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MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL

مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان

ISSN: 18138500
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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SCIENTIFIC AND REFERRED DENTAL JOURNAL

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Table of content: 2011 volume:8 issue:3

Article
Urinary Mercury concentrations associated chewing gum in students of Faculty of Dentistry

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to measure the urinary mercury concentration in students after chewing gum for certain period of time. Sixteen students from faculty of dentistry had used chewing gum for five hours a day for seven days. Urine sample collected 24 h before and after the experimental time. Total mercury in urine (U-Hg) was determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). t-test was used for the comparison of mercury before and after chewing gum. A non significant difference was found after chewing than before chewing gum.


Article
Evaluation of endodontic treatment in three specialized private clinics in Baghdad (retrospective study)

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Abstract

To evaluate the prevalence of root canal treatment in a three specialized private clinics in Baghdad and to determine the reasons for carrying out root canal treatment. A total number of 593 case sheets of patients were selected irrespective of their age, gender, type of tooth treated and cause of endodontic treatment. The data were categorized as follows: the total number of maxillary and mandibular teeth; the number of each individual tooth group treated; the number of teeth treated in each age group (8-25, 26-49, 50-67 years); the total number of treatments performed in males and females patients as well as the causative factor for endodontic treatment. The maxillary teeth showed higher percentage (55.986%) of root canal treatment than mandibular teeth (44.013%), while mandibular molars show higher percentage (23.102%) in the treated cases than other teeth groups. The highest incidence of root canal treatment was found in the age group twenty-six to forty-nine (49.915%). The female patients were more frequent (67.116%) than male patients. The dental caries was the most causative factor. The sequel of dental caries was responsible for the majority of the treated cases in which the female patients and maxillary teeth were more frequent.


Article
The efficiency of ProTaper rotary retreatment files in the removal of two different root filling material

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Abstract

The ProTaper rotary retreatment files is one of the new files especially designed for retreatment. The aim of this study is to test if root canals filled with Resilon points and RealSeal sealer (SybronEndo, USA) can be retreated using ProTaper rotary retreatment files in the same manner as canals filled with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol based sealer. Twenty extracted maxillary first molars with palatal roots having single straight canal and fully formed apex were instrumented and randomly divided into two groups of ten roots each according to the root filling material used (gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol based sealer for group A and Resilon points and RealSeal sealer for group B). For all roots, removal of root filling material was done by using ProTaper rotary retreatment files (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The amount of root filling material remained and the time required for the removal process for all roots were recorded and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 15. The results showed that during retreatment procedures; removal of Resilon with RealSeal sealer from root canals can be achieved with ProTaper rotary retreatment files but the amount of Resilon root filling material remained was more than GP and showed a highly significant difference, it was also obvious that removal of Resilon root filling material from root canals requires more time than roots filled with guttapercha. In conclusion, removal of resin based root filling material can be achieved with ProTaper rotary retreatment files but it leaves more filling remnants and takes more time than canals filled with gutta-percha.


Article
Water sorption of three types of composite resins

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Abstract

Silorane low shrink composite resin material introduced with a non-methacrylate resin matrix to realize a fundamental improvement in cure shrinkage, clinical and physical properties. The aim of this study is to measure the water sorption of three type of composite material: Filtek P90, Filtek P60, IPS Empress composites after immersion in deionized distilled water as a function of time. Thirty disk shape plastic molds (4 mm diameter and 2mm thickness) were constructed to form composite blocks. Teen blocks were made from Filtek P 90 (Silorane) GI, Filtek P 60 (packable) GII and IPS Empress (Nanohybrid) GIII. All specimens were placed in a silica-gel desiccator for 48 hours. The samples were then weighed three times using calibrated electronic microbalance and the average reading was recorded to the nearest 0. 0001g then specimens were kept in individual containers in deionized distilled water at 37 oC. All specimens were periodically weighed. The weight measurements were taken from the second day after incubation and continue as one measurement every week for 6 weeks. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and least significant differences LSD test. Statistical analysis of the results showed that all the specimens continued to gain weight for a period of 4 weeks. After that period the weight gain continued, although at reduced rate. Filtek P90 (Silorane) GI has highly significant less water sorption value ( p < 0.01) than the other groups after 6 weeks, while there was no significant differences ( p > 0.٠٥) between IPS Empress (Nanohybrid ) GIII and Filtek P60 ( Packable ) GII in their water sorption value with higher value for GIII. Silorane which based on siloxane and oxirane resin matrix has less value after 6 weeks followed by Packable composite while IPS Empress has higher value for water sorption. This study concluded that the differences in water sorption capacity of the three composite resin materials are related to the differences in the type of resin matrix, the amount of filler loading and filler particle size.


