Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2010 volume:51 issue:3

Article
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION SOME THE PATHOGENIC AGENTS FROM ACUTE SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA (ASOM) IN CHILDREN IN AL-DIWANIYA CITY AND THEIR SENSITIVITY TEST AGAINST SOE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN VITRO
عزل وتشخيص بعض المسببات المرضية من حالات ألتهاب الأذن الوسطى الحاد (ASOM) عند الأطفال في مدينة الديوانية واختبار حساسيتها الدوائية تجاه بعض مضادات الحياة مختبريا

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Abstract

The present study entalid collection of (50) ear swabs from children patients suffering from Acute suppurative Otitis Media (ASOM) carried at the E.N.T section of the teaching hospital in AL-Diwaniya a City. Whose ages ranged between (1 day- 5 years) during the Period from October 2006 until Jun 2007. The aim of these study is to isolate dominant pathogenic causes and responsible of (ASOM) in Children and effect of some antibiotics on this causes.Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was the dominant cause of Acute suppurative otitis media with the percentage of 49. 23%. Followed by Candida albicans with the percentage of 30.76%, Proteus vulgaris 6.15%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4.61 B-haemolytic streptococci, Klebsiella Pneumoniae Haemophilous influeenzae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter clocase, Moraxella catarrhalis with percentage 1.53% Results showed that 80% of the infection cases were caused by one pathogenic factor and 20% of them but more than one factor. The sensitivity test showed that staph. aureus bacteria had the highest Sensitivity to vancomycin 96.87%, Amikacin 78.12%, Tobromycin 68.74% and ciprofloxacin 65%, While showed lowest sensitivity to Lincomycin 3.12% while Proyeus vulgaris showed highest sensitivity to vancomycin 100%, Trobromycin 75%, Amikacin and ciprofloxacin with other antibiotic 50% and showed lowest sensitivity to Tetracyclin with other antibiotics 25%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria showed highest sensitivity to vancomycin and Amikacin 100%. Tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin with other antibiotics 66.66% while showed lowest sensitivity to Tobramycin and other antibiotics 33.33%. the results of synergistic antibiotics effect on Staph aureus showed the effect between Amikacin with (Tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline) had a parentage of 90.47% whilethe synergistic, effect between Tobromycin and (Amikacin , ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline) hada percentage of 42.85%.While synergistic effect on Proteus vulgaris showed the effect between Amikacin with (Tobromycin, ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline) had percentage of 50%. While synergistic effect between Tobromycin and (Amikacin, ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline) had a percentage of 66.66%. The results showed that Candida albicans isolates had the highest sensitivity to Nystatin with inhibition zone rate (10, 11.8, 18.76) mm, Miconazole (0, 8, 15.3) mm, ketoconazole (10, 9.6,14.94) mm, Fluconazole (0, 9.6, 12.6) mm, Griseofulvin (0, 0, 6) mm.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF CRUDE PLANTAGO MAJOR LEAVES EXTRACT ON CYTOGENETIC OF HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES
تأثير المستخلص الخام لأوراق نبات لسان الحمل الكبيرPlantago major في وراثة الخلايا اللمفاوية البشرية

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Abstract

The results revealed the reduction effect of Mitotic Index and Blast Index by higher concentration after 1 hr. exposure time significantly but all of the lower concentration showed none significant changes on them. The same result was indicated when cells treated with exposure 10µg/ml of extract for 48h; BI was decrease. The extract has no toxic effect on lymphocyte at concentration 1 and 10µg/ml for 48h of treatment. After 72h of exposure time BI was significantly decreased while different values in MI were seen when cells treat with 1-100 µg/ml of extract. Moreover mitosis was inhibited at high concentrations of extract. The effect of crude extract on human lymphocyte without mitogen (PHA) was studied at different exposure time showed no mitosis. Using different concentrations of crude extract in replacement of colchicin showed mitotic cell without any significance in comparison with control. Maximum mitotic index and blast index were appeared in 100µg/ml of crude extract (5.418, 39.824) respectively.

