Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2008 volume:49 issue:2

Article
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF NEW N2S2 SCHIFF BASELIGAND AND ITS COORDINATION COMPLEXES WITH SOME TRANSITION METAL IONS

Authors: Ahmed J. Mohammed Al-Karawi
Pages: 1-11
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Abstract

New Schiff base tetradentate ligand with type (N2S2): 1,3-isophthaldehyde bis(4–methyl 3-thiosemicarbazone)(ISMTSC) has been prepared. Synthesis was carried out by the condensation of 1,3-isophthaldehyde and 4-methyl 3-thiosemicarbazide in mole ratios of (1:2) respectively and under nitrogen atmosphere. The ligand has been characterized and its structure was elucidated depending upon microelemental analysis (CHN), spectral data (I.R, U.V–Vis, 1H, 13CNMR and mass spectrum). Series of metal complexes of the ligand with metal ions such as CoII, NiII, CuII, CdII and HgII have been synthesized by adding (1 mm mole) of (ISMTSC) to the methanolic solution (1 mm mole) of metal salts. The complexes were characterised and their stereochemical structures and geometries were suggested depending upon data of microelemental analysis (CHN), spectral studies (I.R, UV–Vis) , 1H and 13C NMR for [CdII(ISMTSC) (H2O)2] mass spectrum for [CuII(ISMTSC)(H2O)2] as well as magnetic moments and conductivity measurements. The following general formula were achieved: [M(ISMTSC)(H2O)2] where M = Co(II) ,Cu(II) and Cd(II), and [M(ISMTSC)] where M = Ni(II) and Hg(II) ions. The electronic spectra in DMF (10–3 M) supported by magnetic moments in solid state revealed octahedral geometries for the Co(II),Cu(II) and Cd(II) complexes, square planer geometry for Ni(II) comple
geometry for the Hg(II) complex. Conductivity measurements of the new synthesized

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Article
BATCH AND FLOW-INJECTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS BY COUPLING WITH DIAZOTIZED 4-NITROANILINE

Authors: Raghad Sinan --- Mouayed Q. Al-Abachi
Pages: 12-20
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Two sensitive and fast spectrophotometric methods using batch and flow-injection procedures for the determination of paracetamol are proposed. The methods are based on the formation of a red dye between this drug and diazotized 4-nitroaniline in sodium carbonate medium. The reaction conditions are studied and optimized for both batch and flow injection procedures. The calibration graphs resulting from measuring the absorbance at 528 nm are linear over the ranges 0.5 – 20 and 1 – 150 μg mL-1 of paracetamol with relative standard deviations of 1.2420% and 1.5634% for batch and flow-injection methods, respectively. The methods are applied to the routine analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparations. The obtained results agree with those obtained by the British Pharmacopoeia method


Article
USING METHYL UREA AS INHIBITOR FOR THE CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL IN 1M HYDROCHLORIC ACID MEDIUM

Authors: Dunya Edan Al-Mammar
Pages: 21-30
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The corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in 1M HCl solution containing various concentration of methyl urea range (10-35×10-2)M at temperature range (285- 313)K was investigated. The corrosion inhibitive action of methyl urea on carbon steel was studied using weight loss measurement and atomic absorption analysis to find the amounts of dissolved metal in acidic solution in presence and absence of methyl urea. The results showed that urea caused protection efficiency reached to 82% when (10-3)M methyl urea concentration was used. The coverage () of metal surface by methyl urea could be obtained from the rate of corrosion in the presence and absence of methyl urea in the acid solution. Results obtained by gravimetric and atomic absorption are in good agreement. A linear relationship was found to exist between the value of (C/) and the corresponding methyl urea concentration (C) indicating that the inhibition action occurs via adsorption mechanism. Changes in the free energy, enthalpy and entropy associated with methyl urea adsorption have been determined. Apparent energies of activation have been calculated for the corrosion process of iron in the acid from corrosion rates and Arrhenius plots

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Article
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND STUDY OF SURFACTANTS EFFICIENCY IN THE DISPERSION (O/W) EMULSIONS

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Abstract

In the present study three classes of surfactants derivatives from benzillic acid were prepared. The prepared surfactants were characterized by FTIR-Infrared spectrophotometer and CHN analysis. The physical properties of the prepared surfactants were measured i.e. (pH, density, viscosity, color, freezing point and stability to hydrolysis). The efficiency of the prepared surfactants was studied with time and long side chain substituted. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) was calculated.

