Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2008 volume:49 issue:1

Article
DETERMINATION OF LEAD(II) USING LUCIGENIN-H2O2-OH- SYSTEM VIA FLOW INJECTION-CHEMILUMINESCENCE
تقدير الرصاص بتقنية الحقن الجر -البريق الكيميائي بنظام الليوسجنين- بيروكسيد الهيدروجين-ايون الهيدروكسيد

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A new mode in the Semi-automated on-line analysis for lead(II) via chemiluminescence system of Lucigenin-H2O2-OH--Lead(II) which gives a blue-green chemiluminescence, when Lucigenine is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium was studied. Measurement of the generated light in a flat-spiral glassy cell designed for this purpose were achieved using advanced electronic detection system (with a multiple choice of readout systems). A relation for the variation of response with concentration expand from 1-15 g.ml-1 with %linearity of 97.6% while a % of linearity 99.44% using a quadratic equation. The quadratic equation represent the data much more preferably in which a picogram level of detection limit was achieved. Also the study was carried out for interferring effect.

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Article
DEVELOPED SPECTOPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL SAMPLES BY COUPLING WITH O-NITROANILINE

Authors: Hind Hadi
Pages: 12-17
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A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotmetic method for trace determination of salbutamol sulphate (SBS) in aqueous solution and in pharmaceutical preparations is described .The method is based on the coupling reaction of the intended compound with diazotized o-nitroaniline (DONA) in alkaline medium to form an intense yellow-orange, water soluble dye that is stable and shows maximum absorption at 448 nm .A working curve of absorbance versus concentration indicates that Beer’s low is obeyed over the concentration range of 50-1000 g of SBS in a final volume of 25-ml ( i.e. 2-40 ppm), with a molar absorpativity of 1.58×104 L.mol-1.cm-1 ,a sandell’s sensitivity of 0.0365 g.cm-2 ,a relative error of (-1.156) – 2.874  and a relative standard deviation of 0.735-1.992  depending on the concentration of SBS. The optimum conditions and stability of the colored product have been investigated and the method was applied successfully to the determination of SBS in dosage forms. Keywords: Salbutamol sulphate, diazotization, spectophotometry.

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Article
FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS PHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF IRON (III), USING NEW HOME MADE MICRO PHOTOMETER
التحليل بالحقن الجرياني _مايكروفوتوميتر جديد مصنع محليا لتقدير ايون الحديد(III)

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New micro photometer was constructed in our Laboratory which deals with determination of Iron (III) as A red Blood thiocyanate charge transfer complex. In which it was complied well with FIA. Linearity of 97.5% for the range 1-10 ppm and 96.4% for 0.1-1 ppm. The repeatability of result was better than 0.78%. L.O.D of 0.01 ppm was obtained.The microphotometer was compared well with A.A. result and with conventional spectrophotometer method.

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Article
CORROSION INHIBITION OF ZINC IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID MEDIUM BY THIOUREA AND GUANIDIN.

Authors: Khulood Al-Saadie
Pages: 29-34
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The inhibition action of thiourea and guanidine on the corrosion behavior of zinc in 1M HCl was investigated using weight loss measurement and by following the zinc ions concentration in solution after several times by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The two inhibitors reduced the corrosion rate of zinc and the protection efficiency ranging between(10.6-59.8) at low temperature (285, 299) K and the two inhibitors get to a similar protection at (318, 328) K almost. Adsorption isotherm was like the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The two organic compounds reduced the rate of the hydrogen evolution reaction.

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Article
ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SOME TAXA OF THE GENUS Anchusa L. IN IRAQ
د ا رسة تشريحية لبعض م ا رتب الجنسفي الع ا رق Anchusa L. (Boraginaceae)

Authors: مي محمد احمد
Pages: 35-39
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Anatomical study was carried out on the taxa of the genus Anchusa L. including A. aucheri DC. , A. aegyptiaca DC. , A. italifolia Almusawi and Addi , A. strigosa spp. Strigosa Labill. , A. italica var. microcalyx Almusawi and Addi , A. italica var. italica Retz. Vascular tissue of the stem was found to be cylindrical shape in all taxa. internal phloem was reported the first time in the cross section of the stem in addition to the External phloem. Mesophyll of the leaf was found to be isobilateral in all taxa. Shape of the cross section of leaf midrib and the area of vascular tissue of the stem were found to be variable in some species and other taxa could be used as a good taxonomic characters of the test taxa.

