Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume: issue:200

Article
Explanation of the emergence of opposite words According to the law of (the unity of opposites and their conflict) View and criticism
تفسيرُ نُشوءِ الأضدادِ اللغويَّةِ على وَفقِ قانونِ ( وَحْدَة الأضدادِ و صِراعها ) عَرضٌ و نَقد

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Some modern language scholars tried to explain the phenomenon of language opposites , which means that a word means both a meaning and its opposite at the same time . Some of their Explanations are based on data from the ancients , and some are derived from the structures of thought and modern theories . From this latter category of explanations is the explanation of Prof. Dr. Mohammed Hussein Al-Yasseen, who approached the dialectical vision in explaining the emergence of language opposites ; for he applied the law of the unity of opposites and their conflict for the word (Jawn) , which meant at first black , and that was the beginning of a conflict between the two extremes united in the consciousness of the speaker. Due to this conflict, the white overcame the black gradually , and the confirmation of that may be that (Jawn) was the the mixture of both the black and the white before the conflict reached to its final form and resulted in the white . But the early scriptures kept the two meanings , and the word (Jawn) became an opposite word . In order to evaluate this reasoning we should check-up the Marxists dialectic evolution . It exists on three laws which are the secret of its effectiveness . The first is the law of the unity of opposites and their conflict , which means that every thing is inevitably a convergence of two opposites and a conflict must take place between them . This conflict does not destroy the unity of the matter , but it leads to the overcoming of the one that reflects the progress on the other one . And when this shift happens the second law comes ; ie the law of transformation of quantity into quality , which states that the change is at first gradual , but when it increases or decreases to a certain extent qualitative change happens . Then comes the third law , ie the law of negation of negation , which provides for three things : First : continuous change . second: keeping the best characteristics of the old and gaining new characteristics . And Third : moving unsteadily , but in a circular motion, so that it falls back to its first thesis , but in a better form . the three laws of dialectic are not immune from criticism . the first law can be discussed by stating that human nature can not accept the negative and positive together in the same place and at the same time , for it feels self-incompatibility between them absolutely . the second law is denied by many philosophers ; because the quantum is divided into two parts , the first is the discrete quantum , which is said to things that do not have common borders , and the other is the connected quantum , which is said to things that have common borders . The discrete quantum creates no new quality . Quality is combined to the connected quantum . This quality may finally end up by a jump that transfers it from one species to another , or may not end with any jump . the third law is unacceptable for we know that all masters of dialectical materialism deny the causes in nature , but they link the movements of matter and its evolution with purpose , a doctrine that put that matter in the place of human consciousness in its most prestigious activities . As long as the three laws of dialectic can not withstand the criticism the explanation for the emergence of language opposites that rely on it will not be correct . it is noted that Dr. Al-Yasseen stated that the Union of extremes in Example (Jawn) only exists in the consciousness of the speaker , and we all know that the dialectical materialistic Marxism - which has established its philosophy on the basis of resisting its predecessor the ideal - has categorically denied the outside intervention of any force , and turned inwards material relying on it exclusively as a home for the unity and conflict of opposites. And because the law of the unity of opposites and their conflict is a result of dialectical materialism it is not a very good idea to say that the conflict between the two extremes exists in the mind . Moreover, we do not have the proof that the word (Jawn) was first said to the black alone , and then to the black and white together , and then to the white alone . And it is clear as well that it is difficult to prove the advantage of what results from the withdrawal of the negation of negation related to the word (Jawn) to its first thesis ; for this will lead us to the idea of blackness itself , from which we started at first , and there is no higher integration here than what was before . I think that The closest description for the explanation of Dr. Al-Yasseen is that it is a fabrication of the dialectical explanation , including both its ideal and materialistic branches , and what might be called (collapse of the opposite in the mind), to which Dr. Al-Yasseen had referred elsewhere in his book as one of the explanations adopted concerning the emergence of language opposites .

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Article
الإسلام في أربونة ونظرية فتح القسطنطينية

