Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2009 volume:50 issue:1

Article
EXTRACELLULAR SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT BRAIN TUMORS
التغيرات في ال EXTRACELLULAR SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE عند مرضى أورام الدماغ المختلفة

Authors: Ali W. Numan --- Hathama R. Hasan
Pages: 1-7
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The Specific activity of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) was measured in healthy persons and in patients with benign and malignant brain tumors. The results show decrease of the EC-SOD specific activity in sera of patients with benign and malignant brain tumors in comparison to that of control group.This study concentrated on studying the changes that occur in sera EC-SOD activity of patients with benign and malignant brain tumors, in comparison to that of normal individuals. The result also revealed that this isoenzyme is present in many different molecular weights forms (as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), some of these with no enzymatic activity. Conversion among these forms occurs in the malignant sera.

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Article
FLOW INJECTION- SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF AMOXICILLIN BASED ON ITS OXIDATIVE CONDENSATION WITH 4-AMINOANTIPYRINE
التقدير الطيفي-الحقن الجرياني الاموكسيسيلين بالاعتماد على تكاثفه التاكسديمع 4-امينو انتي بايرين

Authors: Hind Hadi --- Mouayed.Q.Al-Abachi
Pages: 8-15
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Abstract

Simple methods were proposed for the spectrophotometric determination of amoxicillin (AMX) in pharmaceutical formulations . The methods are based on the reaction of AMX with 4-aminoantipyrine (4AAP)) in the presence of potassium persulphate in alkaline medium .The reaction water soluble red colour product is measured at ëmax 510 nm using both batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) approach .The effect of chemical and physical parameters were investigated by univariate method. Under the optimum conditions ,calibration graphs were observed linear from 1-60 and 1-120 ىg mL-1 AMX with detection limits of 0.173 and 0.395 ىg mL-1 AMX by batch and FIA procedure respectively. The relative standard deviations of the proposed methods were less than 0.67 and 0.59 by batch and FIA procedure respectively. The FIA sample throughput was 40 h-1. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of AMX in injections and capsules

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Article
PERIPHERAL LYMPHOCYTE SUB – POPULATIONS ANALYSIS IN HYDATIDOSIS PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT CLINICAL PARAMETERS
تحليل أنواع أجيال الخلايا اللمفاوية المحيطية في مرضى الأكياس العدرية ذوي الدلائلالطبية المختلفة

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Lymphocyte sub-population analysis had been done by indirect and direct immunostaining (CD-markers) technique for eighty- two hydatidosis patients with different clinical parameters. This technique showed, a significant decrease in percentage of CD3, CD4 cells in hydatidosis patients compared to healthy control group,while the results showed that the level of CD8 cells was higer than the control group. The CD4/ CD8 ratio was lower in hydatidosis patients in comparison to the control group.Furthermore, the percentage of CD14 cells of hydatidosis patients was significantly lower than that of the control group,and there was insignificant increase in CD22 of hydatidosis patients in comparison to that of control group.In general,this study showed that there was no significant difference in all types of CD cells percentage between hydatidosis patients in relation to different clinical parameters,except in relation to the size of the cysts.

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Article
EFFECT OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR {CAPTOPRIL}AND SELECTIVE ß1-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS BLOCKER {ATENOLOL} ON PROTEINURIA IN HYPERTENSIVE DIABETIC PATIENTS
تأثيرالعقارالمثبط للإنزيم المحول للانجيوتنسين(كابتوبريل) والعقارالانتقائي الذي يعمل على غلق مستقبلات بيتا 1 (الاتينولول) عل مستويات البروتين في إدرار مرضى داء السكر و فرط ضغط الدم.

