Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2010 volume:51 issue:2

Article
THE PREPARATION AND LIQUID CRYSTALLINE PROPERTIES OF SOME HOMOLOGUES SERIES OF 1, 2, 4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES
تحضير ودراسة الصفات البلورية السائلة لبعض السلاسل المتشابهة لمشتقات 1، 2، 4- اوكسادايازول

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Abstract

Homologues series of some derivatives of 3, 5-(4-substituted phenyl)-l, 2, 4-oxadiazole were synthesized and their phase behavior was studied. Introduction of the pentagonal hetero aromatic ring leads to significant changes in mesomorphic behavior. The synthesized compounds exhibit nematic phase

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Article
A NOVEL METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TRACE AMOUNTS OF OXYCLOZANID IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL (LEVOZAIN) BY MOLECULAR AND FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY USING GOLD AS COMPLEXING METAL
طريقة مستحدثة لتقدير كميات اثرية من عقار الاوكسي كلوزانيد في المستحضر الصيدلاني (ليفوزان) بتقنيتي الامتصاص الجزيئي والذري اللهبي باستخدام فلز الذهب كعنصر تعقيد

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Abstract

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for determination of trace amounts of (OXC) as (OXC-Au(III)) complex in octane as solvent for extraction the complex. The green-blue soluble product give maximum absorption at 705 nm, Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of (5-35) g.ml-1 with (molar absorptivity = 1.606104 L.mol-1.cm-1), (r = 0.9981), (D.L = 0.0864 g.ml-1), (%RSD = 2.020), with UV-Vis method. When using indirect FAAS a linear range of (2-16) g.ml-1, (r = 0.9992), (%RSD = 2.667), (D.L = 0.0526 g.ml-1) with ( = 6.02105 L.mol-1cm-1). The optimum conditions for colour development are described. The proposed methods have been successfully applied for determination of (OXC) in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations. The common excipients and additives did not interfere in this method.

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Article
ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR SEVERAL QUALITITIV CHARACTERS IN HYBRIDS OF TOBACCO AT OPEN FIELD
تقدير المعالم الوراثية لبعض الصفات النوعية في هجن التبغ المزروع في الحقل المكشوف

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Abstract

Full diallel crosses conducted to develop tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) hybrids using three cultivars; Corjo (A), Sumer48 (B) and Croillo (C), during 2004. Hybrid trail carried out at the open field using Randomized Complete Block Desighn with 3 parents, 6 hybrids and 2 control, Habana and CV. 48.Significant differences were found among studied characters except the pH of the tobacco. The hybrid (AxB) had higher percentage of nicotine (2.62%), ash (9.60) and sugar percentage (8.01), while the hybrids (AxC) and (BxC) revealed highest burning speed (0.056 & 0.055). Several crosses revealed positive and negative heterosis in the studied traits. Genetic analysis showed that the studied characters were under non additive gene action. It was concluded that the hybridization is the best method to improve those traits.

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Article
BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS, Beauveria Bassiana (BALSAMO) VUILLEMIN ON THE POTATO TUBER MOTH, Phthorimaea Operculella (SELLER
التأثير البايولوجي للمسبب المرضي الفطر (BALSAMO) VUILLEMIN Beauveria Bassiana على عثة درنات البطاطا Phthorimaea Operculella (SELLER)

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Abstract

This study has been carried to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana on the various developmental stages of Phthorimaea operculella. Both first and second instars larvae were more susceptible than the third and fourth instars. The infected prepupae and pupae resulted in marked decreases in the emergence and longevity of moths, deposited eggs and egg hatchability. An obvious increase in the pupal duration was observed and malformed adults were also recorded. The latent was markedly obvious, especially in high doses of B. bassiana.

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Article
DISTRIBUTION AND CIRCULATION OF CHROMIUM (Cr) AND CADMIUM (Cd) METALS IN TIGRIS RIVER
توزيع ودورة عنصري الكروم والكادميوم في نهر دجلة

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Abstract

The distribution and circulation of chromium and Cadmium in Tigris river were estimated over a period (2001–2002). Significant difference was observed in the concentration of these metals in any component of the homomorph model in studied area. Result obtained were in agreement with those reported for heavy metal concentrations in other polluted ecosystems. All components of the ecosystem were involved in the circulation of the heavy metals either by accumulation or concentrations processes.