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Article
FULL DIALLEL CROSSES AND ESTIMATION GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR SOME QUALITATIVE CHARACTERS OF TOBACCO HYBRIDS IN GREEN HOUSE
التضريب التبادلي الكامل وتقدير المعالم الوراثية لبعض الصفات النوعية في هجن التبغ في البيت الزجاجي

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Abstract

Full diallel crosses conducted to develop tobacco hybrids using three cultivars; Corjo (A), Sumer48 (B) and Croillo (C), during 2004, Hybrid trail carried out in the green house using Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 parents, 6 hybrids and 2 control, Habana and CV. 48.Significant differences were found among parents and hybrids in studied characters except necotin and ash percentages. The crosses (AxB) and (BxC) superior in pH (6.71 & 6.37), while the crosses (AxB) superior in sugar percentage, the reciprocal hybrid (BXA) had highest burne speed (0.101 mm/sec.). Genetic parameters analysis revealed, that average degree of dominance were higher than one, broad sence heratibiliy, also highest, narrow sence heratibility were lowest. It was recommended hybridization method in the improvement of pH, burne speed and sugar percentage of tobacco, using best hybrid (AXB).

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Article
THE EFFECT OF INFESTATION OF TERMITE Microceritermes diversus (SILVESTRI) (INSECTA:ISOPTERA) ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SOME DATE PALMS CULTIVARS IN IRAQ
دراسة تأثير أصابة حشرة الأرضة Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) (Insecta: Isoptera) على أنتاجية بعض أصناف نخلة التمر في العراق

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the termite Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) on the productivity of some date palm cultivars in 5 governorates of Iraq: Babylon, Waset, Kerbela, Qadesyia and Basrah. It was found that the percentages of infestation in general for the following cultivars: 32.6% for Hellawy, for Zehdy was 29.5% and then infestation decreased gradually within cultivars and lowest percentage was 6.1% for Berhy, The percentages of infestation for governorates level were the highest in Waset for Zehdy was 45.5% and lowest for Berhy, was 6.1% in Basrah. This confirms that Zehdy was more susceptible than other cultivars for infestation by termite M. diversus, many factors are interference to increase the percentage of infestation, like shortage of agricultural practices also never performance protection control and controlling when the infestation happen and carelessness to orchard by owners or by renters that affect on average the production of date palm tree then on general production of orchard and lead to death numerous of date palm trees.

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Article
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON SALMONELLA SPP ISOLATED FROM GOAT IN SOME PROVINCES IN MIDDLE OF IRAQ
دراسة وبائية لجراثيم السالمونيلا المعزولة من الماعز في بعض محافظات وسط العراق

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Abstract

This study aimed to isolate salmonella bacteria from the goats in the four goverenent in central Iraq (Babylon, Karbala, Najaf, Baghdad), where the number of animals examined 710 head goats in the fields and slaughter houses, 350 samples of feces from 350 animals from the fields while the number of animals at slaughter houses 360 collected from them 360 fecal samples and 1440 samples from different organs (the gall bladder , the intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen) for the purpose of bacterial isolation serological diagnosis. fifty one (51) Salmonella isolates were isolated from the feces and organs at a percentage (2.37%), and was returning to the four serotypes (S.hato, S.typhimurium, S.hadar, S.enteritidis), serotype S.typhimurium constitute the highest percentage of infection (70.83%). Percentage of infection in field animals 2.29% and highest in Baghdad (4%) and in slaughter house animals the percentage was 4.44% and highest in Babylon (4.9%), The results showed that during six months of study on the goats examined at slaughter houses, and seven months on goats examined in the fields clear difference, and the higest percentage 8.3% in slaughter house and 4% in fields appeared in march. One handerd and ninety three (193) examined animals showed different symptoms (diarrhea , respiratory signs , increased body temperature dullness or more than one symptom) ,but only 11 animals were found infected with Salmonella, the diarrhea constitute high percentage (5.08%), while 517 animals appeared normal (without signs). However, 13 animal gave positive results for Salmonella which constitute 2.52% . In animals from slaughter houses the percentage of infection were varied in examined organs and faeces, in bile duct the percentage was 3.06%, 2.57% for each of the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes and 1.944% from intestine and feces ,while the percentage in feces of field animals showed 2.285%. There was no significant difference between males and females, the percentage of infection recorded in females 3.82%, whereas, in males 2.90%. According to the age the infection percentage was more in animals below six months of age 5.59%. The sensitivity test of the species against antibiotics was studied, the results showed that they are sensitive to (cefotaxime, chloramphenical, trimethoprime sulfamethaxazole, and must species were resistant to ampicillin.