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Arbonh Islam in Constantinople and the theory of open Allah says in the Quran, "They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths and die, God averse * is the one who sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religions even though the Pagans may detest" This is the commissioning of the legitimate Islamic nation pursuant to that went Muslims to all over the world spreading the word "no god but God and Mohammed is the Messenger of God" was Andalusia goal they mean to achieve the aspirations of that penetrated into the subdivision north until they came to the cities of Tours and Poitiers the French as took place Battle of Tours in 114 AH then stopped crawling on the impact of the loss of the Muslims in this battle, but it was one of the goals is to reach Constantinople across Andalusia, through Europe, is that what remains in their hands is a city Arbonh located at the north-east of Andalusia, which alone her last, and this site is important to have appropriate and make it a launching pad Islamic armies towards Constantinople This is the hypothesis developed by our research, which dealt with add me to the stage to open the city and some of the inhabitants, Muslims and enjoyed the economic situation prosperous even came Tgra and a base for Muslims on both sides of land and sea, and that was the first axis. It also touched on some of the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (Allah bless him and God), which is consistent with the Quranic verse which were received with some of the attempts of Muslims in the conquest of Constantinople on the Levant and reached by the Muslims through some of the battles flash in the northern parts of Andalusia and in-depth French that good deal was the predominant character of the Muslims with the indigenous people of the country that are referred to by some Orientalists like (Dozy and Ranasiman) that was the focus of our second. We are to take us to some of the results include some of them are as follows: 1. Achieving such a big goal needs to be a large military strategy at the tactical and logistical, that's what you do not find all the Muslim conquerors of Andalusia. 2. Fast delivery of a large number of goals in Andalusia is the one who caused them to think that access to the Orient through the conquest of Constantinople. 3. We often noted, according to historians did not find the first deals with the idea of the conquest of Constantinople by Andalusia just some of the latecomers that their stories are characterized by weakness and discontinuity. 4. Finally, it must be emphasized as was mentioned in the Qur'anic verse that described in the preamble Search term must be realized that the promise of God, even if it is not left of the time only one hour.

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Article
بلاغة الإضراب في القرآن

Authors: صباح محمد حسين
Pages: 36-63
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Article
تقويم الاداء الاداري والفني لمديري المدارس الابتدائية في محافظة واسط من وجهة نظر معاونيهم

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The Problem of Study: The theme of performance evaluation occupies a vital position as far as educational management is concerned for its role in developing and improving the course of educational process. It matters in providing information for performance level. Conferences and symposiums held by Ministry of Education affirmed that administrational and technical evaluation in Iraq suffers from difficulties and hardships especially in the evaluation of the headmasters of primary schools. Therefore, the administrative process needs evaluation. The Importance of study: Educational and teaching is an intended and orientated process which is directed mainly to human being to adopt them and prepare their capabilities and potentials, and invest his or her energies towards the service of society in which he lives and interact. Hence we find that educational administrative staff are giving great importance to it being an essential part of the educational process. Without making an evaluation ,we can never know what educational process has achieved, and thus, we cannot deal with the difficulties it might have

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Article
رؤنانى رستةى سادة

Authors: . حاتم وليا محمد
Pages: 209-225
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The Paper is entitled (Structure of simple Sentence) which is an attempt to analyze simple sentence into its constituents in terms of structure. In addition to introduction and conclusion, the paper consists of four sections. The first section is a general account of adjunct complement along with the distinction between them. The second section is devoted to syntactic and semantic distinction between object and predicative complement. Distinction between adjunct and direct objects are dealt with within the third section, whereas the fourth section handles the subject. The paper ends with a number of conclusions and list of reference.

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Article
الأسس الشرقية في قصص بورلا

Authors: شيماء فاضل حمودي
Pages: 226-244
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Yahoda Borla was born in 1889 in Jerusalem, The subject of this research deals with the influence of the Oriental Jewish environment on the literary works of "Yahoda Borla", So we presented the environment of the Oriental Jewish, and their status in the Modern Hebrew literature. Then we came a cross the social environment and "Literary brought-up" of the literate, and the impact on his works, which were presented through analysis and criticism. We also presented the image of the "Arab Character" in some of his works, it was obvious that he showed the "Arab Character" in a distorted way, as other Hebrew literature did. Then we took the image of the "Oriental Jew" in the works of some "Western Jewish literates". This research showed the great influence of the Oriental Jewish environment on the works ranked him as one of the elite, of the Modern Hebrew literature

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Article
الشاهد النحوي الشعري المجهول القائل في شرح ابن عقيل في بابي الابتداء ونواسخه وأثره في القاعدة النحوية