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Article
STUDY OF THALLIUM INTOXICATION IN BROILER CHICKS
دراسة حول التسمم بالثاليوم في أفراخ دجاج اللحم

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Abstract

The study of thallium intoxication on 120 broiler chicken by using different doses of thallium, 0.2; .5 and 1.0 mg/kg. B.Wt. it was observed that the clinical sign, bloody diarrhea, appeared in the last ten days of the experiment. In second and third group the pathologic changes was hemorrhages and edema of skeletal muscles and brain. Petechial hemorrhage in the testis, ovary and thyroid gland. The histopathological changes were comprised of hyperplasia, cellular, infiltration in the thyroid gland, narrow cortex of the ovary, in the brain there were remarkable edema with perivascular cuffing and loss of purkinge cells in the cerebellum. The results suggest that thallium was accumulative.

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Article
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE, ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AND IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN SERUM AND SALIVA OF ACUTE LEUKEMIA AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS
دراسة مقارنة لأنزيمي اللاكتيت ديهايدروجيني والفوسفاتيز القاعدي والبروتينات المناعية في مصل ولعاب مرض ابيضاض الدم الحاد وسرطان الفم الحرشفي

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Abstract

Biochemical changes have been occurring in biological fluids and tissues of different types of malignancies. Most molecules found in blood and urine are found in saliva, but their concentrations were estimated to be one tenth to one thousandth of that in the blood. The present study aims to measure the levels of Lactate dehydrogenase & Alkaline phpsphatase enzymes and Immunoglobulins in serum and saliva of Acute Leukemia (AL) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and apparantly healthy individuals as control group. Unstimulated (resting) saliva and serum were collected from 70 newly diagnosed, untreated AL patients and 20 OSCC patients, in addition to 20 healthy individuals and 12 adults with periodontitis. According to the results of this study, serum and saliva enzymes showed a significant increase in Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) levels of AL and OSCC in comparison to control group. Serum and saliva IgG showed non significant increase, whereas IgA level was reduced and IgM showed significant increase in AL patients in comparison to the control group. Results on OSCC patients showed a significantly increase in serum and saliva immunoglobulins but saliva IgA was reduced in comparison to control group. The levels of serum LDH and ALP in AL patients were higher than that in OSCC patients, whereas the levels of saliva LDH and ALP in AL were lower than that of OSCC patients. The serum IgG and IgM levels were higher in AL patients than that of OSCC patients, whereas serum IgA was lower in AL patients. Saliva immunoglobulins were higher in OSCC patients than that of AL patients. In conclusion, a disseminates malignancy, like AL, causes changes in the levels of Lactate dehydrogenase and Alkaline phosphatase in blood as well as in saliva. However, the changes in blood are more striking than that is saliva while in a local malignancy like OSCC, the changes are more prominent in saliva than that in blood.

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Article
GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF SOME BACTERIAL ISOLATES IN UTILIZATION OF HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS
تحسين وراثي لبعض العزلات البكتيرية في استهلاك المركبات الهايدروكاربونية

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Abstract

Six bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pseudomonas were selected for their high ability to utilize crude oil. These isolates showed a diverge ability for utilization of different hydrocarbon compounds and 2 isolates (P. aeruginosa RB19 and Pseudomonas sp. RB29) were able to utilize all the tested compounds except tetrahydrofuran, sodium toluate and trans–1, 2–diphenylethylene. Conjugation between P. aeruginosa RB19 and P. aeruginosa RB27 was made in an attempt to obtain bacterial isolates, capable to utilize a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds. The conjugation was successful and a number of transconjugants were obtained. All transconjugants were able to utilize sodium toluate, and some of these transconjugants were able to utilize salicylic acid. This indicated that P. aeruginosa RB27 was the recipient bacterium which received pSR202 plasmid (responsible for salicylic acid and benzoate utilization) from P. aeruginosa RB19.