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Article
EVALUATION OF Zingiber officinae Rosc. EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
تقييم فعالية مستخلصات نبات الزنجبيل Zingiber officinale Rosc. المضادة لبعض انواع البكتريا المرضية

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Abstract

This research has been performed to assess the antibacterial efficiencies of the crude extracts of dried rhizome powder of Zingiber officinale plant. These extracts were obtained by using different organic solvents and water. Results revealed that diethylether and ethanolic extracts have shown an inhibitory action upon both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in concentrations between (10–100) mg/ml. Cold water extracts showed higher inhibitory activity than that of the hot water extract. These results obtained by using the well diffusion method. In addition all these results were comparised with some classical antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Amoxycillin, Ampicillin and others. The extracts showed higher inhibitory activity than these antibiotics were used except the extract which was obtained by hot water.

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Article
LEVEL OF TOTAL TUMOR PROTEIN 53 IN THE SERA OF IRAQI BREAST CANCER PATIENTS
مستوى البروتين الورمي 53 الكلي في مصول مريضات سرطان الثدي العراقيات

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Abstract

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. It occurs when abnormal cells in the breast divide uncontrollably and form tumors. Mutation of tumor suppressor gene P53 is a common event in this disease. Level of total tumor protein 53 has been estimated in fifty serologic samples of Iraqi breast cancer patients and (50) of benign breast tumors as patients control in addition to (50) serologic samples which belong to apparently health volunteers. All these patients were attending to the Teaching Hospital of Baghdad and Al-Elwia hospital during the period between October/2007 and (April) 2008. They were diagnosed as having breast cancer by clinical and laboratory investigation as ultrasound waves test and fine needle aspiration (FNA). In addition to TP53, some hematological tests as hemoglobin, pocket cells volume, platelets count and white blood cells count were occurred. The current study revealed that (22%) out of total malignant breast cancer tumor patients were positive, while (8%) out of benign breast tumors patients were positive for TP53. The mean value of TP53 concentration in patients with breast cancer, benign tumors, and apparently healthy groups were (16.47 ± 31.81 pg/ml), (4.13 ± 4.94 pg/ml) and (2.27 ± 0.52pg/ml) respectively, with significant difference between malignant and benign cases. The evaluate TP53 test by application of Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) showed that the accuracy of TP53 was (57%), however its specificity was proposed to be (68%) in comparison with (53.33%) sensitivity.

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Article
PLASMID CURING OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND ITS ROLE IN MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE
تحييد البلازميد لبكتريا Klebsiella pneumoniae المعزولة محليا من التهابات المجاري البولية ودوره في المقاومة المتعددة للمضادات الحيوية

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Curing of plasmid for 7 local isolates of K. pneumoniae have multi-drug resistance and isolated from urinary tract infections (UTI) by using acridin orange and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were investigated. These results showed that the local isolates of K. pneumoniae were very resist (100%) to Ampicillin, Pepracillin, Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Tetracyclin, Erythromycin and Gentamycin, high resist (71–80%) to Cephalexin, Cephalothin, Ceftazidine, Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Tobramycin, moderate resist (43–57%) to Cefaclor, Cephradin and Naldixic acid and weak resist (29%) to Cefotaxime while they were susceptible to Chloramphenicol and Amikacin. t was found that SDS is more efficient in curing than Acridin orange, hence the losing of the resistance of antibiotics by using SDS was in the range (70–100%) while by using Acridin orange was in the range (28– 100%). After curing of plasmid the Antibiotics resistance losed for Pipracillin, Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Cephalexin, Cephalothin, Ceftazidin, Tetracyclin, Gentamycin and Tobramycin, this result confirm that the resistance of these antibiotics is born on plasmid, while the resistance of Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Streptomycin not losed, this result confirm that there resistance genes are born on the chromosome.