Article
Influence of Closed Sandwich Technique on Marginal Seal of Class II Restorations with Different Substrates using LED Curing

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This study was done to evaluate the microleakage at the tooth restoration interface in different substrates when glass ionomer was used as a base which covered by a veneer of resin composite, as closed sandwich technique, with light -emitting diode (LED) curing. Eighty Class II cavities were prepared in mesial and distal of extracted molars, mesial cavities with gingival margins in enamel (E) and distal cavities with gingival margins in dentin(D), were divided into four main groups (G)s, each group was subdivided into GE and GD of ten cavities for each and filled as follows: GI each cavity of GIE & GID was filled with composite and cured with halogen light curing unit (H), GII each cavity of GIIE & GIID was filled with glass ionomer lining and composite and cured as GI, Group III each cavity of GIIIE & GIIID was filled as GI but cured with LED while Group IV, each cavity of GIVE and GIVD filled as GII and cured as GIII. After restorations, the teeth were thermocycled 300 times, soaked in 0.1% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and microleakage from the gingival margin scored. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. There was no significant difference when use sandwich technique in enamel but There was significant difference in dentin (p≤0.05), while no significant difference when the comparison between enamel and dentin, whether LED or H curing was used. With sandwich technique, the marginal adaptation of enamel margins was not dependent on the restorative technique while marginal adaptation in dentin was significantly better. The use of LED had no adverse effect on microleakage.


Article
Electronic apex locator determination of root canal length of permanent anterior teeth in children

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Abstract

Abstract The success of endodontic treatment depends on the correct obtaining of working length, and in Pediatric Dentistry, this procedure needs child's cooperation and expose the children to x-ray radiation. The aim of the present study is to compare root canal length determined by tactile sensation, electronic apex locator YD-2 and digital radiograph with that determined by conventional x-ray which is the most used and reliable method. The working length of 30 upper permanent central incisors, in children aged 10-12 years old, estimated by tactile sensation, electronic apex locator YD-2 and digital radiograph and the mean values of them compared by t-test with that obtained by conventional x-ray. High significant difference found between the mean value of root canal length measurements obtained by tactile sensation with that obtained by conventional radiograph (P<0.01), while no significant difference found between the mean of apex locator and digital radiographic readings with that obtained by conventional radiography(P>0.05) indicating the similarity of mean values of these techniques. The use of electronic apex locator and digital radiograph are quite comparable with conventional radiograph and could be useful in endodontic therapy for working length estimation in children.


Article
Oral health status in Najaf City

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This study assessed the oral hygiene status of teenagers. Three hundred and two teenagers aged 13-16 years (151 boys and 151 girls) and 291 young adults aged 20-23 years (150 males and 141 females) collected from secondary schools and the University of Kufa in Najaf city. Oral hygiene was assessed by three indices (plaque, gingival and calculus indices). Plaque free subjects represented 22.3% of males and 44.2% of females with a mean PI of 0.717±0.742 for males and 0.444±0.619 for females. While, gingivitis was found in 68.1% of males and 46.6% of females with a mean GI of 0.436±0.526 for males and 0.255±0.447 for females. The majority of the sample was calculus free (91.1% of females and 88.7% of males) with a mean CI of 0.020±0.081 for males and 0.014±0.056 for females. Males showed significantly higher mean PI, GI and CI scores than females. Teenagers were found to have significantly higher mean PI and GI than young adults. This indicates that young adults are keener on keeping a good oral hygiene than teenagers and that males neglect their oral hygiene more than females.