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Article
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Pasteurella multocida From Farm Animals
عزل وتشخيص جرثو ةممن الاغنام والماعز pasteurella multocida

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Abstract

cAbstract This study was carried out for isolation of Pasteurella multocida from sheep and goat and identification by using biochemical and morphological characterization. On hundred eighty five samples included (nasal swabs blood and infected lungs) from animals with respiratory infection ,and from normal animals, were collected for this purpose. Twelve isolates of P.multocida were identified by using biochemical and morphological characterization total isolation was (7.6%) from sheep, and (3%) from goats .All isolates are susceptible for penicillin and chlormphenical , while other antibiotic like Cephalothin, Amigacin, Amoxicillin, Impicilin, Tetracycline,and Trimetheprium, show a different level of susceptibility consequently as well as this study shows that there are a different level of resistant for Gentamicin,Streptomycin,and Lincomycin. Gentamicin,Streptomycin,and Lincomycin.

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Article
LABORATORY STUDY TO DETERMINE THE EFFICIENCY OF PREDATION OF Chrysoperla mutata MACL. TO DUBAS NYMPHS Ommatissus lybicus .DeBberg.
Chrysoperla mutata Macl. دراسة مختبرية لتحديد الكفاءة الافتراسية ليرقات المفترس في افتراسOmmatissus lybicus DeBerg. حوريات الدوباس

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Abstract

The results of this study indicated that the the average number of 2nd and 3rd instars of dubas. nymphs Ommatissus lybicus DeBerg. were consumed by Chrysoperla mutata MacL. larvae were 291.4 . The percentage of consumption were 9.13,29.34 and 61.53% for 1st ,2nd and 3rd instar larvae respectively.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AT GDD AND CROP GROWTH OF THREE SUNFLOWER (Genotypes Helianthus annuus L. )
تأثير موعد الز ا رعة في التجميع الحر ا ري ومعدل نمو المحصول لثلاثة تر ا كيب و را ثية من زهرة الشمس(Helianthus annuus L.)

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Abstract

Abstract A field trial was conducted at Abu-Ghraib research station , Baghdad, Iraq , during the spring season of 2001 , The objectives were to study the effect of sowing dates on the performance of three sunflower genotypes . A split-plot lay in a randomized complete block design with three replications were used . Five sowing dates ( 16th Jan , 4th , 14th and 26th of Feb. and the 15th of March ) were assigned to main plots , where as genotypes in sub-plots . The first sowing date was the highest in growth from flowering to maturity and from emergency to maturity . The fifth sowing date plants need more GDD. Growing degree – day from emergency to flowering and the fifth sowing date did not varied significant from first and second sowing dates from sowing to maturity . The first sowing date plants need more GDD at the period from emergency to flowering , and not varied significantly with second sowing date in GDD .from end flowering to maturity . Euroflor genotype was the highest in growth from emergency to flowering . Pan7392 and Euroflor needs more GDD for the period from sowing to flowering .,and Manon genotype needs highest GDD from the end of flowering to maturity. The genotype Pan7392 need the highest GDD from sowing to maturity. Interaction between genotypes and sowing dates were also detected. Euroflor at the first sowing date had the highest GDD from emergency to flowering and Manon at second sowing date the highest growth from flowering to maturity and from emergency to maturity. Pan7392 at first sowing date need more GDD from other tow genotypes from flowering to maturity , Pan7392at first sowing date needs to maturity with the highest GDD.

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Article
Aeromonas د ا رسة و ا رثية لبكتريا المنتجة لانزيمات البيتالاكتاميز الصنف C

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Five hundreds and seven samples were collected from different environmental and clinical sources . Only, 17 isolates were belonging to the genus Aeromonas after doing morphological and biochemical tests .The ability of Aeromonas isolates to produce β-lactamase class C enzymes were tested, and the results showed that only two isolates ( A . sobria and A. eucrenophila ) produced this type of enzyme.The antibiotic scussptibility tests against 15 antibiotics were examined , and it was found that the two isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, ampiclox, amoxicillin, lincomycin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime, while they were sensitive to ceftazidime. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that Aeromonas isolates have two small plamid bands . Transformation experiments revealed that the small plasmid bands were capable to transform E. coli MM294, an observation which indicates the ability of these plasmids to show their expression in more than one host

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Article
THE EFFECT OF ZINC OXIDE ON SOME CYTOGENETICS PARAMETERS IN WHITE MOUSE
تأثير أوكسيد الخارصين على بعض مؤش ا رت الو ا رثة الخلوية في الفأر الابيض