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Article
THE INFLUENCE OF PREY AND PREDATOR DENSITY ON THE PREDACIOUS BEHAVIOR OF Chrysoperla mutata (MACLACHLAN) LARVAE FEEDING ON DUBAS NYMPHS Ommatissus lybicus DEBERG
تأثير كثافة الفريسة والمفترس على السلوك الافت ا رسي للمفترسالمتغذي على حوريات Chrysoperla mutata (MacLachlan)Ommatissus lybicus DeBerg. الدوباس

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The functional response of Chrysoperla mutata (MacLachlan) larvae that dealt with different prey densities was Type 2. The coefficient of attack and handling time connected with changing occurred through the development of predator and prey or by increasing the capture efficiency of predator and defense efficiency of prey. The coefficient of attack increased with the increasing size of predator and with the decreasing size of prey. Also the handling time increases with the decreasing size of predator and with the increasing size of prey . Concerning the effect of predator density on the efficiency of searching, the results revealed a decrease in efficiency with increasing of number of predators due to interference and cannibalism.

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Article
STUDY THE IMMUNO POTENCY OF P. multocida ANTIGEN ON EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
د ا رسة القدرة التمنيعية لمستضد جرثومةPasteurella multocidaعلى حيوانات التجارب

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Abstract

The current study was designed to assess the immune potency of whole cell killed antigen of Pasteurella multocida prepared from 1ocal strains isolated from satisfactory cases (infected lung from sheep and goat), as it is necessary to know the local species deployed for use in the preparation of an effective vaccine, rather than vaccines prepared from standard isolates . The aim of this study is evaluate the immune potency of prepared antigen through its injection intraperitoneally in mice (0.5ml/moues) for two doses, protection being judged by the ability of immunized mice to survive challenge infection with virulent homologous microorganisms. Protective activity was achieved 65%, while the control group lost all animals.

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Article
تأثير موعد الز ا رعة مدد م ا رحل نمو ثلاثة ت ا ركيب و ا رثية من زهرة الشمس(Helianthus annuus L.)

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A field trial was conducted at Abu-Ghraib research station , Baghdad, Iraq , during the spring season of 2001 , The objectives were to study the effect of sowing dates on the performance of three sunflower genotypes . A split-plot lay in a randomized complete block design with three replications were used . Five sowing dates ( 16th Jan , 4th , 14th and 26th of Feb. and the 15th of March ) were assigned to main plots , where as genotypes in sub-plots .Any delay in sowing dates after the 16th Jan . Hastened the physiological processes of the developmental stages of the crop . and reflect , the effects of environmental factors such as (higher temperature , longer photoperiod and lower relative humidity) , consequently the optimum periods of the life cycle of the crop was shortened .First planting date16/1 showes longer period to emergence compared with later dates. Plating dates affect only on the days number from emergence toB3-B4 the second pair of opposite leaves appears and is 4cm long plants that planted at first planting date more days reach this stage days from B3-B4 to E1 the floral bud appears in the middle of the young leaves. First and second planting date needs more days from E1 to F1 The bud bends down, There is a significant effect only for planting dates, The first planting date need more day from F1–F3.2 The flower unfolds ,F3.2-M3 maturity is the back of the sunflower head turns brown the stem dries up the stem leaves become brown ,planting to 50% flowering and planting to maturity .The genotype Manon was earlier in emergence , flowering and maturity and later at period of F3.2-M3 compared with other tow genotypes. Interaction between genotypes and sowing dates were also detected. The plants of Euroflor and Pan7392 lated at first sowing date at the period of flowering (from F1-F3.2) and from sowing to maturity and they need more days from the F3.2-M3 at second sowing date.