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Article
Assessment of Children's Pain in Oncology Unit

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Most children with cancer will be at risk for significant pain at some time during the course of their illness. Pain may be a product of the disease itself or the result of medical intervention in the form of diagnostic procedures, surgery, and chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. An adequate standard of care requires that the clinician systematically assess and effectively manage pain on a routine basis for all children with cancer. Aim of the study was to :- a) Assess pain with invasive monitoring procedures (pre & post procedure): - vein puncture, lumber puncture & bone marrow aspiration & biopsy. - b) Assess Current symptoms pre receiving of chemotherapy, - c) Assess Intensity pain with like methods of chemotherapy, d) Assess Family & child's pain experience within the period of treatment A total of 50 patients age between (6 – 12 years) in oncology unit in central child teaching hospital & children teaching hospital in medical city, from 25th of January to 25th of April 2009. Using questionnaires which has 3 parts, part one – demographic characteristics Part two – assessment pain with monitoring procedures, current symptoms pre receiving of chemotherapy, intensity of pain with methods receiving of chemotherapy. Part three – family & Childs experience pain with use facial expression with poker chips color Results were analyzed by descriptive statistical including (frequency, percentage, mean of score). Results showed that (50%) of patients were age 6-8 years & diagnosed leukemia, 60% males & number of chemotherapy less than 6th courses, (72%) duration of diseases less than 6th months, 56% number admissions to hospital with out chemotherapy were 3-7 time. Vein Puncture (60%) of sample feeling no pain pre procedure, (80%) feeling some pain bother post procedure Lumber Puncture (50%) of sample feeling pain that does not bother pre procedure, (80%) feeling sever pain post procedure Bone Marrow Aspiration (60%) of sample feeling some pain bother pre procedure, (100%) feeling unbearable pain post procedure. (40%) fear Pre receiving chemotherapy. (60%) methods receiving of chemotherapy both intravenously & intrathecaly, intravenously methods pain is most hurt while intrathecaly methods pain is the most hurt could ever have. Family experience toward assess pain tool, them showed these easily. Child experience with pain (60%) use word discomfort or no communication when feel pain In conclusions the study revealed the pain more than in post monitoring procedure specific in lumber puncture & high level in bone marrow aspiration, fear is the most symptoms syndrome for patients pre receiving of chemotherapy, intravenously methods most methods pain for patient. Most families the tool painshowed easily & easily transport & more children use words to expression pain & no communication.


Article
Prevalence of dental caries in children attended Pedodontic dental clinic Al Mustansiria Collage of Dentistry

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Abstract The purpose of the study to evaluate the dental caries in children at 4-11 years old of age in pedodontic dental clinic of Al-Mustansiria Collage of Dentistry. The total sample composed of 646 child 329 males and 317 females. Results showed that the percentage of caries in the occlusal and inter proximal surfaces were higher in females at age 7-9 years old (51.3%.45.7%) than males (40.1%, 44.8%), with statistically high significant difference for both males and females (P<0.01). The prevalence of dental caries for permanent dentition increase with age means (0.0006, 0.0099, 0.0263) for males and means (0, 0011, 0.0072 and 0.012)for females. For primary dentition also highly caries prevalence were showed with increase with age mean (0.077, 0.008 and 0.05) for males and (0.0868, 0.0776 and 0.068) for females .with no significant difference for both males and females.