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the common health problems. It has many serious complications among them are hypertension and diabetic nephropathy which may lead to renal failure. The first sign of early stage renal of failure or diabetic nephropathy is proteinuria which {presence of an abnormal amount of protein in urine} which leads to hypertension. As its known that hypertensive patients need treatment and those with diabetes and proteinuria need more attention to be given during choosing their antihypertensive medications by using effective drugs with less side effects and comply with many aspects that are looked for by both the physician and the patient. This study was conducted on {28} diabetic patients using insulin for treatment , those patients were newly diagnosed to have hypertension as a complication of diabetes. The medications that are used as antihypertensive for them are either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors{ACEI} or Atenolol{tenormin}. According to the antihypertensive drugs used for treatment they were classified into two groups : Group-A- ACEI patients, and group-B- Atenolol patients. The aim of this study was to find whether Atenolol has an effect on proteinuria or not and to compare this effect if any with ACEI, despite the fact that ACEI has a renoprotective effect on kidney but because Atenolol became widely used for the management of hypertension whatever the aetiology of hypertension. As it is known well that for every medication there are side effects some of them might be serious so Atenolol needed to be used cautiously in diabetic patients because it causes masking of hypoglycemia in addition to other side effects but its widely used by our physicians in diabetic patients so we want to demonstrate here whether it has an effect on the level of proteinuria which might be a cause, or a result of hypertension in diabetic patients, in order to decrease the unwanted side effects on those patients and to pay more attention during choosing the medications used for such patients. Therefore {24} hour urine was collected for each patient and total protein in urine was measured before starting treatment and after different periods from using medications, in addition to monitor blood pressure and blood glucose levels.From the results obtained it was clear that ACEI still the effective drug, it significantly ( p < 0.05) lowers both blood pressure and the level of proteinuria in contrast to Atenolol which was not significant in lowering the level of proteinuria but effectively lowered blood pressure . It was concluded that ACEI still the best to be the first choice medication for diabetic hypertensive patients, while Atenolol needs more attention and follow up for the patients when its decided to be used.

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Article
IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania PARASITES IN CLINICAL SAMPLES OBTAINED FROM CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS PATIENTS USING PCR TECHNIQUE IN IRAQ
التعرف على طفيليات اللشمانيا في العينات السريرية المستحصلة مِنْ المرضى المصابين بالطور الجلدي بإستخدام تقنيةَ سلسلة تفاعل الانزيم المتبلمر في العراق

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Abstract

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease and one of the major health problems in Iraq. Leishmania major is confirmed as the causative agent of CL in this region. In Al- Qadessia province alone, the recorded total cases of CL were 618 from 2005-2007. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for identification and differentiation of the Leishmania parasite in clinical samples. The lesion exudates were collected from 27 suspected patients (12 males and 15 females) and used for smear slide preparations, culture on NNN medium then DNA isolation. The isolated DNA was amplified by PCR, including primers selected on repetitive kDNA for identification of a Leishmania subgenus, and the amplified DNA electrophoreses was done. The PCR results showed that only L. major exists. Our results indicate that the PCR technique is sensitive and specific for the detection and differentiation of agents of CL in this area.

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Article
ASCORBIC ACID INDUCED LOSS OF AN ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PLASMID IN Serratia marcescens
تحفيز فقدان بلازميد المقاومة للمضادات الحيوية في بكتريا Serratia marcescens باستخدام حامض الاسكوريك

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Four bacterial isolates Serratia marcescens (S. m.1, S. m.2, S. m3, S. m.4) were tested for their resistance toward ten Antibiotics which consider the most common usage in the hospitals in the country by antibiotic disc method. The isolate S. m.1 was selected according to the antibiotic resistance results since it was resist for several antibiotics and four of these antibiotics were chosen because of the previous researches referred to that these features are carried by plasmid which is Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Tetracyclin and Chloramphenicol and used as a plasmid markers, the DNA of the isolate S. m.1 was contain a plasmid band , the Ascorbic acid used in different concentrations as a curing agent for the bacteria S. marcescens plasmids, the results of the curing experiment showed that the curing of S. marcescens with ascorbic acid was succeeded in 0.67 %, the cured bacteria isolate have lost its ability to resist the four antibiotics which the mother isolate was resist, and the plasmid DNA extraction for the cured bacteria result showed that the cured bacteria have lost the plasmid band which confirm that this plasmid which coded for Antibiotic resistance feature against the four antibiotics mentioned above.