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Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SOME PLANTS ON ACUTE AND CHRONIC GINGIVITIS
د ا رسة تأثير الخلاصات المائية لبعض النباتات في علاج التهاب اللثة الحاد والمزمن

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Four aqueous extracts of edible parts of (Garlic) Allium sativum L., Common camomille ) Matricaria chamomilla L. , ( Sicilian sumach ) Rhus cariaria L. and ( Fennel ) Foeniculam vulgar L. were investigated to study their effect in patients suffering from acute and chronic gingivitis and periodontitis. Results showed a positive activity of the extracts which caused healing about 70-100% of the infection in acute cases while patients with cronic gingivitis required more than 5 days. Detection of some chemical composition of the extracts was carried out which has a direct effect in curing.

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Article
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF Cinnamomum zeylanicum OIL EXTRACT ON Aspergillus flavus GROWTH AND AFLATOXIN B1 PRODUCTION
التأثير التثبيطي للمستخلص الزيتي لنبات القرفةB في نمو وانتاج الأفلاتوكسين 1 (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)Aspergillus flavus من للفطر

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The chemical analysis for active groups in oil extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was indicated the presence of Glycosides, Alkaloids, Resins, Saponins, Coumarins, Flavonoids, Terpens and Steroids. But the water extract contains Glycosides, Tanins, Resins, Saponins,and phenpls.The oil extract appeared high inhibitory effect on growth and aflatoxin B1 production for Aspergillus flavus locally isolate. The detection of aflatoxin B1 has been done using TLC and HPLC techniques. The total inhibitory effect of oil extract on the growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin B1 production was at the concentrations up to 350ppm using YES medium, while inhibited the growth of the same isolate on PDA medium at the levels up to 650ppm.

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Article
COMBINATION EFFECT OF NITROGEN LASER ANDCHLOROHEXIDINE ON THE VIABILITY OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa
التأثير الجمعي لليزر النتروجين و الكلورھيكسدين في حياتية بكترياPseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Ayad G. Anwer
Pages: 86-89
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To evaluate the Combination effect of Nitrogen laser and chlorohexidine on the viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that isolated from burns, the samples of bacteria were irradiated with 337.1 nm Nitrogen laser using 5 and 10 pulses/second repetition rates , at 1 , 5, 10 ,15, 25 minutes exposure times . The irradiation was done with and without treatment with chlorohexidine respectively. The results showed that there is a noticeable effect of Laser on the viability of bacteria with the presence of chlorohexidine. The viability of bacteria decreased with increasing the exposure time and pulse repetition rate.

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Article
MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF Escherichia coli O157 : H7 ISOLATED FROM BLOODY DIARRHOEA IN CHILDREN UNDER TEN YEARS OLD
د ا رسة مايكروبايولوجية لبكتريا Escherichia coli O157 : 7Hالمعزولة من الأسهال الدموي عند الأطفال دون سن العاشرة

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This study enrolled 350 infants and young children , less than 10 years of age with bloody diarrhoea seeking medical advance at Al-Alwia children hospital through a period from the 1st of Jula 2001 till the end of October 2001 . The shape of bacteria on sorbitol macConkey, Routine Biochmical testes and Api 20E system were dependent in the diagnosis and identification of bacteria from the other members of Enterobacteracea family. The preparation of local-made selective media for isolation of this bacteria was preformed in our labs. Escherichia coli belong to the serotype O157:H7 was isolated from 4 patients (1.14%). The susceptability to antimicrobial agent was tested against E.coli O157:H7. All isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin , nalidixic acid, chloramphenical and Tobramycin , but resistant to Amoxcillin and Trimethoprim .

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Article
Effects of GAMMA - Irradiation on the Dyeability, Wash Fastness and Staining of Iraqi cotton fabrics

Authors: Amina.Sh Mahmood
Pages: 95-103
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The effects of 60CO source of gamma- irradiation (0.1-1140) kGy on the dye ability, wash fastness and staining of Iraqi cotton fabrics were investigated for the first time, according to our knowledge, in an attempt to improve some characteristics of these fabrics that are used in the General Establishment for Cotton Industries. Color measurement was successfully applied as a tool in a study of the change versus dose, of dye uptake and wash fastness of cotton fabrics. At low doses it was found that the dye uptake initially decreased then increased with increasing dose, after that it increased steadily then rapidly with increasing dose. Staining and wash fastness of cotton fabrics dyed pre or post irradiation were also examined. A computer program was used to estimate changes in the color of the irradiated cotton fabrics as a result of dyeing, washing and staining. The results showed that a dose of 10 kGy favored optimum stain resistance and wash fastness properties for cotton fabrics dyed post irradiation. The overall behavior suggested that cotton fabrics were degraded at high doses (786-1140) kGy, while at low doses, the cross linking between chains was the predominated process.