Authors: سرى طاهر الجبوري
Pages: 245-307
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After this trip in the wombs of scientific books and references, we can say that I have Beatify on the side of the subject, and shed light on the corner of it, and hope The issue of anonymous evidence grammatical poetic view room for a huge volume splits the word and the act of speech. The most important results of this study, can be summarized as follows: Was not the son of Aqeel first protested the trial anonymous view in his commentary was preceded by grammarians such as the Imam of grammarians - sebo - and the radiator and I'm taking and the son of a farmer and son of the owner and son of Hisham, as well as those who followed him, such as Suyuti and Ashmouni, SPI and Baghdadi, The use of Ibn Aqil evidence poetic anonymous view in his commentary came to represent and familiarity with them, not for martyrdom, as well as that stipulating the evidence of anonymous representation in his commentary, does not mean that he approved of the unfamiliar and Bunting, and therefore released from the Neu-confidence depends upon and, therefore, accepted it, and gave the son of Aqeel witness on a particular issue in the commentary, Nhoyen furnished with two more in a matter other than that protested her son Aqil witness. The difference in the novel the house, he cites Ibn Aqil novel cited by the House, while others documented in the novel differ from what was narrated, and this difference came in the novels of two types: - a slight difference does not affect the witness and the position in question is to change (the word) or even (character), which does not affect the change in the home of the witness and wisdom in the matter. - The difference in impact on the home of the witness and his grammar, represented by the change in the movement of express words of the witness, Fmjie witness accounts from a different cause for multiple interpretations of grammar, especially if all the grammarians who told the witness is credible to them. Those are the main findings of the study. The last prayer is praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.

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Article
شخصية رئيس الدولة وأثرها في سريان النصوص الجنائية في الفقه الإسلامي

Authors: عبد الخضر عباس علي
Pages: 308-329
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head of state and its impact on the validity of the criminal provisions in the Islamic jurisprudence. Is clear from the particles covered by research show that Islamic texts, including texts Criminal apply to every person committed a crime in the State of Islam regardless of his nationality and his position, including the Head of State or members of his family and protect it and his crew is no difference between Sharif and Odaa, rich and poor, Arab and a foreigner, the governor and the governed, people vary in credit, and all of a preferred his virtue, but to punish them both, that was their reason for punishment is no exception all of the income of the house of Islam, including foreign heads of state and their followers because they are treated Kmstamnin . And not in taking the head of state is followed in the texts criminal's nothing wrong with Islamic law, as long as they settled between him and other people, but the disadvantage of each defect in the laws that differentiate between the head of state is followed and the rest of the people on the pretext that the source of the law and that the supreme authority, not true that is subject to our authority is condemned him, and he comes from . Islamic law is superior to be compared to secular laws, as they reached the degree of perfection which is not flawless because it is inspired by God and His laws, and God Almighty know

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Article
شاعر في اسبانيا المسيحية تدروس ابو العافية

Authors: قصي نبيل عبد الكريم
Pages: 330-348
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Jewish poet "Tdros AL-lawee Abu al-afia " is one of the most prominent Jewish poets who appeared in the Middle Ages in Christian Spain. This poet was known at that time as the royal court poet during the reign of King Alfonso X. He wrote many religious and secular poems, but he became famous for pride poems and use of the "I" pronoun in these poems which were influenced by sulieman ibn Jpiroll, as well as influenced by the great Arabic poetry in Andalusia. This influence , which lasted into that period, was clearly evident in many of his poems, which were dominated by the idea of "the time" especially the religious ones. To the best know ledge of the researcher ,This study is the first study in the Department of Hebrew language that deals with a Jewish poet in Christian Spain in the Middle Ages .

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المعنى الوجودي للحياة وعلاقته بقوة تحمل الشخصية لدى الموظفين في دوائر الدولة

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The aim of current study is to identify the existential meaning of life and Personal hardiness of officials in state institutions, and identify the difference significance in existential meaning of life and Personal hardiness of officials in accordance with gender variable (male – female) and to identify the relationship between the existential meaning of life and personal hardiness of officials in state institutions. To achieve the aims of the study, the researcher developed the existential meaning of life scale which consists of (30) items in its final form. Distributed on three aspects: Creative Values, Experiential Values, and Attitudinal Values. Also the researcher has adopted AL Musawi scale of personal hardiness that consists of (29) items in its final form, Distributed on three aspects: Control, Commitment, Challenge. The results of Study indicated that the officials in state institutions have a high level of feeling of existential meaning of life and also a high level of personal hardiness, the results indicates too There were no significant differences in accordance with gender variable in both existential meaning of life and personal hardiness, and the results indicates that There is a positive significant correlation between the existential meaning of life and personal hardiness of officials in state institutions. In the light of these results, the researcher has presented a set of recommendations and suggestions for future researches.

