Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2010 volume:51 issue:4

Article
VIDAS TEST OF IGG AVIDITY FOR DETECTION OF ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN THE EARLY PREGNANCY
اختبار VIDAS لالفة IgG في تشخيص داء المقوسات الكوندية الحاد في الحمل المبكر

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Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic, but can have severe consequences if it occurs in immunodeficient subject or fetuses. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is often based on maternal serological testing for IgM and IgG anti- Toxoplasma antibodies. Persistence of IgM for long periods, posses’ problems in distinguishing acute from chronic infection. The evaluation of specific IgG avidity enables more accurate dating, since avidity rises progressively during the course of infection. Seventy six women in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy were tested for VIDAS IgM, IgG antibodies and VIDAS toxo-IgG avidity. Low avidity antibodies were demonstrated in 2 (33.3%) of 6 sera positive with IgM assay and 4 (12.12%) of sera positive with IgG assay. Low avidity was also detected in 2 (3.27%) of 61 sera negative with IgM. The low avidity suggesting a recent infection, while high avidity in 3 (50%) of the 6 positive IgM and 24 (72.72%) of 33 positive IgG indicating that the infection acquired in the distant past. These findings highlight the value of VIDAS IgG avidity when used in combination with the VIDAS IgM and IgG assays to provide a confirmatory evidence of an acute infection with a single serum specimen for pregnant women.

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Article
THE EFFEECTS OF TREBON ON Cyprinus carpio L. LARVAE AND DETERMINATION OF ITS RESIDUES
تأثير مبيد التريبون في أصبعيات اسماك الكارب الأعتياديCyprinus carpio L. وتقدير متبقياته

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Abstract

Toxic effects of trebon were investigated together with behavioral changes of common carp larvae, Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to the insecticide..The LC50 of Trebon to fish larvae exposed to insecticide during a period of 96 hour was 0.184 mg/L, for fish weights from 4 gms to 6 gms. Results indicated that rate of toxicity of Trebon residues to the fish was 0.323 mg/g of fish which was taken from the highest concentration that kill 100% (0.45 mg/L) which was analysed by the U.V- visible spectrophotometer.

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Article
EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN SEEDS ON HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF LIVER OF MALE RATS Rattus norvegicus TREATED WITH URANYL NITRATE
تأثير بذور فول الصويا في التركيب النسجي لكبد ذكور الجرذان Rattus norvegicus المعاملة بنترات اليورانيل

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Abstract

Effects of Soybean and Uranyl nitrate on the histological structure in the rat liver were investigated. 32 prepubertal albino male rats were divided as fallows : G1, control, , G2, was given intragastrically 75mg / kg / b.w Uranyl nitrate, G3 was fed with 20% Soybean, and G4 was treated with both Uranyl nitrate and Soybean as in G2 and G4. Light microscope results showed a degenerative changes in different areas of liver tissue in (G2), these changes include: Pyknotic nuclei, vacuolation, infiltration of inflammatory cells, hypertrophy, sinusoidal enlargement and found spaces like cystic structures in attachment with nucleus of some cells. A normal appearance of liver tissue in some areas and degeneration of some cells, fatty infiltration and sinusoidal enlargement in other areas were observed in (G3), while in (G4) normal areas were observed with degenerative nuclei, sinusoidal enlargement and infiltration of some inflammatory cells in other areas. From these results it can be conclude that the treatment with Uranyl nitrate has a negative effect, and the active components of soybean may play an important role in the inhibition of these effects in liver cells.

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Article
CYTOTOXICITY OF NON-BOUND COLICINS EXTRACTED FROM Escherichia coil ON NORMAL WHITE BLOOD CELLS AND MYELOBLAST ISOLATED FROM ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA BLOOD PATIENTS
التأثير السمي للكوليسينات الخام الحرة المستخلصة من بكتريا Escherichia coli في خلايا الدم البيضاء للأصحاء في الخلايا السرطانية (Myeloblast) المعزولة من دم مرضى اِبيضاض الدم النخاعيني الحاد