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The aim of this study wase focusing some light to detect the cytogentic effects of zinc oxide through using cytogentic analysis (Mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations on the somatic and sex cells and sperm head abnormalities) on Balb/c mice. Ninty eight male mice were used in this study, these animals were divided into two groups the first one was the controlling groups and the second one was. Treated with Zinc Oxide. The results showing that the Zinc Oxide causes an inhibition of mitotic index in somatic and sex cells and the inhibition increased by augmenting the concentration, where the effect was significant (P<0.01) , and the effect of doses were significant (P<0.05), in both kinds of cells. The chromosomal aberration increased pursuant to the raising of zinc oxide concentration. The influence was significant (P<0.01). The doses had an effect on the occurance of aberration (P<0.05) in the chromatidal breaks of sex cells only. Also Zinc Oxide had a significant influence (P<0.01) in sperm head abnormalities, while the periods did not show a significant effect. This indicated that the cells were sensitive to the material (Zno) in all the stages of spermatogenesis.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA CRUD EXTRACTS ON MICROORGANISMSISOLATED FROM CLINICAL INFECTIONS
في الأحياء المجهرية Nigella Sativa تأثير المستخلصات الخام لبذور الحبة السوداء المعزولة من إصابات سريرية.

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حُضرت أنواع مختلفة من المستخلصات الخام لبذور الحبة السوداء شملت المستخلص الزيتي باستعمال ال( EE ) والمستخلص الكحولي (OR ) Reflux والمستخلص الزيتي باستعمال ال ( OS ) Soxhelt دلت نتائج .( BE ) والمستخلص ب دارئ الفوسفات ذي الرقم الهيدروجيني 7 ( AE ) والمستخلص المائي الكشف الكيميائي احتوائها على معظم المركبات الفعالة من القلويدات والتانينات والكلوكوسيدات وال ا رتنجات والصابونيات والكومارينات والفلافونات .دُرست فعالية المستخلصات ضد 50 عزلة ( 40 عزلة سريريه و 7 عزلات من حالات تلوث بالمستشفيات و 3(MIC) عزلات قياسية ) باستعمال طريقتي الحفر وأق ا رص ورق الترشيح ،وتم تحديد التركيز المثبط الأدنى بطريقة الوسط الصلب. أظهرت النتائج إن أفضل المستخلصات المح ضرة ( MBC) والتركيز القاتل الأدنى واقلها فعالية هو AE و EE ثم OS يليه مستخلص OR فعالية ضد الأحياء المجهرية هو مستخلص( MBC وال MIC وكانت أكثر الأحياء المجهرية حساسية للمستخلصات (بانخفاض قيم ال BE مستخلص Bacillus cerreus و Staphylococcus aureus هي البكتريا الموجبة لملون غ ا رم ( وأكثرها تحسساً هي

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Article
تقييم فعالية المستخلصين المائي والكحولي لاو ا رق اليوكالبتوسفي تثبيط نمو البكتريا المرضية الموجبة لصبغة ك ا رم المعزولة Eucalyptus camaldulensisمن مرضى مصابون بالتهاب لبلعوم و اللوزتين.

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Abstract The effects of equeous and alcoholic of extracts Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves were studied in respect to their gram positive bacterial growth inhibition that isolated from cases of pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Alcoholic and hot water extracts of the leaves as well as its dried powder were prepared . The preliminary chemical tests revealed acidic pH of all extracts. The dried powder , equeous and alcoholic extracts of Eucalyptus leaves contained resins ,tanines , glycosides, saponines, phenols and flavonoids. Their equeous extracts showed inhibitory effect on bacterial growth higher than that of alcoholic and the best effect was on growth of Strept.pyogenes, inhibition zone diameter (28.0 mm). In the present study, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ) and Minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC ) of the leaves extracts were measured for the more predominant gram positive isolates and the results varied according to different kinds of leaves extracts and different types of bacteria. The least values of MIC and MBC were for equeous extracts of Eucalyptus leaves on Strept.pyogenes , Staph.hominis and Micrococcus ssp. which valued 10%, 20% respectively. It has been noticed that the equeous extracts of E. camaldulensis, have a sedative effect when given at dose of 5 g/kg to laboratory mice, these extracts however, showed a synergistic sedative effect when mixed with pentobarbitone and caused prolongation of sleeping time in experimental mice .Neither the alcoholic nor the equeous extracts of the leaves showed any toxic effect on the laboratory mice after oral adminastration of 2.5 – 15 g /Kg B.W.