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Article
ELASTIC MAGNETIC FROM FACTORS FOR 7Li

Authors: Zaheda A.Dahil
Pages: 104-106
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Elastic magnetic electron scattering form factors have been calculated for the ground state Jπ T=3/2-1/2 of 7Li in the framework of the many-particle shell model. The calculations are based on the model space wave functions of Cohen-Kurath interaction. The results are compared with the available experimental data. The data are reasonably explained up to q~3.0fm-1 when the size parameter of the harmonic oscillator potential is reduced from that used to fit the root mean square charge radius.

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Article
TRANSITION STRENGTHS OF GAMMA RAYS FROM EXCITED LEVELS OF 90Tc NUCLEUS

Authors: Fatima Abdel Amir Jassim
Pages: 107-111
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Transition strengths for

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Article
SHORT PULSE LASER GENERATION USING PHASE SEIFTED FIBER BRAGG GRATIN
توليد نبضات ليزرية قصيرة نضرياً باستخدام ازاحة الطور لمحزز براك للالياف البصرية

Authors: A.M.Taleb --- Kais A. Al-Naimee --- Hani J. Kbashi
Pages: 112-115
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Short pulse laser generation using phase shifted fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a theoretical demonstration and investigation in this paper. The specified refractive index can be photo- written in an optical fiber using UV laser with a standard phase mask scanning techniques. Two Bragg gratings were specially designed to spectrally filtering the edges of the input pulse. When the FBGs are fabricated in the core of the optical fiber, most of the power travels in the core with a smock part corresponding to the evanescent wave that travels outside near the core in the cladding. The results show the desired full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the pulse propagation in the core of the optical fiber is 5.025 nm, which corresponds to frequency FWHM equal to 6.27*1011. The duration bandwidth product of theoretical pulse using autocorrelation track was 0.65, and then the controllable pulse width generated using this method approximately equal to 1 psec

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Article
ISOSTATIC CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN AND EASTERN YEMEN AND THEIR IMPORTANT GEOLOGIC IMPLICATIONS
حالات توازن القشرية الارضية في جنوب وشرق اليمن وابعادها الجيولوجية

Authors: Fitian R. Al-Rawi
Pages: 116-123
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Fifty-nine gravity basic stations distributed in southern and eastern Yemen are considered to obtain the regional Bouguer anomaly and isostatic maps of the covered region. The obtained maps show many high amplitude negative anomalies which are related to high elevation area and mass deficiency beneath the continental crust.Isostatically the study region seems to be overcompensated in high land, while it is nearly complete compensation in low land area. The region requires an upwelling of the mantle material to compensate the mass deficiency in the region. Such process also requires uplift in the earth’s surface, which should have a relation with the tectonic and geomorphologic processes acting in the region such erosion. A complete gravity measurement stations to cover the whole territory of Yemen will provide insight picture about the regional geology of Yemen.

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Article
PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY AND PALAEOHYDROLOGY OF LATE PLEISTOCENE PALAEOLAKE AT QA'A SELMA (JORDANIAN BADIA)
مناخ وهيدرولوجية بحيرة قاع سلمى لنهاية البلايستوسين(البادية الاردنية)