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Four types of non-bound colicins (H5, H9, H13, H19) were extracted from intestinal normal flora Escherichia coil isolated from healthy people’s stool. Then study cytotoxic effect of colicins on normal white blood cells (WBCs) from healthy people. And cytotoxicity on myeloblasts isolated from AML patients blood. Results showed, myeloblasts from AML patients were more sensitive to colicins than normal WBCs from healthy people.The toxic effect was dose-dependent and exposure time.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON WEIGHTS LOSING OF DIFFERENT STAGES OF PORCELLIO SPINICORNIS ISOPODA : PORCELLIONIDAE
دراسة تأثير بعض العوامل البيئية على فقدان وزن بعض اطوار النوع Porcellio spinicornis Isopoda : Porcellionidae في منطقة الجادرية / بغداد/ العراق

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Abstract

The present study concerned with the effect of some environmental factors (humidity and temperture) on weight losing of manca, Juvenales and adult of crustacean Isopoda Porcellio spinicornis under 37oc and 60% -70% humiditity in the laboratory and during the period from April ( 2007- 2008 ) in field . The study showed that the weights of manca developed to females were higher than of those developed to males , the highest loss in weights of manca developed to adults under field conditions were at the means of (2.3, 2.2 , 2.5)mg during June, July and August respectively.

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Article
THE EXPOSURE EFFECT OF WATER PIPE SMOKE (WPS) ON THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF SWISS MICE
تأثير التعرض لدخان الشيشة في القناة التنفسية للفئران السويسرية

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Abstract

One of the most common means of smoking tobacco is Water Pipe (WP); it’s called (Arghile or Narghile) in the Middle East countries. It represents one of the causes of indoor air pollution. During the last few year’s this method of smoking spread among the young Iraqies. Some of the previous studies confirmed that WP smoking has a negative health effects more than those of Cigarettes smoking. In this research study , mice were exposed to water pipe smoke using a special inhalation glass chamber (whole body exposure).This smoke consist of a respirable particulate matter in which are (less than 2.5µm ) in diameter . Mice exposed daily to 100 puffs of WP smoke on the bases of (1hr exposure per day), the exposure experiment continued daily for the periods of 3, 5, 7 weeks consequently. The results indicated a remarkable reduction in bronchioles diameters and an obvious increase in alveoli diameter, while the histological examination showed different degrees of hyperplasia on the epithelial layer, thickening of the parenchyma tissue and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. The research concluded that intensity of the observed symptoms depended on the length of exposure periods, the highest levels of effects represented by the group of 7 weeks exposure in which was the longest period. The previous mentioned group suffered from hyperplasia and increased secretion of mucus leads to early signs of chronic bronchiolitis.

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Article
CYTOTOXICITY EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BRASSICA RAPA ROOTS ON CANCER CELL LINES IN VITRO
التأثير السمي للمستخلص المائي لجذور نبات الشلغم في الخلايا السرطانية خارج الجسم الحي

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Effect of aqueous extract of Brassica rapa roots on three types of cancer cell lines; Hep-2, AMN-3 and Hela was studied in vitro. The results showed that, the cytotoxic effect of extract dependent on type of cells, amount of dose and exposure time. The concentration 1250 µg/ml gave higher growth inhibition , were ( 63 and 42 ) % to ANM-3 and Hep-2 respectively comparied with control 100% after 24 hours from exposure time , but inhibition gowth of Hela cells was 64% by 10000 µg/ml crud roots extract for 24 hours. Exposure time for 48 hours reduced the percentage of inhibited growth٫ only by 10000 µg/ml for extract; viability was 25 % for ANM-3 cells. Crud aqueous extract of Brassica rapa roots was have hormetic effect ( Hormesis ), because also induced the proliferation of cancer cells by used low concentration of extract after 72 hours exposure time.