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Article
A STUDY OF ION BOMBARDMENT TIME FOR COPPER SPUTTERING BY USING AN ARGON – ARC PLASMA
د ا رسة زمن القصف الأيوني لترذيذ النحاس بإستخدام قوس بلازما الأركون

Authors: Khalid A.Yahya --- Riayhd K.A. Al-Ani
Pages: 90-95
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An experimental investigation is carried out to study argon ion bombardment time for a disk sputtering pole which is made from pure copper of diameter 30 mm and impacted by argon ions of energy 120 eV. This ions are generated by magnetically confined ion source . The ion source consists of a tungsten filament of 0.2 mm diameter as a cathode pole, and a graphite plate with a slot which represents the anode pole , and the arc of plasma which confined by a homogeneous magnetic field . A set of experiments are conducted to collect the sputtering copper atoms on a slab , for different values of argon ion densities and bombardment times . The results of the study show that the net mass of collective sputtered atoms and the thickness of layer are increasing as the bombardment time increases , and reach 273.2 mgm and 24.39 μm respectively for argon ion density 7x1018 m-3 and bombardment time 60 min .

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Article
THE EFFECT OF ADDITION OF BUFFER GASES ON THE OUTPUT ENERGY AND PULSE WIDTH OF AMMONIA LASER
تأثير الغازات المخمدة المضافة الى ليزر الامونيا على الطاقة الخارجة وزمن نبضة الليزر

Authors: A.S.Wasfi --- F.H.Hamza
Pages: 96-100
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We present the design of a pulsed ammonia laser, which is optically pumped by a TEA CO2 laser. The effect of addition of buffer gases to the ammonia gas laser (such as N2, He and Ar with different mixing ratios) on the output energy and pulse width of the laser was studied. It was found that N2 gas was preferable among the other additives as it provides highest output pulse energy and increasing the laser efficiency. The addition of N2 gas helped also in obtaining more than 40 ammonia laser lines around the 12μm, which was step tunable in the spectral range of (762-968 cm-1).

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Article
CALCULATIONS OF (,n) REACTION CROSS SECTION AND GAMMA RAY INCINERATION FOR MEDIUM MASS RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES
حسابات مساحة المقطع العرضي ومعدل الإحراق لتفاعل (كاما-نيوترون) لنظائر مشعة ذات عدد كتلي متوسط

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The total -n reaction cross section for radioactive fission products have been evaluated in the region of energy near the giant dipole resonance, from the threshold energy up to around 30 MeV. The selected fission products lay in the range of medium mass number, namely: 87Rb, 90Sr, 93Zr, 106Ru, 123Sn, 127Te, 129I and 137Cs. These radioactive isotopes were chosen as part of the radioactive waste from 235U fission. Total cross section results were used to calculate the number of incinerated nuclei, and this method shows efficiency in reducing the radioactivity of these isotopes. The obtained results show that the incineration rate of radioactive nuclei increases with the flux of the incident -rays, whereas the required irradiation time was found to be shortened and inversely proportional to the incident -ray flux. These results are consistent with those given by earlier researches.

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Article
SIMULATION STUDY FOR THE STREAMER DISCHARGE GROWTH WITHIN DIELECTRIC LIQUIDS AT SOLID INTERFACE

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A computer simulation method was used to study the electrical pre-breakdown events in dielectric liquids. This study concentrated on the liquid-solid interface. The suitable model based on the cavitation theory. It was assumed that the streamer channels are weak plasmas and those channels have a high electrical resistance. The model was implemented numerically by finite element method (in two-dimensions). It was tested within a pin-plane configuration using the n-hexane and the water as dielectric liquids. Same voltage and electric field distributions were shown in the two liquids. But different distributions appeared when the solid insulator was introduced to the configuration. Also, the results show that, a strong dependence of the streamer growth path on the mismatch permittivity between the solid and the liquid. It was shown a nearest picture for the streamer behavior within the dielectric liquids. That can help the designers of the high voltage equipment.