Authors: Khaldoun Al-Qudah --- Balsam Salim Al-Tawash
Pages: 124-136
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Qa'a Selma (as a playa) is located on the northern basaltic flow of northeast Jordan, about 35 km northeast of the Safawi town. The present climate of the region is characterized by seasonal rain (during winter) and it has mild winter and temperate dry summer. Late Pleistocene palaeoclimatic and palaeohydrologic conditions of Qa'a Selma are deduced based on lake level changes. One palaeoshoreline was delineated at 745m a.s.l. and 4m above the present one (1m above the bottom of Qa'a). The Qa'a is located at 740m a.s.l. The present Qa'a area is calculated to equal 18 km2, where its area has increased during the Late Pleistocene pluvial period and calculated to reach 36 km2. The Drainage basin area is calculated as well to equal 15000 km2The present hydrological balance is calculated. The present potential evaporation PE and actual evaporation AE over the catchment area are calculated to equal 835 mm/ year and 69.01 mm/ year respectively Free surface evaporation from the lake surface is calculated to be 1643 mm/ year. Two climatic models are proposed, with the assumed mean annual palaeotemperature 4°C and 8°C less than present one (18.9°C), for the first and second climatic models respectively For the first climatic model (mean annual palaeotemperature is 14.9°C, 4°C less than present and mean annual palaeoprecipitation 450 mm/ year, ~380mm greater than present), the potential evapotranspiration and the actual evaporation are calculated to be 816 mm/ year and 436 mm/ year respectively The free surface evaporation from the lake surface EL is calculated to equal 1392.6 mm/ year. The palaeorunoff under these condition is calculated as well to equal 14mm/ year, as water volumes required to form and maintain the palaeolake, equal to 210 x106 m3/ year.Whereas under the proposed climatic conditions of the second model (mean annual palaeotemprature equal to 10.9°C, 8°C less than present and mean annual palaeoprecipitation 380mm/ year, or 310 mm/ year greater than presents(Potential evapotranspiration and the actual evaporation are calculated, as 658 mm/year and 368 mm/ year respectively. The free surface evaporation EL is calculated as well, and equal 1111mm/ year. The Estimated palaeorunoff is 12mm/ year and as volume of water equal to 180x 106 m3/ year. This amount of water that is needed to form and maintain the palaeolake at the Qa'a area So that most probably climatic conditions similar to those of the first and second models might prevailed in the northeast Jordanian Badin throughout Late Pleistocene pluvial periods (37-32 ka BP) and (15.5-13.9 ka BP), which led to form and maintain the palaeolake at the Qa'a area.

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Article
استخدام خرائط شواذ بوجير الجذبية في تعيين الحد الفاصل بين النطاق المستقر وغير المستقر لمنطقة في غرب كربلاء

Authors: بان صلاح مصطفى
Pages: 137-148
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In this paper an attempt is done to evaluate the tectonic boundary between the stable and unstable shelves. Bouguer gravity map of the studied area, which is located between longitudes (44◌11◌َ 45◌ً and 42◌ْ 56◌َ 45◌ً) East and latitudes (33◌ْ 19◌َ 21◌ً and 31◌ْ 43◌َ 36◌ً ) North, is used in this evalution. The research includes qualitative and quantitative analyses to gravity readings, which are taken from Bouguer gravity map. About (896) readings were used with a grid of (5 x 5) km. Qualitative interpretation of gravity data includes Griffin,s and trend surface analysis methods to isolate regional and residual fields from Bouguer map. Quantitative interpretation includes the use of (2.5 D) modeling program in east- west direction. Depending on the characters of the regional and residual gravity maps, their anomalies and gravity modeling the tectonic boundary between stable and unstable shelves in the area is suggested to be located within the high gradient contours at northern part of the area running in the southeast direction along it.

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Article
PETROLOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND TECTONICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE SHALAIR METAMORPHIC ROCK GROUP AND KATAR RASH VOLCANIC GROUP, SHALAIR VALLY AREA, NORTHEASTERN IRAQ

Authors: Yawooz Kettanah --- Salih Muhammad Awadh
Pages: 149-158
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The Shalair Metamorphic Rock Group (SMRG) is northern exposure of variety lithological units in Iraq, and forms part of the western margin of the active Iranian plate. The SMRG consists of metasedimentary sequences, whereas the Katar Rash Volcanic Group (KRVG) consists of basic to acidic metaigneous rocks. The petrological and geochemical studies showed that the SMRG is characterized by three lithological units, these are metapelite, metacarbonate, metaarenite, and KRVG is characterized by metaigneous series including metabasalt, metaandesite, and metarhyolitic dacite. All these rocks are regionally metamorphosed into low grade metamorphism of green schist facies – chlorite zone. Thermal conditions of metamorphism are suggested about 340±20° C at pressure conditions ranged between 2.5 – 3 Kb approximately. Data is not completely enough to interpret the tectonical environment, but the field aspects and geochemical evidences indicate that the SMRG were evolved under tectonic environment of island arc situation, so the (KRVG) are characterized by calc – alkaline nature.