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Article
EFFECT OF TREBON (ETOFENPROX) AND ITS RESIDUES IN ADULT MOSQUITO FISH, Gambusia affinis
تأثير ٍمبيد التريبون Etofenprox و متبقياته في بالغات اسماك البعوض Gambusia affinis

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Abstract

Effects of Trebon (Etofenprox) and its residues in Gambusia affinis were investigated .The fish were exposed to various doses of the insecticide during aperiod of 96 hours. The LC50 was 0.027 mg / l . Residues of Trebon in tissues of fishes weighting 0.35 g exposed to high concentration of the insecticide in water which killed 100% of the fish was 0.02696 mg/g fish as analysed by the UV-visible spectrophotometer.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME SUNFLOWER (Helianthus annuus L) GENOTYPES OIL ON SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL SPECIES
تأثير زيت بعض أصناف زهرة الشمس( L. Helianthus annuus) في مجموعة من الأنواع البكتيرية الممرضة

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Abstract

The effect of seed oil of four sunflower genotypes on some of pathogenic bacteria were studied Using sunflower Manon, Pan7392, Euroflor and Sen Altheep at different concentration100,75,50 and 25%. pathogenic bacteria was Isolated from Al_yarmok hospital Baghdad included Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes .Oil of Euroflor genotype had more inhibition on all pathogenic bacteria in all using different concentration . E. coli bacteria was more sensitive then other pathogenic bacteria .Interaction between oils and pathogenic bacteria was significant, some results were also observed when Euroflor oil was used against E. coli in all concentration used, the diameter of inhibition was (7,8,18and 10mm) respectively and S. aureus , K. pneumoniae of concentration 50% of diameter inhibition15mm and diameter 8mm at concentration. In oil inhibited E. coli bacteria with diameter inhibition 8mm and no significant with Euroflor genotype, was observed.

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Article
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF APRICOT KERNEL EXTRACT CONTAINING AMYGDALIN
النشاط المضادّ للبكتريا لمستخلص لبِّ المشمش الحاوي على الامكدالين

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Amygdalin was extracted from apricot kernels, the chemical characteristics of amygdalin are: white, crystalline, and inodorous powder, slightly soluble in cold water, very soluble in hot water, alcohol and acetone, and insoluble in ether. It has a pH of 7 in saturated aqueous solution. Amygdalin purity in the extract was estimated to give 99.5%. Amygdalin was identified in the extract by FT-IR. The sensitivity of some species of pathogenic bacteria included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes to different concentration of amygdalin (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) was tested to find out the role of amygdalin as antibacterial agent. The experimental results of bacterial sensitivity to different concentrations of amygdalin, showed sensitivity of tested bacteria to all concentrations of amygdalin except concentration 2% amygdalin, bacterial species were resistant to it.

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Article
DETECTION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND MIXED INFECTIONS WITH YEASTS WHICH CAUSE VAGINITIS AND IT’S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE AGE IN IRAQI WOMEN
التحري عن البكتريا الممرضة والإصابات المختلطة مع الخمائر المسببة للالتهابات المهبلية وعلاقتها بالعمر لنساء عراقيات

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This study aims to isolate the bacterial pathogens and mixed infections with yeasts which cause vaginitis in Iraqi women and it’s relationship with the age .The result revealed that the bacterial pathogens which isolated from genital tract identified as: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gardnerella viginals ,Klebsiella oxytoca ,Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. The results of bacterial susceptibility tests showed that all isolates were resistant to Cefalexin, Tetracycline, Streptomycin and Rifampicin, as well as, all isolates were sensitive to Chloramphenicol, but these were different in sensitivity for other antibiotics. The results of mixed infection of bacteria with yeasts revealed that Candida albicans was co-existing with S.aureus in 14 vaginal swabs, E.coli in 6 vaginal swabs and with two swabs of each Proteus mirabilis and K.oxytoca, while no mixed infection was observed neither with P. aeruginosa nor with G. viginals and the results of the relationship of bacterial vaginitis with the age showed that incidence of infection was high among females age group( 40-67 years).