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Article
TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON THE GELATION PROCESS OF TETRAETHYLORTHOSILICATE USING SOL-GEL TECHNIQUE
تاثير درجة الحرارة على عملية التحول الى حالة الجل لمادة التترااثيل اورثوسيليكات باستخدام تقانة سول – جل

Authors: Wesam A. A. Twej
Pages: 43-49
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been investigated. The Investigations are made with three variable parameters: water to TEOS molar ratios (1.4, 2, and 10), different pH values and reaction temperatures (25, 40 and 55 ◦C). The study shows that, the reaction temperatures have different effects on the gelling time according to other sol-gel preparation parameters. The values of the activation energy (Ea) were estimated to be approximately the same in the studied range of initial hydrolysis ratio 1.4, 2, 10, slightly varying around 21.2 kJ.mol-1, when the recipes derived under tightly closed cover. While under open recipe and with R-ratio equal to 1.4, Ea rises to 37.2 kJ.mol-1.

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Article
RE-EXAMINATION THE EXACT CENTER OF MASS CORRECTION FOR LONGITUDINAL ELECTRO-EXCITATION FROM FACTORS OF 13C NUCLEUS
إعادة إختبار التصحيح الدقيق لمركز الكتلة على عوامل التشكل الطولية الاستطارة الالكترونية لنواة13C

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The inelastic longitudinal electron scattering form factors are calculated for the low-lying excited states of 13C with Jπ T= 3/2- 1/2 (3.684 MeV) and 5/2- 1/2 (7.55 MeV). The two-body interaction of Cohen and Kurath is used to generate the 1p-shell wave functions. The exact value of the center of mass correction which is calculated in the translation invariant shell model (TISM) is included, giving good results. The data are well reproduced when the core polarization effects are included through effective nucleon charge. A higher 2p-shell configuration enhances the form factors for q-values and resolves many discrepancies with the experiments. The results are compared with other theoretical models.

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Article
HYDROGEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CRETACEOUS STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS EXPOSED ALONG THE NORTH-EASTERN LIMB OF AZMAR ANTICLINORIUM, SULAIMANY, NE IRAQ
التقييم الهيدروجيولوجي للوحدات الطباقية العائدة الى زمن كريتاسي والمنكشفة على طول الجناح الشمالي الشرقي لطية ازمر سليمانية شمال شرق العراق

Authors: Dara Faiq Hama Amin
Pages: 56-66
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Cretaceous stratigraphic water bearing units were evaluated hydrogeologically in combination with hydraulic parameters derived from single (productive) well test. The main recharge of water bearing units comes from percolation of precipitation. Generally all the tested wells taping water bearing units are productive wells and partially penetrating. The transmissivity values obtained by recovery test methods both by INFINITE EXTENT and AQTESOLVE 4.02 software programs reveal as high as double values calculated by constant pumping test methods, particularly for the Balambo aquifer, thus constant pumping test results were employed. While results for the Tanjero Formation are close and similar, therefore both methods were considered in calculating aquifer parameters. Some new hydrogeologic classification for those stratigraphic units was proposed and outlined under the section of hydrogeology. The groundwater flows from the NE limb of Azmar towards the east and north east directions. The hydraulic gradient is steeper within the Balambo aquifer, while it is gentler within the Tanjero aquitard. Drawdown of about 60m will be expected by the discharge of 432m3/day in the first 4 hours of pumping after which the Tanjero aquitard may approach the steady state and the drawdown may be minor. The groundwater storage in the Balambo aquifer indicates considerable volume that sustained water for long period in the region. Moreover, increasing drilling wells that associated with growing tourist activity and irrigation projects in the recent years, may affect most of the area within the Tanjero Formation, while this effect is limited within the Balambo aquifer system.