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Article
EVALUATION THE USE OF IRAQI PORCELANITE ROCKS AS LOOSE ABRASIVE POWDERS
تقييم صلاحية صخور البورسلينايت الع ا رقية لاستخدامها كمساحيق حره لصقل الفلزات الرخوة

Authors: حبيب رشيد حبيب
Pages: 159-169
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Applied study was carried out on the Iraqi porcelanite rocks to determine their capability and uses as a loose abrasive powder to abrade copper and aluminium, being soft metals and commonly used in different industrial purpose. Three different samples of porcelanite were selected from three different places in the Iraqi western desert, and which were as follows: Safra member sample (Late Cretaceous), Traifawi member sample (Early Paleocene)- Akashat location and Traifawi member sample (Early Paleocene)- H3 location. Chemical, mineralogical analyses and microscopic studies were carried out on those samples. The three samples were ground at different time intervals. Discoidal samples of copper and aluminium metals were polished by using specimens of powdered porcelanite samples of different grains size ranging between (75-250) μm and (36-63) μm. The metal samples then buffed using two grains size as (20-36)μm and < 20 μm respectively. Evalution tests including surface roughness test (Ra) and Reflectivity test (R%) were carried out on copper and aluminium samples. The results showed that Iraqi porcelanite samples were good enough for abrading those two metals.

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Article
EXTENDED GENERALIZED GAMMA DISTRIBUTION

Authors: Shawki Shaker Hussain --- Bachioua Lehcene
Pages: 170-177
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New 6-parameters extended form of the Kobayashi's generalized gamma function is defined, several of its properties and recurrence formulas are derived. Based on this new function we introduce a new 6-parameters with a model function extended generalized gamma distribution. Many new distributions are shown to be particular cases of this suggested distribution, including some familiar known distributions. In terms of the model function statistical properties; reliability and hazard functions, and estimation of some parameters of the distribution are studied. Also, the form of the distribution is considered under various forms of the model function. We believe that this new distribution model is reasonable for accommodate multi various applications, since it have wide variety of shapes. Especially, for the life distribution of a component where the presence of the displacement and intensity parameters is vitally important.


Article
ON THE EXISITENCE OF THE SOLUTION TO THE HAMILTON-JACOBI EQUATION BY USING THE DUAL DYNAMICAL PROGRAMMING

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Properties of the value function and dual value function for an optimal control problems of Lagrange and Bolza are described. A main theorem is proved, this theorem deals with the existence of a maximum solution to the Hamilton - Jacobi equation for the Lagrange problem, with satisfies the Lipschitz condition by using the dual dynamic programming method. Finally gives an example which illustrates the value of the main theorem.


Article
SOME RESULTS (

Authors: Kassim Abdul-Hameed --- Abdul-Ruhman Hameed
Pages: 188-191
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Let R be a prime ring and d: R ~R be a (c.rj-derivation of R. V be a left ideal of R which is semiprime as a ring .In this paper we proved that if d is a nonzero endomorphism on R .and d(R)cZ(R),then R is commutative .and we show by an example the condition d is an endomorphism on R can not be excluded. Also, we proved the following. )i) If Ua⊂Z(R) (or aU⊂Z(R)), for aϵR), then a=0 or R is commutative. (ii) If d is a nonzero on R such that d(U)a⊂Z(R) (or ad(U)⊂Z(R) for aϵZ(R), then either a=0 or

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Article
ON THE GREEDY RIDGE FUNCTION NURAL NETWORKS FOR APPROXIMATION MULTIDIMENSIONAL FUNCTIONS
حول تقريب الدوال متعددة الابعاد باستخدام الشبكات العصبية ذات الدوال الصلبة مع خوارزمية كريدي

Authors: Najlaa M. hussien --- Reyadh S.Naoum
Pages: 192-203
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The aim of this paper is to approximate multidimensional function ƒ ϵC(RS) by developing a new type of Feed forward neural networks (FFNNs) which we called it Greedy ridge function neural networks (GRGFNNs). Also, we introduce a modification to the greedy algorithm which is used to train the greedy ridge function neural networks. An error bound are introduced in Sobolev space. Finally, a comparison was made between the three algorithms (modified greedy algorithm, Back propagation algorithm and the result in [1]).