Article
Evaluation of enamel surface damage after debonding using three different pliers "An in vitro study"

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Abstract This study aims to compare the effectiveness of three different pliers in debonding stainless steel and ceramic brackets, also to evaluate enamel surface damage and the site of bond failure after debonding. Sixty premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes, were divided into 3 groups of 20. The enamel surfaces were examined with 10X magnifying lens. Two types of bracket (stainless steel and ceramic) was bonded and debonded in each group using: conventional debonding pliers, bracket removal pliers, and ligature wire cutter. After debonding, the enamel surfaces were inspected under a stereomicroscope to determine the predominant site of bond failure. Then stereomicroscope was used to evaluate enamel surface damage after the removal of residual adhesive. The enamel surface damage showed a statistically significant difference in ceramic bracket groups, whereas, it was statistically insignificant in stainless steel bracket groups. The amount of the adhesive remained on the tooth surface was statistically insignificant in both stainless steel and ceramic bracket groups. The predominant failure site was within the adhesive itself for both types of brackets. The enamel surface damage that results from debonding of ceramic brackets was higher than that found with the stainless steel brackets especially with the use of bracket removal pliers "used in this study"


Article
Bacterial Cross-contamination between clinic& dental laboratory during polishing procedure of complete denture

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Abstract Polishing of dental prostheses can cause a dangerous cycle of cross-contamination involving dentists, laboratory technicians, patients and auxiliary personnel. The aim of this study was to show the microbial contamination in the dental laboratory during the polishing procedure of complete dentures. For this purpose, 30 samples & 4 experiments were conducted. Experiment I - Determination of the contaminating complete maxillary dentures from plaque &from patient saliva . Experiment II- after disinfection of complete dentures Experiment III- determination of microorganism transferred During the polishing procedure, to the denture Experiment IV - The remaining microorganism in the lathe spindle Microbiological tests were conducted to detect the presence of bacteria. plates showing growth, colonies were observed and identified using Gram staining,. As a result viable organisms from patients denture before and after polishing & after disinfection were found Improper disinfection of the denture , using tab water with pumice powder allowed for the introduction of pathogens so The polishing of dental prostheses is a possible source of transmission of communicable diseases in the laboratory appropriate universal precautions must be followed to decrease the likelihood of cross contamination


Article
Presurgical evaluation of malignant neck nodes by assessment it’s Intranodal vascularity using the color Doppler ultra sound

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Abstract Color Doppler ultra sound is an ideal imaging tool for initial assessment of intranodular vascularity which may reflect some pathological behaviors of tumors and lymph nodes in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Color Doppler ultra sound in differentiating benign from malignant cervical lymph nodes by the assessment of Nodal vascularity. In a prospective study of 24 untreated patient with 65 cervical lymph nodes clinically including enlarged hard and soft palpable and non palpable lymph nodes . All these lymph nodes were evaluated with Color Doppler ultra sound as a pre-surgical diagnostic tool, the findings were compared with histo-pathalogical results. Fine needle Aspiration cytology was used for 15 palpable enlarged cervical lymph nodes, most of these lymph nodes 12 lymph nodes were associated with reactive lymph nodes and not operated on, just follow up with antibiotic treatment and performed only 3 lymph nodes were associated with malignant lymph nodes which removed surgically and assessed histopathologically. Upon Color Doppler ultra sound examination pre-operatively of 65 cervical lymph nodes were found 20 lymph nodes as a reactive lymph nodes and 45 as malignant lymph nodes. After neck dissection, all lymph nodes histo-pathologically examined which showed 22 benign lymph nodes and 43 lymph nodes containing metastases. Nodal vasculature were classified into: · Hilar · Capsular · Hilar with capsular vascularity Results: most of the malignant nodes showed the presence of capsular vascularity and capsular with hilar vascularity, 37.2% and 48.8% respectively, where as the majority of the reactive nodes showed hilar vascularity 77.3% and the different was highly significant P<0.01 when chi-square was used. Conclusion: the distribution of intra nodal vascularity appears to be useful in differentiating benign from malignant cervical lymph nodes by means Color Doppler ultra sound which consider as a routine pre-surgical tool to provide the surgeons with a valuable information that aids them to modify their surgical management.