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Article
PREDICTION OF RESERVOIR PERMEABILITY FROM WIRE LOGS DATA USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
تخمين نفاذية صخور المكمن النفطي من قراءات المجسات البئرية باستخدام تقنيةالشبكات العصبية الصناعية

Authors: Amnah M. Handhel
Pages: 67-74
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This paper presents a methodology to predict reservoir permeability from well logs data by using an artificial intelligence technique namely artificial neural network. A multilayered perceptron trained by backpropagation algorithm was used to build the predictive model. The performance of the net results was measured by correlation coefficient. The implemented artificial neural network model is demonstrated by applying it to Mishrif limestone reservoir at Nasyria oil field, south of Iraq. The results show that artificial neural network was capable of reproducing permeability (horizontal and vertical) with very high accuracy, so that the calculated correlation coefficients for horizontal and vertical permeability were 0.85 and 0.90, respectively. The results could be generalized to other field after examining new data, and a regional study might be possible to study reservoir properties in south of Iraq with cheap and very fast constructed models.

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Article
A NEW REGIONAL APPROACH FOR FREE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER SYSTEMS
طريقة جديدة لمنطقة بالأنظمة التوزيعية الحرة

Authors: Naseif Jasim Al-Jawari
Pages: 75-83
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The aim of this paper is to develop a new approach based on state exponential estimator. More precisely, we extend the notion of regional exponential observability as in ref. [1] to the case where the dynamical systems are uncontrolled (F-systems). For different sensors, we give the characterizations of regional exponential free observer in order that exponential free observability can be achieved. Furthermore, we show that, there exists a dynamical F-system for distributed diffusion F-system is not exponential F-observable in the usual sense, but it may be regional exponential F-observable.

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Article
ON ORTHOGONAL REVERSE DERIVATIONSOF SEMIPRIME RINGS
حول تعامد المشتقات المتعاكسة في الحلقات شبه الاولية

Authors: Abdul Rhman.H.Majeed
Pages: 84-88
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In this paper some results concerning two reverse derivations on semiprime rings are presented. These results are related to a result which is inspired by the classical result of E. Posner. This result is asserts that if R is a 2- torsion free semiprime ring, f and h are non-zero reverse derivations of R. Then f h can not be a non-zero derivation. A notion of orthogonal reverse derivations arises here.
Key word and phrases: prime ring, semi-prime ring, derivation, reverse derivation, orthogonal reverse derivation.

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A DIPLOID GENETIC ALGORITHM WITH EXOGENOUS RECOMBINATION FOR BREAKING MERKLE-HELLMAN KNAPSACK
الخوارزمية الجينية الثنائية مع اعادة تجميع الابعاد لكسر حقيبة ميركل هيلمان

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Cryptanalysis is the science and study of methods of breaking cryptographic techniques. Cryptanalytic attack on Merkle-Hellman knapsack using Genetic Algorithm (GA) was done by Spillman. Then Garg et al improved the Spillman GA. The objective of this paper is to harness the power of GA used by Garg et al. to get more reliable results and in less computation time. This paper utilizes a GA, known as diploid GA with exogenous recombination scheme for translating each number in ciphertext into the correct ASCII code for the plaintext characters. Our results are compared with Garg et al. result and they proved that diploid GA with exogenous recombination scheme is more efficient and highly successful in finding the correct bit pattern for the hard knapsack sum.

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Article
INTRA CORRELATION DESTRUCTION TECHNIQUEFOR ENCRYPTION DATA
تقنية تحطيم الترابط الداخلي لتشفير البيانات

Authors: Alaa Noori Mazher
Pages: 94-100
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The need for efficient technique for data encryption is clear. Our attention will be devoted to design hybrid technique which, consists of simple and efficient methods such as RLE, vector substitution, and matrix operations. The adopted technique consists of three stages. Each stage contains a specific tool that is suitable for varied type of data such as text, image, and video .In first stage, different methods could be applied depending on the source data format: applying Run Length Encoding (RLE) and Addition Neighboring Element (ANE) to the image, audio and video, while pattern matching is applied to text file format . Stage two involves matrix manipulation and rotation. Element substitution is implemented to the matrix in third stage; a key substitution matrix is used for the process of substituting elements of the matrix. The key matrix will be sent to the destination receiver in order to enable him or her to reconstruct the original data. Finally it must be mentioned that a good result have been obtained using arbitrary plain text and standard image (Leena), where some investigations proved that it is so hard to break the encrypted data.