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Article
UNSUPERVISED SEGMENTATION OF MICROSCOPIC WHITE BLOOD CELLS IMAGES USING HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUE

Authors: Fatin A. Dawood
Pages: 204-211
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In this paper, a new method is presented to segment the microscopic images of White Blood Cells (WBC) into cell and non-cell regions depending on the image histogram. The proposed method involves of: first, separating the captured image into its three color channels (Red, Green, and Blue) to produce three grayscale files one for each. Second, apply the histogram equalization upon the three files to obtain the white blood cells image to be segmented into white background, black nucleus with color stains inside and surrounded by cytoplasm. Experimental results show that the proposed unsupervised segmentation method have given reliable results comparable with thresholding method.

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Article
IMAGE SECURITY USING INTRA-FILE SECURITY

Authors: Sura N. Abdulla
Pages: 212-219
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Abstract

Typical image cryptographic systems provide security by encrypting entire image. This has the advantage of simplicity, but does not allow for fine-grained protection of data within very large image files, which is very important in some applications where some but not all the image is sensitive or classified.In this paper, a new method is proposed for securing parts of the image (i.e. sensitive information). The proposed method combines the Intra-File security, image inpainting and cryptography techniques to secure the sensitive parts of an image and leave the rest of the image without any changes, further more, it allows multiple levels of security for the same image without the need to have more than one copy of that image. Experimental results of the proposed method provides better security than the classical methods.

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Article
EXTRACTING ASSOCIATION RULES FROM DISTRIBUTED ASSOCIATION RULES

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Abstract

Mining for associations rules between items in large transactional distributed databases is a central problem in the field of knowledge discovery. When distributed databases are merged at single machine to mining knowledge it will required large capacity of storage, long execution time in addition to that; transferring a huge volume of data over network might take extremely much time and also require an unbearable financial cost.In this paper proposed algorithm is presented toward saving communication costover the network, central storage cost requirements, and accelerating required execution time. The algorithm consist of two parts: Part one: Extracting Association Rules for Distributed Association Rules (EAR4DAR) Algorithm; aims to extract association rules for distributed association rules instead of extracting the association rules from a huge quantity of distributed data located at several sites.This is done by collecting the local association rules from each site and storing them in a file. These Local Association Rules turn in series of operations to produce association rules over the whole distributed systems. Part two: Association Rules_map (AR_map) algorithm aims to get association rules by using AND logic operation which is suitable for representing association relations between items,since it gives indication for finding a relation or not. Additionally, this algorithm uses Karnough_map (K_map) propriety to reduce the duplicate and to generate accurate and logical results with saving time and storage space.

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Article
COLOR IMAGE COMPRESSION USING HYBRID METHOD

Authors: Zainab F.AL-Soufi --- Bushra Q. Al-Abudi
Pages: 231-238
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Abstract

In this work, a new color image compression scheme combining the wavelet transform and modified vector quantization (MVQ) method is proposed. In wavelet transform, the vertical and horizontal Haar filters are composed to construct four 2- dimensional filters, such filters applied directly to the image to speed up the implementation of the Haar wavelet transform. Haar wavelet transform was used to map the image to frequency bands, bit allocation process and scalar quantization are implemented on approximation sub-band while modified vector quantization mechanism employed to encode the other higher frequency subbands using small block size and decrease the codebook size as the subband number increases. Since the encoding process is much easier when the range of coded parameters are positive, thus the coefficients values of codebook are mapped to the positive range. Finally S-Shift encoding process is performed. The analysis results have indicated that the proposed method offers a compression performance up to (29/1) with little effects will be noticed on the image quality.