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Article
MINERALOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND ORIGIN OF ZINC-LEAD-BARITE DEPOSITS IN NORTHERN THRUST ZONE, NORTHERN IRAQ

Authors: Salih Muhammad Awadh --- Habib Rashid Habib
Pages: 119-131
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Four areas contain zinc - lead - barite deposits hosted by Cretaceous carbonate rocks are studied mineralogically, geochemically and genetically. These areas are Lefan, Lower Banik, Menin and Upper Banik, which are located northeast of Zakho city within Northern Thrust Zone, Northern Iraq. The deposits occur as small veins, scattered patches to disseminated ore, characterized by simple mineralogy consists of sphalerite, galena, little quantity of pyrite as primary sulfides and barite as primary sulfate. Most of sulfides are altered to their secondary minerals by supergene solutions. Paragenetic sequence of mineralization shows early and late sulfides generation deposited from hypogene solutions, and reveals reduction-oxidation potential fluctuation through nine stages of mineralization. The early generation of sulfides (sphalerite and galena) is characterized by replacement textures and high content of minor elements, while the late generation of sulfides is characterized by open space filling textures, and low content of minor elements. Geochemistry of bulk ore revealed the average ore grade up to 44.4% ZnO, and 4.1% PbO in Lefan, 27.4% ZnO, and 2.7% PbO in Lower Banik, 9.1% ZnO and 1.2 PbO in Menin, 1.9% ZnO and 20 ppm of Pb in Upper Banik. Fluid inclusions observed in barite contain heavy oil associated aqueous chloride-rich fluids (13% - 15.5% wt equv. NaCl). Formation temperature of barite is suggested to be 50-60 °C. The sulfur isotope composition (δ34S) of early generation galena is 0.36 per mil. This value is close to the hydrothermal magmatic sulfur origin, but the sulfur isotope compositions (δ34S) of late generation galena is 6.41 per mil. This value indicates that the hydrothermal magmatic fluids were partially mixed with oilfield brine connate waters. The sulfur isotope composition (δ34S) of barite ranges from 16.64 to 24.23 per mil indicating high isotopic fractionation caused by descending meteoric waters which diluted the ascending ore-bearing fluids. This case led to precipitation of barite in oxidizing conditions. The Lead isotope compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) of galena revealed that lead was derived from the crust reservoir. The elements (Zn, Pb, Fe, and Ba) may have originated from oilfield brine waters which may have partially mixed with hydrothermal fluids of magmatic origin supplying sulfur. These fluids may have been migrated upward as chloride and sulfide complexes along fractures and faults that they formed after crustal extension and rifting which took place by the effect of the Laramide Orogeny in the Upper Maastrichtian . The studied zinc-lead-barite deposits could be classified as epithermal, epigenetic strata-bound of Mississippi valley type (MVT) deposits, lithologically and structurally controlled within Cretaceous carbonate host rocks.

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Article
MID-CRETACEOUS RADIOLARINS FROM THE BALAMBO FORMATION NE-IRAQ

Authors: Thamer.A. Mahdi --- Salam. I. Al-Dulaimi
Pages: 132-139
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The late Albian-Early Turonian Radiolarians of the Balambo Formation, which were recovered from well Jambur-18 (NE of Iraq) are characterized by their abundance and diversity. They show certain similarities to those from the Tethys and North Atlantic indicating the ongoing opening between the two basins.Microfacies analysis for the Balambo rocks indicates a basinal depositional environment, where radiolarians thrived. The differences in depositional textures of the carbonate facies with presence of mudstone and shale units indicate relative changes in depth within the same environment. This can interpreted to the relative changes of sea-level, which exhibit transgressive and regressive cycles. Radiolarian-rich intervals correlate well with the transgressive cycles and their associated facies. The maximum flooding surfaces of these cycles are correlated with those identified in the Arabian plate. They represent global events causing the thrive of radiolarian in the study area and other parts of the Tethyan realm during Early Cenomanian-Early-Turonian.

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Article
GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY OF THE PLIO-PLEISTOCENE AQUIFER OF ERBIL HYDROGEOLOGIC BASIN, N.IRAQ.

