issue:4

Article
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF BROMHEXINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
طريقة للتقدير الطيفي لهيدروكلوريد البرومهكسين بصورته النقية وفي المستحضرات الصيدلانية

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Abstract

A new simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Bromhexine Hydrochloride in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the diazotization reaction of Bromhexine Hydrochloride with sodium nitrite in hydrochloric acid medium to form diazonium salt, which is coupled with chromotropic acid to form a red water-soluble azo dye, that has a maximum absorption at λmax = 507 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range (2-60 µg.ml-1) with RSD less than 2.050% and molar absorptivity of 1.569x104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell sensitivity of 0.0262 µg.cm-2. The method was applied successfully for the determination of Bromhexine Hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.

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Article
SYNTHESIS AND STATISTICAL STUDY OF MULTI WALL CARBON NANOTUBES ON Cu SUBSTRATE USING ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL
تحضير ودراسة احصائية لأنابيب الكربون النانوية متعددة الجدران على سطح النحاس بأستخدام الخلية الكهروكيميائية

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Abstract

Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grown directly on copper substrate and in the acetonitrile / de-ionized water (1% v/v) electrolyte of the electrochemical cell using different growth temperatures.The effects of substrate temperature and growth time over the MWCNTs structure were investigated. MWCNTs were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Low Magnification Transmission Electron Microscopy (LMTEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). TEM characterization indicate a transition from non growth at 288K to negligible growth at 308K then to excellent growth at 338K, AFM characterization indicate a Gaussian distribution growth on Cu substrate with maximum percentage to 110 nm diameter

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Article
USING OF Porcellio sp. AS A BIOINDICATOR TO MUEASURING THE LEVEL OF SOME HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN BAGHDAD CITY
استخدام الجنس Porcellio sp. دليل حيوي لقياس مستوى التلوث لبعض العناصر الثقيلة في مدينة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to estimate the pollution levels of heavy metals by using the genus porcellio sp.as a bioindicator to this pollution. Four experimental sites in Baghdad were selected (Jadrya, Al-sadr, Al-dura and Al-gazalya). the genus individuals were take from the soil of these places and dried then analyzed by the Absorption Sepctrophotometry. Seven heavy metals measurd they includes (Pb ,Cu ,Fe ,Mn ,Ni ,Cd and Co). The results showed that there was a pollution in these places and the higher levels in Jadrya were in (Cu 8166±0.33 , Mn 5963±0.44 , Cd146±0.08) µg/gm, in Al-sadr city were in (Fe 99801±1.15, Co 220±0.15) µg/g in Al-dura was in (Ni416±0.08) µg/g and in Al-gazalya were in (Pb6966±0.88 , Co233±0.12) µg/g .This pollution of heavy metals was a natural result because of the traffic activity and the increasing of the car numbers which still using the lead gasoline and this caused big troubles to the environment, dangerous to the human.Beside the human activities, recent the green zones is important in decreases the damages of heavy metals on the environment.

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Article
PREVALENCE OF BUXTONELLA SULCATA IN NEONATAL AND YOUNG CALVES IN AL-NASIR STATION AND SOME REGIONS IN BAGHDAD (AL-SHUALA SND GAZALIYA)
انتشار الاصابة بطفيلي Buxtonella sulcata في العجول حديثة الولادة في محطة ابقار النصر وبعض مناطق بغداد ( الشعلة والغزالية)

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Abstract

Neonatal diarrhea of calves is a major cause of economic loss in rearing young calves. Buxtonella sulcata may be a potential cause of diarrhea in these animals .This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of B. sulcata infection and its role in diarrhea in neonatal and young calves. A total of 250 fecal samples were collected from calves (110 male and 140 female, ages ranged 1-30 day, among which 98 had diarrhea). Two laboratory tests were used to detect B. sulcata cysts and trophozoites in fecal samples which are direct wet film method and ether-formalin sedimentation method. The overall rate of infection was 43.2%. There is a significant difference in the rate and intensity of infection between calves with and without diarrhea. Calves over 10 days old had higher rate of infection than calves under 10 day old with significant difference. B. sulcata may be a potential cause of diarrhea in neonatal and young calves when there is suitable conditions in the intestinal lumen that promote the parasite multiplication.