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Article
STUDY OF β2M LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE
دراسة مستويات β2M عند مرضى القصور الكلوي المزمن

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Abstract

This study was carried out to demonstrate the importance of measurement of serum and urine β2M levels to confirm the clinical diagnosis of some common diseases in Iraq and Also, this work was mainly designed to study the levels in serum of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), which they were in the end stage of renal disease (ESDR) depending on hemodialysis (HD). This study included 64 patients with CRF (ESDR/HD) comparing various serum parameters with those of 20 patients with viral infection, 6 patients with acute leukemia and 25 normal controls. A statistical difference (P<0.01) in serum levels of serum β2M was noticed between CRF patients, viral infected patients, acute leukemic patients and health controls. Mean of serum β2M levels showed of values of 24.03, 11.91 , 6.40 , 2.77 , 7.12 ,2.08 and 1.55 mg/l respectively. Serum β2M test showed a sensitivity (100% , 85% and 100%) and specificity (96%, 96% and 96% ) in patients with CRF , viral disease and acute leukemia respectively. These findings reflect the importance of β2M as differential diagnostic, prognostic parameter and tumor marker.

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Article
STUDY OF OPTIMUM CONDITIONS IN DETECTION OF ABO GENOTYPE BY SIMULTANEOUS PCR-RFLP METHOD
دراسة الظروف المثلى لتشخيص انماط الوراثية لمجاميع الدم ABO باستخدام طريقة PCR-RFLP

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Abstract

Extracted of DNA from blood samples, and amplification two separate segments of the glycosyl transferases gene containing nucleotide 261 in exon 6 and nucleotide 703 in exon 7 of ABO gene locus were amplified . ABO locus gene was amplified by using two sets of specific primers for ABO locus as a whole. The first set includes the primer pair (1 and 2) that was used for the amplification of 200 bp DNA fragment, which contains the nucleotide 261. The second set includes the primer pair (3 and 4) that was used to amplify a 128 bp DNA fragment, which contains the nucleotide703. Nucleotides 261 and 703 were used to distinguish A , B, O alleles by restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR products. The amplified DNA products were then run on 2% agarose gel .Two types of restriction enzyme were used. The first was KpnI which determined the deletion at nucleotide 261(G→ - ) of O allele, while the second one was AluI which determined the substitution in nucleotide 703 ( G → A ) that detect B allele which can be recognized from A allele (AluI digest the DNA of individual with type B allele). Digested DNA fragments were run on 6% low melting agarose. The thirty samples show 14 ( A )blood group, 13 of them are Heterozygous AO and one is Homozygous AA . The 14 samples are blood group B, 13 of them are Heterozygous BO and one of them is Homozygous BB. One sample for AB, O blood groups this type have only Homozygous phase and each gene are dominant in AB type so called co-dominant. In O type the gene is recessive and expressed only in Homozygous type only whereas the A and B genes are dominant over O.

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Article
EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CYTOSINE DEAMINASE FROM Saccharomyces cerevisiae
أستخلاص وتنقية وتوصيف أنزيم Cytosine deaminase من خميرة الخبز Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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The cytosine deaminase was extracted by using organic solvent toluene and the value of specific activity of crude extract was (9.6) mu/mg protein . The enzyme was purified in few steps including precipitating the enzyme by using ammonium sulfate at defferent saturation percent, The optimum percent was 60% saturation percent which gave value of specfic activity of (12.5) mu/mg protein fold of purification was (1.302) times and the yield was 4.82% . Then the enzume solution was passed through DEAE – cellulose column chromatography. The peaks was collected and the value of specific activity was measured which was (358) mu/mg protein, fold of purification was (37.29) times, and the yield was (2.55)%. The enzyme solution was concentrated and passed through sephadex G-200 gelfilteration and the value of specific activity was (400) mu/mg protein, fold purification (41.66) times and yeid was 1.19%.

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Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF YEAST EXTRACT AND CYTOKININ 2ip ON EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS GROWTH OF DATE PALM Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Ashkar
دراسة تأثير مستخلص الخميرة و السايتوكاينين 2ip في نمو الكالس الجنيني لنخلة التمر Phoenix dactylifera L. صنف الأشقر

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The effects of yeast extract on embryogenic callus growth of date palm cv. Ashkar were studied. Various concentrations of yeast extract were used ( 0 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500 and 1000 ) mg/L with two concentrations of the cytokinin 2ip (0 , 1) mg/L. Results showed that the conc. 250 mg/L in the absence of the cytokinin 2ip gave maximum fresh weight and length of somatic embryos , but this was not significantly differed from the control in dry weight. The conc. 50 mg/L in the presence of the cytokinin 2ip gave the highest number of somatic embryos. In addition, it was observed a browning in embryogenic callus at high concentrations of yeast extract (500 and 1000)mg/L. Thus, it is possible to use the yeast extract for growth of the embryogenic callus, while it is preferred to use yeast extract and cytokinin 2ip together for induction of somatic embryos.