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Article
Zygomatic complex fractures: a 5-year retrospective study

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The aim of this descriptive analytic retrospective study was to evaluate the etiology, clinical features and treatment data of patients with zygomatic complex fractures at our program during a 5-year period. From March 1998 until February 2003. 69 patients presented with zygomatic complex fractures were treated by the department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery at Baghdad College of Dentistry and private clinic in Iraq. Patient's information was collected using a specifically designed form. The patient age ranged from 5-68 years with a mean age of 30.5 years, 51 of them were males and 18 were females. Road traffic accidents (43.5%) was the major cause for fractures (P<0.05). regarding clinical features subconjunctival ecchymosis (61%) and circumorbital ecchymosis (53.6%) were most common observed. The Gillies approach (26%) was the commonest method of reduction. This study has shown that road traffic accidents are responsible for most zygomatic complex fractures in our environment. It also showed a low utilization of technological advances in the imaging and treatment of these fractures.


Article
Burning Mouth Syndrome in an Iraqi Sample of Patients: a preliminary study of 52 Cases

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Abstract Evaluation of the clinical characteristics of burning mouth syndrome in a sample of Iraqi patients referred to a large teaching dental clinic in Baghdad. Fifty two patients with burning mouth syndrome were followed up through a prospective study ,investigating the clinical characteristics of using pre- established criteria’s and tests for each feature . Forty four women and 8 men with burning mouth syndrome ranging in age from 46 – 72 years. Their cause of attendance was disturbed sleep (46.1%), fear of serious disease (44.2%) and anxiety (36.5%). The pain duration since it started ranged from 3 – 48 months (Mean 18.17 ± 12.78) months. Twenty six patients (50%) reported precipitating event and 32 (61.9%) reported a change in taste sensation of which (56.25%) had a bitter taste. VAS pain levels were (6.13±0.02 for females and 6± 0.91for males). 25%of the patients had medical comorbidities that were under control. The location of pain was mostly on the tongue (76.9%) and mainly on its margins (57.7%) unilaterally. And only 25% of the patients had subjective xerostomia with stimulated parotid salivary flow rate less than 0.5 ml/ min. Estradiol levels among females were (68.18%) below 15 pg/ml and (31.72%) above that in spite of 75% of them were post–menopause. And these patients were subject to stress ranging from 35-146 (L. c. u's) with a mean of 2.73 ± 1.28 events per patient and about 7.69% of them had one severe stress accident . The classification of psychiatric comorbidities occurring among the patients sample were (17.3% = free), (40.38% = Depressive neurosis) and (20.08% = Anxiety neurosis) and none of the patients reached the level of psychosis. Burning mouth syndrome is possibly of high prevalence and with high range of etiologies that should be more investigated including its relation with psychological stress and neurosis.


Article
Clinicopathological evaluation of Odontogenic Cysts in Maysan city in Iraq (retrospective study).

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Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cysts in Iraqi populations in Maysan general hospital (Maysan -Iraq) and compare this prevalence with other international studies. Data of this study were obtained from reports of patients diagnosed with odontogenic cysts between 2007 and 2010. Case records of patients who fit the Histological Classification of the World Health Organization (2005) were included. The following variables were analyzed: gender, age group, anatomical location and histological type. Odontogenic cysts accounted for 90 % of all lesions biopsied throughout the study period. Pain feeling and clinical expansion were recorded in most of our patients. Mean patient age was (28) years and (61%) of the patients were males. Radicular cyst was the most prevalent histological type (28.75%), followed by odontogenic keratocyst (25%) then dentigerous cyst (23.75%). The mandible was the most prevalent site of the lesions (55%). Odontogenic cysts appear to have a distinct predilection for the male gender, the third decade of life and are more frequent in the mandible. Awareness about the prevalence and characteristics of odontogenic cysts is important in primary diagnosis and treatment of these lesions.