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Article
AN ADAPTIVE IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY COMPRESSION METHOD BASED ON DWT
طريقة ضغط وإخفاء مطورة للصور تعتمد التحويل المويجي

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Steganography is the art of hiding messages in an unsuspected cover. The aim of this paper is to hide larger number of multi messages inside one cover image depending, using the low-low-block-features LLBF of wavelet transformation. The method of embedding messages based on Least-Significant-Bit (LSB) of cover image. The imperceptibility of the messages and cover images is assessed by using the Mean- Square-Error (MSE), the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and the image histogram.

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Article
DIGIT RECOGNITION USING FRACTAL AND MOMENT INVARIANTS
تمييز الارقام باستخدام الكسوريات والعزوم الثابتة

Authors: Bushra Q.Al-Abudi
Pages: 110-119
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This paper presents quantitative and qualitative methods based on fractal geometry and invariants moment to recognize the printed or handwritten digits. The fractal features are computed for the area of image segment within the frame. The analysis of the results showed that the fractal dimension can be recognized different digits printed at same font size, but it can not distinguish the printed digits or handwritten at different font sizes. The lacunarity appears high ability in recognizing printed or handwritten digits at different font sizes. The investigation of fractal description efficiency necessitates comparing the fractal performance with a common moment descriptor used in this field. The comparison proved that the fractal geometry possess high digit recognition capabilities and it gave 93% score of recognizing the printed digits during 6.6 s and 71% to recognize handwritten digit during 6.8 s, which is greater than the corresponding values 81% and 64% scores during 1.5s and 1.7 s, respectively given by the moments.

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Article
DISTRIBUTION OF HLA POLYMORPHISM IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI ARABS IN COMPARISON WITH THREE ARAB GULF POPULATIONS
توزيع تعدد الأشكال الوراثي لمستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية (HLA) في عينة من العراقيين العرب وبالمقارنة مع ثلاث مجاميع سكانية خليجية

Authors: Ali H. Ad'hiah
Pages: 120-125
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The HLA-class I (A and B) and -class II (DR and DQ) alleles were investigated in 145 (72 males and 73 females) unrelated Iraqi Arabs, and their percentage frequencies were compared with the corresponding frequencies in three populations of the Arabian Gulf region (Kuwaitis, Saudis and Omanis). At HLA-A locus, the distribution of the alleles showed no significant difference, while alleles of HLA-B, -DR and -DQ loci showed a significant different distribution in the four populations, especially, B and DR loci. These findings point to differences in the origins of these four distinct Arabic-speaking communities, brought about possibly by an evolutionary recent admixture of the original inhabitants with neighboring and distant populations, although a common ancestor is clear and a later divergence had occurred during evolution.

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Article
STREPTOCOCCAL THROAT INFECTION AMONG YEMENI CHILDREN
التهاب البلعوم ببكتريا المسبحات القيحية بين الأطفال اليمنيين

Authors: Madha Mohammed Sheet Saleh
Pages: 126-135
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This package was conducted in Taiz/ Yemen as cross sectional study and mainly aimed to determine the prevalence rate of Group Aβ- herrolyhc streptococcus among school age children cases (1-15years) with pharyngitis and/ or tonsillitis. GAβHS was found in 28.6% out of the total 475 throat swab specimens, which were taken from cases with clinical sore throat. A peak of GAβHS bacterial isolates was noticed in the 6-10 years age group. The gender was found of no value as a risk factor in increasing or decreasing the prevalence rate of infection. Other risk factors were found variable in their influence as the family size, which was of high significant effect on the prevalence rate of GAβHS infection, and the seasonal variation as it was found that the highest prevalence rates at winter season (November and December) as well as rainy season (July and August). No association was pointed out between the GAβHS isolates and the results of anti-streptolysin. Antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that amoxicillin was the antibiotic of choice for the presumptive treatment of GAβHS sore throat as 94.3% of the isolates were sensitive for this antibiotic.

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