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Article
STUDY OF THE PARASITIC MODES FOR THE 140 GHZ GYROTRON OSCILLATOR
دراسة الأنماط الطفيلية لمذبذب جايروترون 140 كيكا هرتز

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This work reports on the particular gyrotron (140 GHz) and how to improve its operation through the elimination of the parasitic modes which excite with the operating mode ( ). A computer code which was previously constructed has been used to find and analyze the characteristics of the gyrotron especially the starting current of the mode excitation. The study involves the parasitic modes of the (140 GHz) gyrotron and the methods of their elimination. Two methods were utilized for this purpose. The first one was the anode voltage variation and the other was the external magnetic field variation. For these two methods all the output characteristics of the gyrotron were analyzed and it was found that the second method is more suitable and gives best results

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Article
ٌRHO MESON PRODUCTION IN PHOTON PROTON INTERACTION
إنتاج الميزون المتجه روه عند تفاعل الفوتون مع البروتون

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Calculation of cross section for meson production in real photon proton interactions has been carried out in terms of Regge theory. The amplitude of is used for calculating the coupling of the exchanged particle at the photon - vector meson vertex. We only need to replace the coupling of the pion to quarks by the coupling of the exchanged particle to quarks. This coupling has been fixed by the experimental data. A comparison of the model with data shows an excellent agreement.

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Article
PRIME HOLLOW MODULES
المقاسات الاولية المجوفة

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A non-zero module M is called hollow, if every proper submodule of M is small. In this work we introduce a generalization of this type of modules; we call it prime hollow modules. Some main properties of this kind of modules are investigated and the relation between these modules with hollow modules and some other modules are studied, such as semihollow, amply supplemented and lifting modules

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Article
SOLUTION OF NEWTONIAN FLUID FLOW PROBLEM IN TWO DIMENSIONS SOLVED BY SIMPLE ALGORITHEM
حل مسألة جريان مائع نيوتيني في المستوي بواسطة خوارزمية SIMPLE

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In this paper, a consideration is given to viscose, incompressible and Newtonian fluid flowing in a pipe with square cross-section under the action of pressure gradient. In particular consideration is given to first order fluid flow which can be represented by the equation of state of the form: Tij = 2η eij , i,j = 1,2 Where η is constant of fluid, Tij and eij are the stress and rate of strain respectively. Cartesian coordinate has been used to describe the fluid motion and it found that motion equations are controlled by Reynolds number. The motion equations are solved by a semi-implicit algorithm namely Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations (SIMPLE).

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Article
UNSTEADY FREE CONVECTION FLOW OF THIRD GRAD ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLUID PAST AN INFINITE VERTICAL PLATE
الجريان الحر اللا مستقر لمائع قابل للتوصيل الكهربائي من الرتبة الثالثة خلال صحيفة عمودية لانهائية

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In this paper the problem of, unsteady, hydromagnatic free convective flow of viscous incompressible and electrically conducting third order fluids past in infinite vertical Porous plate in the presence of constant suction and heat absorbing sinks is considered. It is found that the velocity and temperature distribution equations are controlled by different dimensionless parameters, namely, Grashof number Gr, prandtl number pr, Eckert number Ec, sink strength s, material moduli and coecostic parameter α. An analytic solution for each of the velocity and the temperature distribution is obtained. The velocity and temperature distributions are shown graphically taking many cases of Gr, pr, Ec, s, and α.

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Article
RETRIEVING DOCUMENT WITH COMPACT GENETIC ALGORITHM(CGA)
استرجاع الوثائق باستخدام الخوارزمية الوراثية المضغوطة (cGA)

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Information retrieval is the task, given a set of documents and a user query, of finding the relevant documents. Information retrieval applications require speed, consistency, accuracy and ease of use in retrieving relevant texts to satisfy user queries. This paper presents an automatic tool to retrieve documents based on Compact Genetic Algorithm (cGA). The similarity between queries and documents is computed with cosine coefficient, dice's coefficient, and Jaccard coefficient that are used as the fitness functions. Experimental results show that cGA can be successfully applied to information retrieval.