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Article
Bildung neuer Wörter von Wortstämmen und Motiviertheit in der deutschen Sprache

Authors: Sawsan Kasim Neaama Al-Badri
Pages: 363-488
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گفتگو در غزليات انوری بررسی وتحليل

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Article
- An Analysis of Iraqi EFL Learners’ Errors in Paragraph Writing

Authors: Shurooq Abboodi Ali
Pages: 440-462
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الفقرة هي الوحدة الأساسية أو القطعة الرصينة البناء للقطع المطولة للكتابة . أنها سلسلة من جمل منظمة عائدة لموضوع واحد . فأية قطعة في الكتابة (سواء أكانت انشاء او مقالة او بحث) يجب أن تكتب على شكل فقرات تساعد على تقطيع نص كبير الى وحدات اصغر كي تسهل قراءته وفهمه. فبدون الفقرات لا يمكن لقطعة من الكتابة أن تزود القارئ بوقفات قصيرة ليفهم النقاط المعدة فيها. فهي تبين للقارئ أين تبدأ وأين تنتهي الأجزاء الصغيرة لأية قطعة من الكتابة ولذلك فهي تساعده على رؤية تنظيمها وفهم أفكارها الرئيسية . يجب على المتعلمين أن تكون لديهم المقدرة على توصيل أفكارهم بوضوح في الكتابة من خلال مهنهم الأكاديمية وحياتهم العملية ومن اجل ذلك فهم بحاجة الى الممارسة والسيطرة على الجوانب الضرورية للكتابة بفعالية وبشمولية في الأغراض . فمعرفة كيفية تشكيل الكلمات على الورق لنقل أفكار بأسلوب متماسك ومقنع بقوة تزود المتعلمين بأداة قوية وفعالة تجعلهم متعلمين لمدى الحياة . قد تكون لدى المتعلمين أفكار رائعة ولكن أن لم تقدم بطريقة منظمة فأن هؤلاء المتعلمين سيخفقون بتحقيق أهدافهم بالكتابة . ولهذا فأن الدراسة الحالية تتحرى اخطاء المتعلمين العراقيين الدارسين للغة الانجليزية لغة أجنبية في كتابة الفقرة المقطعية وذلك لان معظمهم لا يعرف الطريقة الفعالة لكتابة فقرة بأسلوب قوي ومتماسك ولهذا فقد تم أعداد اختبار لامتحان اربعة وعشرين متعلما عراقيا دارسين للغة الانجليزية لغة أجنبية لكتابة فقرة مقطعية واحدة فقط على ثلاثة مستويات من الصعوبة ( السهل والمتوسط والمتقدم ) وعلى ثلاثة أجزاء على التوالي . حللت اجابات المتعلمين وبينت النتائج أنهم يرتكبون أخطاء مختلفة في كتابة الفقرات في الأجزاء الثلاثة ووجدت النسب الأعلى والمتكررة في الأخطاء في استخدام الأزمنة والترابط في الجزأين الثاني والثالث. وعلى العكس من ذلك فأن اقل نسب سجلت في استخدام الأسماء بصيغة المفرد والثبات في استخدام الزمن والضمير والمصطلح واستخدام (S) التصريفية في الجزء الأول والجزء الثاني والجزء الثالث على التوالي. حللت الأسباب التي كانت وراء نسب كهذه وأعطيت اقتراحات مختلفة لتعود بالفائدة على الأساتذة والطلبة أيضا.

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Symbolism in Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest
الرمزية في مسرحية أوسكار وايلد "أهمية أن تكون صادقاً"

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Though categorized as a Comedy of Manners, Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being earnest is nonetheless enriched with insinuated Symbolism. This research traces the Symbolic manifestations in the play’s language, setting, symbolic motifs, and in its symbols as such. The analysis finds that the subtlety with which these manifestations are handled checks them from hindering the humor of the comedy in any way, rather, they endow it with an intelligent enhancement and render the social criticism more acute.

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DESIGN CRITERIA IN SOME SELECTED TRANSLATED TEXTS

Authors: Amthal Mohammed Abbas
Pages: 489-501
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The major concern of this study is to highlight the three design criteria , namely , efficiency , effectiveness and appropriateness. These three criteria constitute the factors that all text designers base their styles on when they produce texts. The study , in the first part , deals with every criterion separately and examples are provided when required to add and enrich the theoretical part with more clarification . The second part is dedicated to practical implications in which two original texts with their translations are analyzed in terms of the three design criteria highlighted in the first part of the study

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Difficulties in Translation of the English Present Perfect Simple and the Past Perfect Simple into Arabic and Some Suggested Solutions
صعوبات ترجمة صيغتي المضارع التام البسيط والماضي التام البسيط في الانكليزية إلى اللغة

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This paper deals with the problems faced while trying to translate the English 'Perfect'(present perfect simple and past perfect simple) into Arabic and suggested solutions to overcome these problems. It does not deal with translation of the English present perfect progressive and the past perfect progressive into Arabic . It handles the tense system in English and Arabic and it shows how difficult the present perfect is for the non-native speakers of English. The paper reveals that little attention has been paid to the past perfect and the relationship between the two tenses has not been taken seriously in most grammar books. It aims to tackle the problem of translating the English present/past perfect into Arabic by suggesting some linguistic devices which can be of semantic and formal equivalents to the English perfect giving it a clear distinction from other tenses with the purpose of achieving the accurate meaning of the original. The researcher hopes that the findings of this study will, to a certain extent, help the translators, lexicographers and those who pay great attention to the contrastive studies.