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Article
ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF DODONAEA VISCOSA JACQ. EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS
التأثير ضد الميكروبي لمستخلصات نبات الدودونيا Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. ضد بعض الأحياء المجهرية المرضية

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Abstract

The present study has been conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the aerial plant part (leaves and bark) extracts of D. viscosa before and during flowering against some pathogenic bacteria for human, plants, and against yeast (Candida albicans) by using different polarity organic solvents: Ethanol and Diethyl ether. The agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory actions of these extracts with eight concentrations: 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 mg/ml. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values were also determined, in addition to compare the results of the plant extracts with the results of the susceptibility of pathogenic microorganisms for antibiotics, The completely randomized design (CRD) was used with three replications. Better effect was observed in the liquid dilution assay with all extracts showing a degree of effect. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of the bark and leaves, and diethyl ether extracts of the leaves demonstrated clear inhibitory effect against the tested microorganisms. ethanolic extracts of the bark was superior over leaf extracts in the inhibitory effects on the growth of C. albicans. In general, the results showed no significant differences between the concentrations of 30, 40 or 50 mg/ml. The microbial screening showed that the MIC of ethanolic extracts of the bark before and during flowering was at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml, and for leaf extracts ranged between 2.5-10 mg/ml. As for MBC effects was ranged between 5-50 mg/ml, depending on the type of solvents, microorganism and the period of collection (before or during flowering). In comparison with antibiotics, the results showed high similitude between D. viscosa extracts at concentrations of 30, 40 or 50 mg/ml and antibiotics against the tested microorganisms. When our results compares with other studies that conducted in other parts of the world, we concluded that the type of solvent, method of extraction, period of collection (before or during flowering) and the geographical distribution of D. viscosa significantly affect the rate of the chemical components and its effect against microorganisms

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Article
EVALUATION OF ANTI HELICOBACTER PYLORI IGG LEVEL IN THE SERUM OF PATIENTS WITH AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE
تقييم مستوى أضداد الـ IgG ضد بكتريا Helicobacter pylori في مصول المرضى المصابين بأمراض الغدة الدرقية ذاتية المناعة

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Abstract

To detect the autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with peptic ulcer caused by H. pylori, we investigated (24) patients with suspected peptic ulcer aged (20 – 35) years old and (10) healthy control. Anti H. pylori IgG were measured in serum of peptic ulcer patients by ELISA test. The patients which were positive to anti H. pylori IgG were carried to T3, T4, TSH evaluation by ELISA test. There were a highly significant differences (P<0.05) inT3,T4 and TSH hormones when comparison with age groups and gender of patients with peptic ulcer caused by H. pylori and there were a highly significant differences (P<0.05) with increased means level of T3,T4. and TSH hormones in sera of patients afflicted with peptic ulcer caused by H.pylori than control groups. There were a level of anti H. pylori IgG in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.

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Article
EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC ANASTATICA HIEROCHUNTICA EXTRACT ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
تأثيرالمستخلص الكحولي لنبات كف مريم على بعض المتغيرات البايوكيميائية والسايتولوجية في الجرذان المصابة بالسكري المستحدث بالالوكسان

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Abstract

Abstract The methanolic extract of Anastatica hierochuntica was investigated for its antidiabetic effect in male Albino rats. Blood glucose levels, lipids profile were significantly reduced in all treated group of alloxan diabetic rats in comparison to their pre-treatment values, in addition to, intake of orally dose of 100 mg/kg b.w of methanolic extract daily for four consecutive weeks to diabetic rats significantly decreased the activity levels of all those biomarker liver damage enzymes (S.GOT, S. GPT and S.ALP), and restored it to normal values. Levels of SOD activity were significantly decreased in diabetic rats compared with the healthy group, but these levels increased significantly to a value similar to the healthy rat when treated with a daily single dose of Anastatica hierochuntica extract ( 100mg/kg b.w) for four weeks. The same pattern was seen with another antioxidant enzyme GPx, its levels significantly decreased in diabetic and increased when the animals fed on the extract daily for four weeks. Histopathological observations in both pancreas and liver rat's tissues revealed that methanolic Anastatica hierochuntica extract was non-toxic and regenerated the toxic effects of alloxan. In conclusion the decreased blood glucose accompanied with decreased lipid profile and changes in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx, in addition to biomarker liver damage enzymes showed the antidiabetic, hypolipidmic and a potent antioxidant agent.