Authors: Qusai Y. AL-Kubaisi
Pages: 140-148
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The studied aquifer is the Plio-Pleistocene unit of layering mixed facies of gravel, sand, silt and clay with respect to conglomerate. Two hydrochemical groups were identified as bicarbonate and sulphate. Two families in each group are strongly acting with depth and laterally a part from the hydrogeologic boundaries.The bicarbonate families are Ca-HCO3and Mg-HCO, while that of sulphate are Mg-SOand Na-SO. The distribution map of salinity reflects a trend of increase in salinity which clarify the different flow orientation within the sub-basins. The minimum recorded of salinity is 750 ppm, while the maximum is 7500ppm. The ten folds salinity occurs at the western boundary condition of Avana and Khurmala anticlines, where the Fatha gypsum layers exposed. This condition of salinity coincide’s with sulphate distribution below 1 epm toward north –north east and above 1 epm up to 10 epm toward NW, and west. The chloride ionic concentration( isochloride map) shows a restricted area of more than 1 epm up to 10 epm east Khurmale anticline of sulphate. 344 Water quality of this aquifer system with SAR values less then unity group and more than unity. Most of these waters are marginal good quality for irrigation .The deep groundwater and highly infiltration rate leads to practices of saline water irrigation of sprinkler type.

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Article
ROBUST ESTIMATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF SIMPLE LINEAR FUNCTIONAL RELATION MODEL WITH REPLICATION OF OBSERVATIONS
تخمين حصين لمعلمتي أنموذج العلاقة الدالية الخطية البسيطة عند تك ا رر المشاهدات

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Article
ON THE RANGE OF THE MAP N AB

Authors: Sadiq Naji Nassir
Pages: 158-161
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Let H be an infinite dimensional separable complex Hilbert space and B(H) be the Banach algebra of all bounded linear operators on H. In this paper we introduce a mapping : B(H) → B(H) . By (T)=AT-T*B , T B(H). ABNABN We study some properties of it , and we study surjectivity of this mapping when A is pseudonormal operator whose spectrum satisfies certain properties if the analytic function f(A) that belongs to the *AARangeN then f(A) is the zero function .Also we generalize some results for the Jordan * derivation and the derivatio

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Article
GENERALIZATION OF THE RULE COUNTING OF THE FREE VARIABLES IN DOUBLE-EVEN PANDIAGONAL MAGIC SQUARES

Authors: Ala'a H. Lafta
Pages: 162-169
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In this paper, we generalize the rule of counting the number of the free variables in the double – even pandiagonal magic squares; our method is not based on the direct computation of the solution of the linear system. Instead, We deduce this rule by applying the theorems and methods of linear algebra , finally put algorithm of the solution .

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Article
SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MAIN- SEQUENCE STARS*

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The analysis of stellar spectrum was considered as an efficient tool for studying the chemical composition of stars and measuring the physical properties. In this paper, we selected four stars of the main- sequence band namely (HD 6111, HD 221741, SU Aur, HD 5351) for analyzing their spectra. The chemical composition of each star can be extrapolated from their own absorption spectrum by comparing their positions in the spectrum with those observed from pure source in the laboratory, while from the emission spectra, we measured the physical properties including, temperature, mass, radius, velocity, and lifetime. The results indicated that the selected stars of the main sequence have the chemical composition hydrogen, ionized helium, Fe, C, Si, . Our calculations of the stars under investigation give rise to the following physical properties, their surface temperature between (4983 – 8130K), mass between (0.74 – 2 Ms), radius between (0.795 - 1.77 Rs), luminosities between (0.35 - 10) and lifetime between (2 – 20 Gy).

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Article
PCA TRANSFORM FOR IMAGE ENHANCEMENT, COMPRESSION, AND CHANGE DETECTION

Authors: A. S. Mahdi --- S. M. Ali
Pages: 179-183
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The Principal-Components-Analysis (PCA) of KL-transform has been utilized as multi operators, (i.e. enhancement, compressor, and temporal change detector). Two images pair (Al-Jaderiya-Baghdad-Iraq) of 3-bands Landsat ETM+ (14.25 spatial-resolution) and Panchromatic Quick-Bird (0.6 meter) images are adopted to perform the PC analysis. Since most of the image band's information are presented in the first PCs, therefore image classification and change detection procedures are performed with little consuming time. The linear “PCA” transformation can be used to translate and rotate data into a new coordinate system that maximizes the variance of the data. It can also be implemented for enhancing the information content.

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Article
SIMULATION OF TWO INTERACTING GALAXIES NGC3395 AND NGC3396

Authors: Mariwan A. Rasheed
Pages: 184-193
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In the present work the two interacting galaxies NGC3395 and NGC3396 were simulated by means of N-body simulation using Intergalactic Gravitational Motion Simulator IGMS code with 500 particles. The structure and the geometrical positions of each galaxy and their contents were found from the time before the interaction. It was also found that the interaction caused the distortion of the shape and construction of tidal tails of the galaxy NGC3395. The simulation image matches with the images of the two galaxies observed by the telescopes.

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