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Article
EFFECT OF ADDING Piminella Anisum and Nigella Sativa SEEDS ON QUALITY PROPERTIES OF LABORATORY SHORTENED CAKE
تأثير إضافة بذور اليانسون والحبة السوداء في الخواص النوعية للكيك المقصر المختبري

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of Pimpinella anisum (PA) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds in different percentages on the physical, sensory and microbial properties of the shortened cake. The results revealed that cake size of treatments 3 (0+3%PA and NS) and 6 (2+1% PA and NS) were significantly lager than that of treatmant (1) control. The results of sensory evaluation showed that treatments 2 (1.5+1.5% PA and NS), 3, 4 (3+0%PA and NS), 5 (1+2%PA and NS) and 6 were not significantly higher than the control in the overall acceptance. Treatments 4 and 6 gained higher score of overall acceptance than treatments 2, 3 and 5. Other treatments, however, did not show significant differences in comparison with control in the weight lose percentage of cake, cake size and overall acceptance. In regards with microbial tests it was found that the highest yeast number was in treatment 2 and the lowest in treatmeat 3 of the cake stored at 24ºC for 3 days , while the number of yeasts was highest in treatment 2 and lowest in treatment 4 of the cake stored at 28ºC for 9 days. Regarding bacteria and molds, however, no growth was observed in all treatments except treatment 1, while growth of gram positive bacteria was shown after 3 days of storing cake at 37ºC .It can be concluded that the best treatment from the standpoint of cake size was treatment 6. This treatment comes second after treatment 4 concerning the overall acceptance. In addition to that cake of treatment 6 retained its softness at 24 – 28 ºC for 9 days in comparison with treatment 1. Therefore, the PA and NS seeds are considered flavoring materials as well as inhibitors of bacteria and molds in the cake stored at 24 – 37 ºC for 9 days.

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Article
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CHOLESTEROL OXIDASE PRODUCING Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
عزل وتشخيص بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa المنتجة لإنزيم كولسترول أوكسيديز

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Abstract

Cholesterol oxidase (EC:1.1.3.6) is industrially and commercially important for the application in bioconversions for clinical determination of total or free serum cholesterol, and in food industry, for this reason this study was aimed to isolate cholesterol oxidase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different local sources, by taking 55 swap samples from different serological samples includes ears, urine, burns, wounds and sputum, in addition to another 35 environmental samples collected from soil and water from different locations in Baghdad governorate. From these samples 115 bacterial isolate were obtained, and among them only 60 isolate were identified as P. aeruginosa according to the results of biochemical tests and Api 20E system. Ability of these isolates in cholesterol oxidase production was screened in Lauria-Broth medium. Results showed that all of these 60 isolates were able to produce cholesterol oxidase with variable capacities, among them P.aeruginosa H48 was the most efficient isolate in enzyme production. The activity of crude enzyme in culture filtrate of this isolate was 1.71 U/ml. Cholesterol oxidase produced by P.aeruginosa H48 was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (70% saturation), dialysis and ion exchange chromatography using CM–cellulose.The enzyme activity of the partially purified enzyme was increased to 3.87 U/ml. Optimum pH and temperature for activity and stability of the partially purified enzyme were estimated. Results showed that the Optimum pH for enzyme activity and stability was pH7.0 and pH 6.5 respectively, while the optimum temperature for enzyme activity and stability was 35 and 37°C respectively.

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Article
PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF L-ASPARAGINASE ISOLATED FROM Escherichia coli
التنقية الجزئية والفعالية السمية الخلوية لانزيم الاسباراجينيز المعزول من بكتريا القولون

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Abstract

L-Asparaginase (E.C.3.5.1.1) is an important natural product that possesses a broad spectrum of antitumor activity. In the present study, L-asparaginase partially purified from local isolate of Escherichia coli that were grown aerobically for four hours and anaerobically for 18hrs on M9 medium contain L-asparagine as sole nitrogen source. Extraction of the enzyme was done by sonication. Qualitative and quantitative assays for L-Asparaginase production were determined using colorimetric and nesslerization methods respectively. The purification steps involve dialysis of crude extract and DEAE-Cellulose Ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme was purified 3.39-folds and showed a final specific activity of 0.18 U/mg with a 41% yield. The crude extract and DEAE-Cellulose fractions showed slight growth inhibition against RD cell line (human rhambdomyo sarcoma).