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Article
TESTING THE CHLOROFERT 48% Ec IN CONTROLLING THE WHITE FLY Aleuroclava Jasmine TAKAHASHI (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY AND FIELD CONDITION
اختبار فعالية مبيد كلوروفت 48% في مكافحة ذبابة الياسمين البيضاء Aleuroclava Jasmine Takahashi ( Homoptera : Aleyrodidae ) على الحمضيات تحت الظروف المختبرية والحقلية

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The efficacy chlorofert 48% Ec under field and laboratory condition at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 on eggs, nymphs and adults of Aleuroclava Jasmine was investigated in Baghdad region. the result of laboratory show the insecticide give killing percentage 100% on adults after one day from treatment at 0.5 with efficacy 100% and the high killing percentage on nymphs and eggs after one weak from treatment the killing percentage on nymphs 95.3 with efficacy 87.00 at 0.5 and on eggs the killing percentage 61.25 with efficacy 78.00 at 0.5 the result in filed show the high killing percentage after one weak treatment, 1.5 gave 97 killing percentage with efficacy 95% on eggs and 96% killing percentage with efficacy 95 on nymphs .the result show the number of live adults after one day from treatment at 0.5 gave 7.9, 1.0 gave 15.1 and 1.5 gave 7.1 and after three day from treatment 0.5 gave 13.1, 1.0 gave 7.9 and 1.5 gave 7.9 and these results show the number of adults decrease after one weak from treatment at 0.5 gave 12.7, 1.0 gave 5.7 and 1.5 gave 5.1 and the high efficacy 80.8 at 1.5 after one weak from treatment.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF glycyrrhiza glabra AND DIOSPYROS KAKI FRUITS IN INHIBITING THE CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS RESULTED FROM SODIUM SULFATE TREATMENT IN HUMAN LYMPHOCYTE
تأثر مستخلصي عرق السوس وثمرة الكاكي في تثبيط الانحرافات الكروموسومية الناتجة من المعاملة بمادة كبريتيت الصوديوم في الخلايا اللمفية للإنسان

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To study the role of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Diospyros kaki fruits extracts, active compounds were detected. The first extract contained glycoside, tannines, alkaloids, saponines, terpines, steroides, flavones and coumarins, while the second extract contained phenolics and resins in addition to the compounds mentioned above with an exception of alkaloids and coumarins. The inhibition effect of the extracts on the chromosomal aberration resulted from sodium sulfate as mutagenic agent in human lymphocyte cells (In vitro) was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 15, 25, 50, 100 mcg/ml. Results showed increasing in inhibition of the extracts on chromosomal aberration with the increase of the concentrations used and its interaction.

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Article
EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF β-galactosidase FROM NEW BORN SHEEP BRAIN.
استخلاص وتنقية أنزيم β-galactosidase من دمـــاغ الأغـــنام حـــديثة الـــولادة

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β -galactosidase enzyme was extracted from the new born sheep brain by nine solutions, It was found that the0.2 M sodium acetate and 0.2M NaCl give a highest specific activity of crude enzyme. This enzyme was concentrated by four methods, includes: concentration by ammonium sulfate (20-60%); old acetone; ethanol (30%-60%) and by ultra filtration. It was found that the cold acetone was the better. The purification folds were about 124.78 times and yield about 77.39%. The molecular weight of this enzyme about 185.942 Kilo Dalton.