Article
Alummouth Wash as an Adjunctive Treatment in Chronic Periodontits

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The term of (Alum) refers to various isomorphous double sulfates composed of trivalent and univalent metals, especially aluminum potassium sulfate, KAl (SO4)2·12H2O, Alum as a compound has been used in past to treat different oral and medical conditions. Using of alum as a mouth wash in periodontology was not completely explored and only a few studies were carried out regarding this subject. This study was carried out to observe the effect of alum as an adjunctive therapy in periodontitis. One hundred twenty patients with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated into four groups. The first group treated with conventional root planing procedure using periodontal curette. The other three groups were treated with the same conventional procedure followed by twice a day mouth rinse with different concentrations of Alum solutions for three weeks after root planing. Means of PLI, GI & PD were calculated for the participants before treatment and three weeks after. Results of this research showed a significant decrease in all study parameters in all groups with significant differences between the two different modalities of treatment. Alum solution can be a good adjunctive treatment for chronic periodontitis, but more studies are needed on both short and long terms.


Article
The relationship between the severity of gingival inflammation and the concentration of the gingival fluid proteins

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The gingival fluid flow occur when the gingival tissue and vessels are irritated. In a chronically inflamed gingiva the blood-tissue barrier is no longer intact, an increased permeability exists which permits a leakage of plasma protein into the intervascular tissue, the affected blood vessels exhibits qualitative changes of the vascular wall these include the formation of non selective fenestrations which permit exudation of the whole plasma proteins. Most of these proteins are involved in the mechanisms initiating and controlling the inflammatory response. The aims of this study is to provide information about some aspect of proteins in the gingival fluid during inflammation .Seven plasma proteins of different molecular weight chosen for assay: Haptoglobine, alpha-1 glycoprotien, orosomucoid, prealbumin, alpha-1 antitrypsin, IgG, IgA and IgM. Thirty subjects selected for investigation, the gingival fluid collected by micropipettes from the gingiva adjacent to the upper anterior teeth, clinical assessment of the gingival condition made according to the gingival index GI of Loe and Silness then the patients divided into three groups. Concentration of the proteins determined by using laser nephelometry. Demonstrate a remarkable difference in the rate of gingival fluid flow with higher flow rate in cases with chronically inflamed gingiva, the concentration of the proteins increase with the severity of the gingival inflammation . In conclusion the concentration of the proteins are not related to their molecular weight and lasernephelometry seems to be a reliable technique for screening studies of gingival fluid proteins.

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Article
Salivary sex hormones & its relation to periodontal status among pregnant & non pregnant women

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Abstract Salivary sex hormones (estradiol/ progesterone) levels may rise dramatically & may affect the periodontal health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to measure the level of estradiol &progesterone in stimulated saliva of pregnant women & its correlation to periodontal status in comparison to non pregnant women. A total of 26 women of the age group 20-24yr. attending the maternal & child health care in the medical city hospital were selected at the 3rd trimester of pregnancy & another 26 unmarried women were selected rand only. Saliva had been collected for analysis of estradiol & progesterone & periodontal status had been evaluated using plaque index (PlI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) & clinical attachment level (CAL), t-test, X2 & correlation coefficient were used where indicated. The results revealed a significant difference in the mean PlI & GI among pregnant & control groups. Pregnant women showed deeper pocket & more attachment loss & a high mean of salivary sex hormones than control group with significant differences. The results also revealed a positive correlations between probing depth, clinical attachment level & salivary sex hormones while there was no significant weak correlation between PlI, GI with salivary sex hormones. All the periodontal parameter & salivary sex hormones in this study were higher value in pregnant women than non pregnant with significant differences. More strong positive correlations were found between PD, CAL with salivary sex hormones & weak correlations with PlI & GI.

Table of content: volume:8 issue:3