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Article
EXTRACTION OF PYRETHRINS FROM Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium PETALS AND STUDY ITS ACTIVITY AGAINST BEETLE FLOUR Tribolium castanum
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium استخلاص مركبات البايرثرين من أزهار نبات الداوودي ودراسة فعاليتها ضد حشرة خنفساء الطحين Tribolium castanum

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The production of Pyrethrins as an insecticide from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium flowers was studied. The crude active compound was extracted using organic solvents. Detection by HPLC proved that the extract contained Pyrethrin I and Pyrethrin II compared to the standard compounds. The flowers extract showed active biological effect against beetle flour Tribolium castanum reached 100% at the concentration 40% while the mortality percent reached 60, 77% when the concentration decreased to 20 or 30% respectively.

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Article
STUDYING OF THERMAL ANNEALING EFFECT ON STRUCTURAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CU2O THIN FILMS PREPARED BY PLASMA SPUTTERING METHOD
دراسة تأثير المعاملة الحرارية على الخواص البصرية والتركيبية لأغشية Cu2O المحضرة بطريقة الترذيذ بالبلازما

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In this study we prepare Cu2O films by using plasma sputtering method on substrate from glass type Pyrex; we used system of dipole sputtering with magnetic field. We studied the optical and structural properties to Cu2O and we studied thermal annealing with 150◦C on optical and structural properties for prepared thin films with thickness 2000Ǻ for one hour. It showed that the thermal annealing leads to increase of optical energy gap. We used x-rays diffraction for diagnostic structure and nature thin film material. the results appear that the thin film is poly crystalline structure, the thermal annealing leads to drop of diffraction peaks and increase it edges that's means it become more uniformity as well as it consist of optical properties study about spectrum record for absorbance and transmission for the prepared thin films in visible region and ultraviolet for range of wave length 300-900 nm.

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Article
THE MEASURMENT OF URANIUM CONCENTRATION IN DEFFERENT (13) TYPES OF NATURAL HERB.
حساب تراكيز اليورانيوم في(13) نموذج مختلف من الأعشاب الطبيعية

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Abstract

In this research the uranium concentrations in (13) different types of natural herb samples had been measured, and to limit the level of contamination with radio nuclides. The determination of uranium concentration in these samples has been done by using CR-39 track detector, the nuclear reaction used a source of nuclear fission fragments is 235U (n,f) obtained by the bombardment of 235U with thermal neutrons from (Am-Be) neutron source which has a flux of (5000 n cm-2 s-1). The results obtained show that the concentration of Uranium were calculated by comparison with standard samples, and varies from 0.235 ppm in (calum) type to 0.552 ppm in (Lazmender) type, all the results obtained are within the international levels as given by UNSCAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) data.

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Article
PRESSURE SENSING USING PHASE MODULATION ON POLYMER [PMMA]
تحسس الضغط بأستخدام تضمين الطور على البوليمرات {PMMA}

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Abstract

The effect of pressure, applied to PMMA sample, on Mach -Zender interference pattern has been studied. The effects of length, depth and height of the PMMA samples on the resulting number of fringes are investigated. The results of the experiments show almost a linear behavior between the numbers of displaced fringes and the displacement of the PMMA molecules with the applied pressure in all cases. Finally, comparing the experimental with the theoretical results, it is found that, there is a good agreement, in most cases, between them provided introducing a correction factor which is found to be equal approximately 3.This effect can be used as a pressure sensor.