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Motivations of Code-Switching in the Classrooms of the Department of English

Authors: . Ali M. Jukil
Pages: 522-535
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Code-switching is a term which is widely used by sociolinguists. The phenomenon of code-switching occurs in a bilingual community. So, code-switching is observed in the Department of English and it is performed between the native language of the students (Kurdish) and a foreign language (English) that students are going to gain competence in. The objective of the study is to find out how code-switching can be used as a teaching device in learning a foreign language. This study is divided into five sections. The first is a brief introduction about the term and the phenomenon. The second section is devoted to the language situation in the Department of English. The third one deals with the motivations of code-switching and the fourth section offers the concluding remarks while the fifth one is about the pedagogical implications.

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Article
The Exhilaration of Death in Walt Whitman's Poetry A Paper In English Literature
بهجة الموت في قصائد ولت وتمان

Authors: Dhiffaf I. Ali
Pages: 544-559
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This paper tackles Walt Whitman (1819-1892) as a celebrator of death and immortality. His Leaves of Grass is the main evidence of this approach. It contains more than two hundredwords and synonyms of death and mortality. Hence, to show Whitman's appreciation of this issue, light is shed on a handful of his poems. Moreover, factors that shaped and enhanced his interest in death will be stated and manifested.

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Article
Metapher und Metonymie im Deutschen
المجاز والكناية في اللغة الالمانية / دراسة نظرية

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مرويات نفطويه اللغوية

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This research discusses a set of the narratives which have been narrated by Neftawih who is Ibrahim bin Mohammed bin Arrefah bin Alazdy. The researcher collected these narratives from different sources concluded the books of Language, interpretation, and dictionaries. These narratives, which account one hundred and forty nine, have been classified according to the alphabetical order. Their value has emerged as historical texts from the era of eloquence which have been saved by Neftawih and booked by the books of language and others. Neftawih had valuable and sounded views in the field of language which revealed the independence of his character. He was pure, good-sit, a man of generosity, and honest in all of his narratives. He memorized the holy Quran and the biography and morality of the scientists. He used to narrate the anecdotes, language, Hadith, and the people days. He memorized the languages, the meanings of poetry, and the standards of grammar as well as he denied the derivation in the language. Neftawih was one of those who memorized the antitheses of Gareer and Farazdak in addition to the poetry of Thi-Alremah. Neftawih was a poet whose school of grammar represented the mix of Kofi and Basery grammatical schools; however, his school of Islamic law was the school of Aldhahiriah. Finally, he was a scientist in the school of Dawod Aldhahiry.

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الدستور والتعديل الدستوري في الدول العربية (قراءة في تعديلات الدستور المصري)

Authors: أسامة عبد علي خلف
Pages: 656-678
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The current research is marked by (the Constitution and the constitutional amendment in the Arab / read in the amendments to the Constitution of Egypt) came to study the Constitution as a concept and definition, as well as amendments to the Constitution are important topics for the time being, especially since he was the supreme law of the State, which is on the way determined by the existing political system and the foundations general run on the basis of which the state and sets the framework of political, social and economic them. And that the Constitution is not immune from the law of evolution, the political developments and developments in society requires the amendment of the Constitution in line with the changes secreted by this development, and thus need to be amendments to the Constitution imposed by the nature of these developments, The search aims to identify the concept of the Constitution and the constitutions and ways of issuing the constitutional amendment procedures, and we studied the Egyptian constitution for the year (1971), as amended, and in the years (1980-2005-2007-2011) Konmuj of the study. It also tries to find the answer to the following questions: • What is the concept of the Constitution, and ways to publish it? • What action is the amendment to the Constitution? • How was the amendments to the Constitution of Egypt for the years 1980-2005 --2 007? Were they in favor of the President of the Republic? In light of this, determined the structure of the current search Bembgesan eating section first the concept of the constitution and methods of legislation, constitutions and mechanisms amendment Aldstatir and the second section devoted to the content of amendments to the Egyptian constitution issued in (1971) for the years (1980-2005-2007-2011), and a conclusion came from the search results, followed by a list of sources. It is reconciled to God