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Article
OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL-CHLORIDE (PVC) FILMS
الخصائص البصرية و الكهربائية لأغشية بوليفينيل-كلورايد (PVC)

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Abstract

The optical properties of the polyvinyl-chloride thin films were studied which include their absorbance, transmittance, reflectance spectra, band gap, and refractive index, before and after annealing at for . The films were found to exhibit high transmittance, low absorbance and low reflectance in the visible, and near infrared region up to 1100nm. However, the absorbance of the films was found to be high in the ultra violet region with peak around 306nm. The dielectric constant , dielectric loss , and ac conductivity of polyvinyl-chloride were obtained at different frequencies and temperatures. The experimental results show that  and  decreased with increasing frequency, which indicates that the major contribution to the polarization comes from orientation polarization. The value of  increased with increasing temperature, which is due to great freedom of movement of the dipole molecular chains at high temperature.

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Article
NEW METHOD FOR EVALUATING GIBBS FREE ENERGY IN SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
حساب الطاقة الحرة لشبائك المواد الصلبة الذكية نظريا

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Abstract

Smart materials or shape memory alloys have a wide range of important applications in our time, They are used in the medical field, the main parts that are used in surgical operations by computers made of these materials, because of unique properties of this kind of alloys where it can automatically retrieve forms and accurately with the change of ambient temperature or with the change of pressure imposed on it or a magnetic field (or electric) Surrounding. Thus, it becomes possible for a specialist to give the desired shape during the development of the alloy in the vicinity of a temperature equal to the temperature of the human body and then pull this alloy from the oven then in room temperature it will have the ingot form would facilitate the introduction into the patient's body through the events of wound smaller than if the process was conducted through regular, As in modern operations to widen the arteries and directed by gravel from the kidneys eliminate malignant tumors and other surgical procedures other. As also used in manufacturing aircraft wings where the wing changes shape with changing temperatures of the upper atmosphere. Also used in the very small motor industry because of the ability of its molecules to interact with the surrounding magnetic field or by changing the pressure imposed on it. A new way for the evaluation of the Gibbs free energy for the shape memory alloys at any point within the specimen at the end of the transformation is developed. In contrast with our previous model , which is limited in practice to the whole specimen , this model is valid for length scales specified by the a, b, c for the parent and the emberio lattice and controlled by the transformation matrices.

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Article
ASSESSMENT OF USING ARC GIS TO DETERMINE SOME LANDFORMS IN AL-SALMAN DEPRESSION/SOUTH IRAQ
تقييم استخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية لتحديد بعض الاشكال الارضية في منخفض السلمان / جنوب العراق

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Abstract

The study area lies south west to Al- Muthanna governorate; it is about 140 km away from the governorate center. The study area is about 1296 km2, between longitudes 44° 24` – 44° 41` Easting, Latitude 30° 18` – 30° 44` Northing. Space data used in this research is Landsat 7 images by the sensors ETMÑ 2000 beside the DEM image product by Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM. Using the present technique we can recognize the landforms in the area depending on characteristics in Arc GIS program and the ability in the program, as well as, accuracy of the program which become simulating with features in field. The sketch technique was done by using DEM image associated with tools box in Arc GIS program. In order to increase the accuracy of the results we used the "Hill Shade" method and adding some orders like "Aspect" and "Sink". From this technique we conclude that Hill shade method enables us to recognized depressions, structural plains, and pediments. And from Aspect we can recognize the slope direction while the Sink order we can recognized the sinkholes in the study area.

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Article
MODULES HAVING (WEAK-S*) PROPERTY
المقاســــــات ذات الخاصيــــــة S* الضعيفـــــة

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Let R be a non zero ring with identity and let M be a non zero module over R. An R-module M is called cosingular if Z*(M)=M where Z*(M)={m  M, mR<

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Article
CENTRALIZING MAPPINGS OF PRIME AND SEMIPRIME *-RINGS
الـــدوال في الحلقـــــــات-* الاوليــــة وشبـــــه الاوليــــــــة

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In this paper we prove the following result. Let R be a non-commutative prime*-ring of characteristic different from 2, then R is normal *-ring if and only if there exists a nonzero Jordan*-derivation d: R→R be which satisfies [d(x), x]  Z(R) for all x  R, and [d(h),s]  Z(R) or [d(s), h]  Z(R) for all h  H(R), s  S(R).