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Article
STABILITY OF A PREY-PREDATOR MODEL WITH SIS EPIDEMIC DISEASE IN PREY
أستقرارية نموذج الفريسة والمفترس مع المرض الوبائي ( ) في الفريسة

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In this paper, an eco-epidemiolo-gical model consisting of prey-predator model with SIS disease is proposed and analyzed. The existence and the stability analysis of all possible equilibrium points are carried out. The persistent conditions of the proposed system are established. The global dynamics of the system is studied numerically

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Article
A STUDY OF THE DYNAMICS OF THE FAMILY λ
دراسة ديناميكية العائلة λ

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In this paper, the dynamical behavior of a family of non- critically finite transcendental meromorphic function =λ , λ >0 and m is an even natural number is described. The Julia set of , as the closure of the set of points with orbits escaping to infinity under iteration, is obtained. It is observed that, bifurcation in the dynamics of occurs at two critical parameter values λ = λ1, λ2, where λ1 = and λ2 = with x1 and x2 are the unique positive real roots of the equations tanh x = and tanh x = respectively.

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Article
NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR VOLTERRA-FREDHOLM INTEGRAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND KIND BY USING LEAST SQUARES TECHNIQUE
الحل العددي لمعادلة فولتيرا- فريدهولم التكاملية من النوع الثاني بأَستخدام تقنية المربعات الصغرى

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In this paper we investigate the numerical solution of an important class of mixed linear integral equations, called Volterra-Fredholm integral equations which are used in technology, mechanics and mathematical physics. The basic concepts are: First, approximates the unknown function by a tensor product (Algebraic or Chebyshev)-surface and substituting it in the Volterra-Fredholm integral equations. Second, apply least-square technique for minimizing the error terms on the given domain. Third, obtain a system of linear algebra equations which we solve for control points. An algorithm is illustrated by several numerical examples with comparison tables and written computer programs in MatLab (V 7.1) for the given algorithm.

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Article
DESIGNING AN IMAGE CRYPTOGRAPHY SYSTEM USING THE IMAGE ELEMENTS AS CIPHERING KEYS
تصميم نظام تشفير للصور باستخدام عناصر الصورة نفسها كمفاتيح للتشفير

Authors: Dunia F. Saffo دنيا فضيل صفو
Pages: 513-518
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A design and implementation of images' cryptography system is evaluated in this paper. This system depends on the idea of allocating a part of a digital image ) possibly the first block of the image) so as to produce the cipher keys for the other parts. Circles generating algorithm is used to produce keys from the chosen block, then corresponding circles in other blocks will be encrypted using the located keys. So in this method encryption keys are brought from the plain-image (source image) it self using graphics shapes pixels.

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Article
IMAGING OF BINARY STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF DEFOCUSING
تصوير النجوم الثنائية بوجود دالة التبأير

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In this paper a simulation for a mathematical two dimensional model was conducted to assess the presence of defocusing due to telescope aperture quality. The point spread function (psf), Modulation transfer function (MTF), and Fourier frequencies of binary star are computed in the absence and presence of defocusing. The results show that the total frequency components of MTF decreases very sharply as defocusing values goes to 6 and after this value the total frequency changes very slightly afterward. The relative heights of the second to third peaks decrease rapidly as defocusing values goes to 3 and slightly changes after that.

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Article
THE FEASIBILITY OF EXPORTING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM DATA TO GOOGLE EARTH
إمكانية تصدير بيانات نظم المعلومات الجغرافية إلى برنامج كوكل ارث

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Image satellite is one of the important sources for the Geographical Information System (GIS). With world-level coverage of satellite, aerial photography, streets points of interest and more, made the Google Earth (GE) as one of the geobrowsers programs that enable data with a spatial component to be used by both GIS and non-GIS users The objective of the present study is to explore the feasibility to export and integrate existing GIS format data including shapefiles into a GE format for display as a layer at the same location of the study area, and manipulation by using various ArcGIS9.2 tools. Export_to_KML software was used for converting the data from GIS format to GE format. This process is potentially very useful in the direct interaction of the GIS datasets over the internet by desktop mapping tools such as GE , where their integration with GIS information is especially helpful in the viewing the information in a spatial context. All the created shapefiles of this study have been done by author using ESRI's ArcGIS9.2 Desktop and defined according to WGS84_UTM_Zone 38N projected system. The results revealed that both GIS vector and attribute data can be effectively exported and visualized using GE. Moreover, most of the GE functions can be applied on the exported GIS layers that can be visualized on the GE window.

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