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Psychological and social compatibility with the survivors of the chemical bombing of Halabja
التوافق النفسي والاجتماعي لدى الناجين من القصف الكيمياوي لقضاء حلبجة

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The goal of current research to identify the level of psychological adjustment and social with the survivors of chemical attacks to the bombing of Halabja, as well as those who were not exposed to the bombing of chemical and identify the difference in the level of psychological adjustment and social with the survivors of chemical attacks to spend Halabja and who did not Ataradwl him and identify the nature of the difference in psychological adjustment and social the survivors of the bombing of Halabja chemical to spend on the variable according to sex. To achieve this, the researchers built a measure of the compatibility of psychological, social and applied to a sample of 400 male and female employees were selected randomly multistage extraction characteristics were Alsekoumtria him. The results showed that the average members of the sample is higher than average of the sample as a whole and also appeared that the average members of the sample is higher than average Alfrda in those who did not at aradwalkasv chemical and there is a difference between the survivors of the bombing and who were not exposed to non-exposed and with respect to variable sex appears that there is no difference between them .

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Goals of sport lessons in intermediat schools between philosophy contents and practical actuality
اهداف دروس التربية الرياضية في المدارس المتوسطة بين المضمون الفلسفي والواقع العملي

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The researchers suggested at the forefront of their research the importance of physical education and goals sitting and the great responsibility to who in charge to formulate these goals, and the reality of that reflected the misery environment of physical education school lesson, which impose us to figure out the nature of physical education goals which conducted under it. The defined objectives of the research were to know whether Physical Education teachers in the middle schools are aware of the contents of physical education lessons goals, and researchers address in the theoretical section meaning of goals, definition and it's importance, and the sources to derive the objectives and content style. The research sample was 43 Physical Education Teachers from General of Physical Education Directorate, Baghdad's Al-Karkh 1, they adopted Questionnaire as research tool for collecting information and discuss it sincerity and objectivity. The researchers presented the results of their research and concluded, that the research sample was not had common review about the possibility of achieve (Bloom) goals through the vocabulary physical education lessons in middle school, and that the current reality of school sport does not help to achieve it's goals, and most recommendations were re-considered the formulation of physical education objectives in middle schools according to (Bloom) classification and to fit the reality of sports in school .

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ميثاق التكامل بين جمهورية مصر العربية وجمهورية السودان الديمقراطية انموذجاً لدراسة العلاقات المصرية السودانية

Authors: نبراس خليل ابراهيم
Pages: 746-769
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The integration agreement between Egypt and Sudan is lack of success conditions of project to union . it is to base the project on firm scientific and practical principles that comprehends all circumstances the two countries are leading . That is to ensure the right path and to provide the bases of its protection and to avoid any urgent diversion and create the wide loyal masses to bare the responsibility to defending this agreement . under any circumstances . So giving room to the mass to share work is the basic condition to protect any agreement. All the achievements that done are not fit to the big propaganda that preceded . In spite of expanding in different aspects of the integration agreement that cover all life , some of life projects succeeded and the other failed . The last period of Numeri s ruling , the relations between the tow countries were obviously rest warm especially when the sudden announcement of Islamic laws were declared in 1983.These Islamic laws made a reflection on the political map in Egypt . Numeri acted privately without counseling Egypt leaving the wanted policy behind his back which was agreed on it previously , beside the trouble in south of Sudan which were taking a place especially after dividing it into regions . All that led to stop working in ”Junqly canal” the great importance for Egypt . According to this political situation , the Egyptian leaders had been divided towards Numeri in his last period. The procedure by which the agreement of integration been announced, The circumstances and thoughts that surround the Arabs and what recently The Sudanese people had their thoughts , all that made Sudanese demand to reconsider this agreement on new bases. There is no doubt that the interest of the two countries demand such agreement due to the historic and geographic relations. The willing mass should be real expression to say yes or no to such agreement for economic integration . The practice of people to his willings needs a democratic environment.