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Article
INHIBITION OF ENZYME ACTIVITY OF Β – GLUCOSIDASE TO PRODUCTION OF EXO -1, 4 – β – GLUCOSIDASE EXTRACTION FROM Trichoderme Viride
تثبيط فعالية الانزيم β - glucosidase لانتاج انزيم Exo -1, 4 – β - glucosidase المستخلص من الفطر Trichoderme viride

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The aim of this work was to inhibition of the enzyme β–glucosidase for the production of the enzyme Exo-1, 4-β-glucosidase that have the power for analysis of cellulose to glucose. The using of the inhibition substance D- glucano - δ - Lacton success to inhibition of β–glucosidase at the concentration 0.45 mg/mL. at 1 minute. The optimum circumstances temperature, pH, and time of fermentation were (45 min., 4.8, 8 day).

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Article
Identification of differences in virulence factors production from UV irradiated isolate of clinical Vibrio cholerae S
تشخيص الاختلافات في انتاج عوامل الضراوة من عزلة مشععة بالأشعة فوق البنفسجية للبكتريا المرضية Vibrio cholerae S

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Mutants from the clinical isolate of Vibrio cholerae S were isolated after UV irradiation on the basis of antibiotic resistance for Rifampcin, Streptomycin and Klindamycin. Results revealed that the highest antibiotic resistant incidence is for Rifampicin after UV exposure for 15 minute. One thousand mutant isolates were examined and showed smaller sized colonies on TSA appeared as smooth and translucence with yellow color on TCBS agar and pale on MacConkey agar. The mutant isolates gave positive results with oxidase and string test. Autoagglutination range from high level order designated +++ to mild ++ and low level designated as +. Only 15% of Rifampicin resistant mutant isolates gave no agglutination phenomenon. UV treated isolates produced delayed type of proteases with no changes in haemolycin and lipases production while, slightly autoagglutination has been detected from these mutant. Twenty out of screened isolates produced 10-30U/ml of CT at non- permissive conditions. The toxin extract from mutant isolates symptoms such as muscle spasm, muscle cramp, exhaustion, trummer and tachycardia in mice after intraperitoneal injection. Erythemal effect and induration in the injected site of Guinea pig skin after intradermal injection remained even after more than one week, with pronounced bleeding detected in the injected area.

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Article
EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF EUGENOL PLANT ON TWO OF CANCEROUS CELLULAR LINES (AMN3) AND NORMAL (REF)
تقييم تأثير مستخلص نبات القرنفل على خط الخلايا السرطانية إلـAMN3 والطبيعية الـREF

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The capacity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Dianthus was studied on two cell lines, which were: many adino carcinoma (AMN3) and normal cell line of Rat embryo fibroblast (REF) in vitro and the effect was evaluated of these extracts It was found that the crude extract of Dinthus contained resins, saponins, flavonoides, comarins and phenols. Aqueous and alcoholic extract of Dianthus showed a high inhibition activity on cancer cell lines in all concentrations used and the effects of Dianthus appeared after 48 hours. From being exposed on the cell in concentration of 1000 mg/ml. The highest inhibition result in AMN3 cells were 58.3, 66.7% for both extracts aqueous and alcoholic and the inhibition effects were similar in both cell line and the bio results of these cells explained the inhibition effects for the biology of cells depend on the concentration of crude extract and type of solvent being used.

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Article
IMMUNONOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY WITH FERTILITY EXAMINATION FOR THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM DRIED FRUITS OF Piper nigrum L. IN MICE
تقييم مناعي ودراسة سمية حادة مع فحص الخصوبة لتأثير المستخلص المائي للثمرة الجافة لنبات الفلفل الاسود في الفئران

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The research work was conducted to investigate the effect of oral administration of water extract of black pepper at doses of (1, 5) mg/kg body weight for two weeks daily by determining the genotoxic effect (mitotic index), evaluation of immunological effect (IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C4) and measuring fertility hormones (follicles stimulation hormone/FSH, lutenising hormone/LH) levels with histopathological examinations of female albino swiss mice ovaries in comparison with control (normal saline). A clear effect in increasing mitotic activity was reveled for both doses in comparison with control. Results also showed a significant increase in the value of the all immunological parameters at both doses in comparison with control. Also obvious raise was seen in the level of FSH and LH for both doses when compared with normal saline treated mice with no significant damage seen in female ovaries tissue, in fact there were certain clinicopathological changes in mice ovaries tissue which were represented by increasing in the numbers of primary and secondary follicles and in the numbers of corpus luteum at both doses.