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Article
DCT IMAGE COMPRESSION USING SLIDING RLE TECHNIQUE
ضغط الصور بطريقة تحويل الجيب تمام المتقطع بأستخدام تقنية الانزلاق التشفيري بحساب طول الخطوة

Authors: Nushwan Yousif Baithoon
Pages: 324-328
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Abstract

The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is a method for converting a signal into plain frequency components. It is extensively used in image compression. In this paper a new technique is proposed, namely SRLE (Sliding Run Length Encoding) which is based on a lossy compression, and used to enhance image data compression. Image quality is measured impartially, using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) or picture quality scale, and individually using perceived image quality with compression factor (CF) being the main theme of this paper, taking into consideration the preservation of well PSNR outputs. The performance of DCT compression generally degrades low bit-rates mainly because of the underlying block-based DCT scheme. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SRLE approach, in terms of PSNR, CF and execution time, over different mechanisms used with DCT image compression. The new technique also proved to have favourable results in terms of PSNR and CF when compared with some wavelet based image compression.

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Article
AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY BASED ON SIGNAL MODULATION IN WAVELET DOMAIN
الاخفاء في الصوت باستخدام تضمين الاشارة في المجال المويجي

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In this paper, an audio steganography system is proposed to hide a sequence of binary digits (bits) in digital audio data. The hiding method is based on applying amplitude modulation technique on wavelet transform coefficients. The embedding schema implies partitioning the audio signal (cover) into a number of non overlap slices, then the average of AC energy of all slices are examined; and the slices have the highest energy are considered as good hosts for secret bit. The shift in coefficients values, caused by embedding process, may cause modification in the energy status of the host slice; this problem is avoided by applying an algebraic manipulation so as to ensure that the extraction detector can to correctly identify the audio host slices. Bits insertion is done by transforming the selected host slices into wavelet domain using the biorthogonal tap (97) wavelet filters. Then, some of the highly valued coefficients of the high frequency subband are quantized to use them to host the secret bits {0, 1} by adding or subtracting a modulation step. The test results indicated that a perfect retrieval of secret bits could attained, while the hiding rate is small and the quality of stego objects is high.

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Article
EDGE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES BASED ON MINIMUM EIGEN VALUES OF THE IMAGE PIXELS
تقانة تحسين الحواف بأعتماد تعيير قيم الصورة بأستخدام القيم الذاتية الصغرى

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In this paper, an modify minimum eigen values technique is introduced to detect edge points and outline the boundaries of objects within an image. The presented edge method is performed by utilizing 3×3 and 5×5 windows, and counting the eigenvalues within each. The minimum eigen value then adopted to replace the window's center which finally produces an image. Two types of image samples were used to test the propused method. Sobel type of edge detection then was applied and the results were better in edge detection obviously.

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Article
DETERMINING OF NEUTRAL AND UNSTABLE WIND PROFILES OVER BAGHDAD CITY
تحديد مقاطع الرياح المتعادلة والغير مستقرة فوق مدينة بغداد

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This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of slow-response observations taken over the centre of Baghdad city (Bab Al-Mhadham area). Measurements were taken at two levels: 15 and 20 m and then wind speed profiles were derived according to atmospheric stability indicated by Richardson number in the lower part of planetary boundary layer. These profiles were constructed by logarithmic and power-exponent laws after checking estimated winds at the same heights by these laws with those observed. The estimated values of wind at these levels were in good agreement with observed values. Mean wind profiles calculated from both laws have logarithmic behavior especially in neutral conditions. They have the same shape and values at lower heights up to 50 m and then gradually deviate from each other over this height. Lastly, drag coefficient at each level was calculated and then its results found to be constant over neutral regime and increased with increasing instability.

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