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تحليل منهج أبي اسحاق الشيرازي( ت476 هـ - 1058 م ) في كتابه – طبقا ت الفقهاء-

Authors: آلاء نافع جاسم
Pages: 770-794
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Care that the leg acy of the Arab nation and the media Arab –IsLamic thought of the most important historical Studies Led to the research and Study of historiant because they contain With in them a lot of historical in formation on the nation to civilization in order to revive it the united civilized Whatever Civilization rose from him be sure to scholars and thinlsers in our history the Arab-muslim Personalities Scientific mission contributed to the Progress of the Arabs and Muslims other nations and PeoPles . Must disclose this material and its role in building a Civilizaion and ParticiPate instructive to think a bout the ProsPerity of the Arab Science and other Know ledge at the time .shirazi is a limit of Prominent historians of lslam writ many Valuable books ,and he Wrot in the introduction of classes in the books,and men ,ajurist ,historian and man of letters .in this books he Wanted to Know shirazi juris Prudence Scholars Who Preceded him ,and the Statement of their Situation, and definition of their status With the Said books . so that the book (Scholars layers)of the Shirazi of important books and media Value to address the Scholars of the Period dealt With the importance of research and his book and Prestige of Scientific method and the elements of the translation.

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الوسطية في النقد العربي القديم حتى نهاية القرن الخامس الهجري نحو تأصيل المصطلح النقدي

Authors: رميض مطر حمد
Pages: 824-856
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This search is a simple attempt to establish the concept of the middle stance in Arabic criticism in order to be added to the critical terms listed in Dr. Ahmed Matloub's only " Reconciliation " as a critical term. This does not mean that Arab critics were not familiar with this concept.They use it in reconciliating opposing views and to reduce extremity and exaggeration of the critical controversy on the issue of utterance and meaning , classical and modern , and the argument between Islam and poetry.

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Article
Identification and Analysis of Terrorism Metaphors
تعيين مجازات الإرهاب و تحليلها

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In the present paper a discussion is made of the identification and analysis of metaphors encountered in Toni Blair's speeches and interviews on terrorism post to the September-attacks by the adoption of the cognitive approach as is developed by Steen's (1999) procedure for developing conceptual metaphors out of linguistic expressions. The investigation involves such issues as the distinction between literal and metaphorical in identifying instances of linguistic metaphor, the traditional identification of tenor and vehicle in each linguistic metaphor, the arrival at conceptual metaphors out of linguistic ones, and, finally, giving a full explanatory account of each worked-out metaphor. The aim here is to pinpoint areas of easiness or uneasiness as to such working out of metaphors, i.e. to see to what extent this model of identification of conceptual metaphors is applicable.

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Ido Language: An Overview of its Construction

Authors: Afra'a Abdul-Hussein Nasir
Pages: 883-899
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تحليل القوى الاستراتيجية المؤثرة للخطاب السياسي دراسة حالة الخطب السياسية لبراك اوباما.

Authors: إيناس ضياء مهدي
Pages: 900-912
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Influence of the dominant strategic power in political Speech A practical Study in obamas political Speech The Political speech Regarded as an important element for the making of the stat ,weather in its formation ,the structure of it s entity , its political system and it s governmental instruments. The search aimed to study: 1- the deferent means of Political speech and Strategic Analysis for its power. 2- What are the relationship between the Strategic power of Political speech and the success of the leaders. 3- what is the influence of Strategic Analysis of Political speech in Obamas success. In order to achieve the goal of this study ,the researcher include a theoretically and practically sides. So ,part one devoted to contain the basic concepts and principles of the variables that has been mentioned to before . Part two contain the application of the research variables in Obamas Political speech. And viewed the results .

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فاعلية أنموذج كارين في اكتساب المفاهيم البلاغية عند طلاب

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The current research aims to know the impact of Carin Model In gaining Linguistic concepts By fifth Literary School Students . following hypothesis: There is no difference statistically significant at the level of significance (0.05) between the averag collection gaining of fifth Literary School Student who study Linguistic concepts using Carin Model , average collection gaining who are studying the same article the usual way. Directorate General for Education Baghdad Rusafa Third,'s (13), the researcher chose Qsidia school (Salah Al-din high of Benin) to apply the experience. Having identified the researcher the school that will be applied when the experiment has had, whispers to her of two divisions for the fifth literature are (a, b) were selected randomly Division (a) to represent the experimental group, and Division (b) to represent the control group, the total number of students in two divisions (68) students , by (34) students in the experimental group and (34) students in the control group. Promising researcher achievemen test in, gaining Linguistic concepts By fifth Literary School student in the subjects to be studied during the period of the experiment in light of the content of the book, and behavioral objectives prepared by the Carin Model In gaining collection of student research sample. To Linguistic concepts. The researcher used the following statistical methods: Altaúa test, and Chi-square, and Crounbach Alpha Equation in analyzing the results of his research. Have shown the search result than students of the experimental group to the students of the control group In gaining Linguistic concepts ,, and shows the result the following ,that the Carin Model , have a positive impact in increasing the gaining By fifth Literary School Student , which shows its importance in raising the scientific level