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Article
THE SPIN-DOWN TORQUE DECAY WITH THE CHARACTERISTIC AGE FOR BINARY MILLISECOND PULSARS (MSPS) STARS
تباطيءالعزم الدو ا رني مع العمر المميز للنجوم الثنائية النابضة من نوع(MSPs pulsars)

Authors: Sundus A. Abdullah
Pages: 239-243
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Abstract

Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) type have properties differs from normal pulsars type. In this research the characteristic age are concentrated depends on the periods (P), and period derivative (P`) for a sample stars which adopted. Also the value of characteristic age for these stars is determined by depending on the (Ostriker and Gunn) model. The relation between luminosity and the characteristic age for a sample of MSPs stars are illustrated depending on pulse periods for these stars. The results indicate that the spin down torque must decay with the characteristic age for a sample stars which adopted. Also the results for these stars at distance 1.5 kpc from the galactic disk illustrated that the decay must due to the main energy loss mechanism is magnetic dipole radiation, they attributed this to tendency of rotation axis to align with magnetic axis as pulsar age . It is found that the radio luminosity of pulsars must decrease with age, in a good agreement with previous study.

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Article
DIGITAL TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING CHANGES IN WATER-BODY USING SATELLITE IMAGE

Authors: Alaa S. Mahdi --- Saleh M. Ali
Pages: 244-255
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Abstract

In this paper, two pairs of temporal TM, and ETM+ (28.5 spatial resolution) images have been used to detect the change in water body. The first study area was the (Mosul Aski Dam, 1984 to 2002) in the upper Jazirah (located approximately 60 km northwest of Mosul city), the geographic corners coordinates was (Lat. 36° 37´ 30˝ to 36° 55´ 00˝ N, Long. 42° 30´ 00˝ to 43° 00´ 00˝ E). The second was the area of remaining Marshland areas (Hawr Al-Hawizeh /Al-Azim, 2000 to 2002), the geographic corners coordinates was (Lat. 31° 44´ 13.62˝ to 31° 26´ 32.5˝ N, Long. 47° 27´ 0.32˝ to 47° 50´ 00˝ E), Southern East of Iraq. Image to map registration with first order polynomial has been adapted to correct images from geometric errors. An adaptive matching technique (depend upon the UTM coordinates projection) has been performed to match the two temporally images. Three digital algorithms have been utilized to detect the change between the two images; i.e. image differencing, image ratioing, and PCA methods. The total RMS error (registration & matching process) was less than 1 meter

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Article
THE MASS TRANSFER IN UNSTABLE COMPACT BINARY STARS
انتقال الكتلة في النجوم الثنائية المدمجة الغير مستقرة

Pages: 256-263
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Abstract

The 2001 outburst of WZ Sagittae has shown the most compelling evidence yet for an enhancement of the mass transfer rate from the donor star during a dwarf nova outburst in the form of hot-spot brightening. It has been shown that even in this extreme case, the brightening can be attributed to tidal heating near the interaction point of an accretion stream with the expanding edge of an eccentric accretion disc, with no need at all for an increase in the mass transfer rate. Furthermore, it has been confirmed previous suggestions that an increase in mass transfer rate through the stream damps any eccentricity in an accretion disc and suppresses the appearance of super-humps, in contradiction to observations. Tidal heating is expected to be most significant in systems with small mass ratios. It follows that systems like WZ Sagittae -which has a tiny mass ratio -are those most likely to show a brightening in the hot-spot region.

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Article
THE ACTIVITY OF NATIVE NONEY AGAINST SOME MICROORGANISMS
فعالية العسل الطبيعي ضد بعض الحياء المجهرية

Authors: Sinai Waleed
Pages: 264-268
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Abstract

The present study was conducted to detect the susceptibility of six microorganisms isolated from patients suffering from urinary tract and wound infections against native honey, by the agar-well diffusion method. These isolates included: Pseudomonas sp., Klebseilla sp., Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The results showed that the bacteria isolates were resistant against most of the antibiotics used. Two isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Co- trimoxazole, while all isolates were resistant to Gintamycin and Cephotaxime. In contrast, honey at 5% concentration was able to inhibit the growth of most microorganisms tested, with the exception of only Pseudomonas sp., which was inhibited at concentration of 10%.

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