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Article
STUDYING AND CALCULATION of THE SPECTRAL PROPERTIES FOR SIF MOLECULE VIBRATIONS BY SEMI EMPIRICAL PROGRAMS
دراسة وحساب الخصائص الطيفية لاهتزازات جزيئة SiF بواسطة البرامج شبه التجريبية

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In this research, the more important spectral properties of vibration SiF molecule have been studied and calculated by using the semi-empirical theoretical programs in method (MNDO/PM3). The wave lengths of that vibrations have been calculated and symmetric both of them. Also, the geometric space shape of ion has been calculated by using initial and final matrices that include bonds length, the angle between bonds, dihedral angles and the charge of each atom in ion. Total energy, Binding energy, Electronic energy, Core-core repulsion, Ionization potential and Molecular weight have been calculated. Also, the curve of potential of ion was drawn where it depend on the changing in bond length of (Si-F) verses the opposite energy value. In addition, the energy value of molecular orbital was computed with calculation of the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO).

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Article
HYPERFINE STRUCTURE MEASUREMENT OF SODIUM A TOMIC-BEAM ORTHOGONALLY WITH DYE LASER R6G
قياس التركيب الطيفي الدقيق لحزمة الصوديوم الذرية المتعامدة مع ليزر الصبغة نوع الرودمين R6G

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Sodium atomic beam of limited broadening, of angular divergence of 5.15o was generated to investigate the hyperfine structure of sodium D2 line. R6G dye laser was orthogonally interact with Na-atomic beam and recording of fluorescence signal (λ=5896Ǻ) showed a hyperfine structure of Na-D2 line of 1.03 GHz.

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Article
GENERALIZE THE RANDOMNESS TESTS TO TEST THE DIGITAL SEQUENCES PRODUCED FROM DIGITAL STREAM CIPHER SYSTEMS
تعميم اختبارات العشوائية لاختبار المتتابعات الرقمية الناتجة من نظم التشفير الانسيابي الرقمية

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In this paper, first, the Golomb’s postulates are generalized to construct a good mathematical base, and then generalize the binary standard randomness tests to be suitable to be applied on digital sequences. This paper includes some tables describe the tests results of the digital sequences generated from some digital generators, like the Multiplicative Cyclic Group System (MCGS) generator.

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Article
COMPARISON OF REDUNDANCY LEVELS USING STOCHASTIC ORDERINGS
مقارنة مستويات المجانبة باستخدام ترتيبات تصادفية

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In this research we concern with the comparison between the two ways of providing redundant units for a system:- 1. Component redundancy. 2. System redundancy. The comparison between these ways is carried out by comparing the random variable representing the lifetime of the system resulted from applying component redundancy with the random variable representing the lifetime of that resulted from applying system redundancy using some types of stochastic orderings, namely: (1) usual stochastic ordering, (2) failure rate ordering, (3) likelihood ratio ordering, (4) reversed failure rate ordering and (5) mean residual life ordering.

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Article
TRIE TREE ALGORITHM WITH MODIFIED KEY SAMPLING FUNCTION
دالة افتراضية لتحسين أداء خوارزمية البحث عن السلاسل الرمزية في الـ Trie tree

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The ongoing changes in computer performance are affecting the efficiency of string searching algorithms. The size of main memory in typical computers continues to grow, but memory accesses require increasing numbers of instruction cycles. One of the most important data structure which is used to improve the string searching is the Trie tree. The name Trie comes from the word “retrieval”. This data structure dose not store the data as specific elements, but rather as a path through the tree. This research aims to improve the performance of the Trie tree by using a proposed sample function in trie algorithm which improve space utilization and decrease the number of the search levels in the trie tree. i.e. decrease the time of searching because it searches less number of levels than the standard sample function.

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