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Article
FINGERPRINT VERIFICATION SYSTEM USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT TRANSFORMATION EIGENVECTORS TECHNIQUE
نظام تحقق لطبعات الأصابع باستخدام تقنية المتجهات الذاتية لتحويلة المركبات الأساسية

Authors: Fouad K. A. فؤاد كاظم ماشي
Pages: 657-664
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A fingerprint verification technique is presented. The Principal Component Transformation “PCT” is used to identify a checked person, by comparing its eigenvector with the PCT eigenvectors of stored fingerprints images in a Database. The computed Eigenvectors of the input images are determined from the covariance matrix of the set of fingerprints reduced mean images which were ascended as column vectors in a two dimensional array. The covariance matrix then determined by multiplying the mean (i.e. average) reduced matrix by its transpose. The similarity between the stored images of the fingers (as Database) and the test finger is presented by utilizing the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion.

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Article
EFFECT OF DIODE LASER 805NM ON THE VIABILITY OF SOME TYPES OF GRAM NEGATIVE AND GRAM POSITIVE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
تاثير الليزر الثنائي الصمام 805 نانوميتر على حيوية بعض انواع البكتريا المرضية السالبة والموجبة لصبغة كرام

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The effect of diode laser radiation 805nm on the viability of some types of Gram negative and Gram positive pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis and Bacillus cereus) was studied. These types of bacteria were irradiated at 0.94, 2.01 and 2.76 Wat for 1 minute as an exposure time of laser radiation. The results showed that this type of laser radiation had an inhibition action on E. coli, S. pyogene, B. cereus, and S. aureus and a stimulation effect on S. enteritidis and K. pneumonia. In both cases, the effect was dose-dependent.

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Article
CHILDREN MORTALITY FROM COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN CHILD TEACHING HOSPITAL
معدل وفيات الأطفال الناتجة من الأمراض الأنتقالية في مستشفى الطفل التعليمي

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Hospital based data on mortality rate from communicable diseases is a reflection of what is obtainable in a community at large. Therefore; data obtained from such review is usually beneficial in re-evaluating existing services and in improving facilities and patients care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality pattern of children admitted into the Children Teaching Hospital from February 2004 to December 2006. There were 3,267 admissions during the study period. The medical charts of all patients aged one month to 16 years were recorded, neonatal and surgical cases were excluded. One hundred and seventy one deaths occurred in the children giving mortality rate of 5.2%. Fifty two patients (88%) were under 5 years. Most of the deaths occurred between January and March. The commonest causes of death were pneumonia, bacterial meningitis; while 12% of patients were above 5 years of age, the visceral leishmaniasis and pneumonia were the predominant causes. Health intervention programs such as integrated management of childhood illnesses and primary health care, which have been shown to reduce childhood deaths significantly, need to be intensified in order to achieve the MDG4 by 2015.

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Article
THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF MUMPS VIRUS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSULIN DEPENDANT DIABETES MELLITUS
الدور المحتمل للفايروس المسبب للنكاف في احداث مرض السكري المعتمد على الانسولين

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Mumps is an acute viral illness associated with different types of complications, Pancreatitis is one of infrequent mumps complications followed by diabets mellitus type one in few cases. The present study was designed to determine whether a relationshipe exposure to mumps by natural infection or vaccination with MMRvaccine and diabetes type one. Seventy two patients with Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus exposed to mumps by vaccinor natural infection compared with 18 (healthy) age and sex matched control were included in this study . Blood samples were taken for investigation of Glutamic acid decarboxylasw antibody (GADA), Islet cell antibody (ICA) and Mumps IgG Antibody by using ELISA and immunoflorescent technique. Islet cell antibody was detected in 13 (18.1%) patients 6 (8.3%) males and 7 (9.7%) females. GADA was detected in 45 patients (64.5%) 24 males (33.3%) and 21 (29.2%) females. Mumps IgG Antibody was found in 21 (29.2%) of patients

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