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Article
أثر إستراتيجية العصف الذهني عند تدريس التعبير في تنمية التفكير التباعدي لدى طلاب الصف الرابع الأدبي

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The research aims at knowing the effect of mental storming strategy when teaching composition in developing divergent thinking. in order to achieve the objective of study, the following zero hypotheses: 1. There is no statistical difference at level of (0.05) between the students of the experimental group in Divergent thinking before applying mental storming. 2. There is no statistical difference at level of (0.05) between the students of the experimental group and control group in Divergent thinking before applying mental storming. The research was confined on a sample comprised of students of fourth stage – literary branch- in Baghdad Directorate of Education Rusafa II for the secondary schools and preparatory schools for the academic year (2010/2011) , the second semester. The researcher has chosen a partial design for his groups in the pretest and posttest, one is experimental and the other is control. The secondary school of 'Aqba Ben Nafi' in Baghdad Rusafa of was chosen randomly for the experiment. The total number of the sample was 60 students chosen randomly from two sections: section –B- represent the experimental group who were taught according to the mental storming technique, and section A- was chosen to represent the control group who were taught in the traditional methods. The researcher has matched the two groups in terms of (Age , scores of Arabic in midterm exam, scores of divergent thinking posttest), and Chi-square (parent's education) before the experiment sets out. In order to provide an instrument for the divergent thinking, the researcher used the divergent thinking devised by Dr. (Sanaa Yaqub Al-Timimee, 1996). He verified the provision of the required specifications like (creditability, constancy, remarkable, application on group). The researcher has taught the two groups himself and the experiment lasted for the whole second semester 2010/2011. The researcher used the suitable statistical means like (T-test for two independent sample, T-test for two correlated sample, Chi-square, and Pearson correlated coefficient). The most important findings were: 1. There is no statistical difference between the students' scores in the components of (correlative fluency , verbal fluency expressive fluency, thinking fluency, spontaneous flexibility, the condition flexibility), of divergent thinking before the application of the divergent strategy in post-test (fluency of forms). 2. There is no statistical difference between the students' scores in the components of (correlative flunt, verbal fluency expressive fluency, thinking fluency, spontaneous flexibility, the condition flexibility), of divergent thinking before the application of the divergent strategy in post-test (auto flexibility). The most important conclusions are: 1. Abilities of divergent thinking growth and evolves due to training and practice of strategies and methods of teaching which would stimulate the brain. 2. Mental storming strategy has a clear effect in developing divergent thinking. It was found for developing the innovative thinking. 3. The expression themes have a direct link to the life and problems of students. They contribute in making them more active in classroom

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The permanent development and its effects to develop the civilized field of services of the city
التنمية المستديمة وأثرها في تطوير قطاع الخدمات الحضرية للمدن

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The concept of the permanent development gives new dimension that can de added to the different dimensions. The civilized dimension that is used to find the true treatments to solve the problems of the city to make them the basic treatment. The field of the civilized services and its problems constitutes the basic material for the problems civilized projects , such as : education and health and other general services .All these services are discussed inside the development concept to reach to the case of balance. The permanent development studies the capacity of services and to arrange the services .lt studies the peoples basic needs in order to achieve peoples happiness inside their social environment .Peoples happiness cannot de achieved unless they find a perfect system of services.

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أولويات التحكم القيمي لأداء القائم بالاتصال في معالجة موضوعات العنف دراسة ميدانية للعاملين (بلادي) و(الحرية)

Authors: حسين دبي حسان الزويني
Pages: 1013-1035
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Priorities of the control to perform value-based contact to address issues of violence - A field study of workers in the Iraqi media - M. D. Hussein Dubai al- Zowayni Faculty of Information University of Baghdad Abstract: The study is a priority value of studies that are related to curriculum behavioral, because the existing call is trying to find formulas compromise during the processing of multimedia features that are related to background events of violence through the development of standard professional to determine the degree of importance of these priorities, default before commencing the implementation of the idea the media, and summarized the priorities, the nature of the media organization and its impact ideology in addressing issues of violence, as well as the priorities of personal and economic, which often move Preference-based communication and active Daffiest to complete the topics media different, as well as the priorities of community that often control the quality and size of the topics covered in the existing call. The research seeks to achieve the scientific aims of the following: - identify the value priorities that control the performance of media-based communication while covering violent events. - Determining the priorities set by the call based on considerations while covering the violence. - diagnosis of the impact factor (fear) to address the existing communication media of the topics that are related to background to cause violence. Through scientific insights can be deduced: - control priorities, institutional and community-based behaviors to communicate about various topics of violence. - The priorities set by the existing call while covering the violence was ambitious, honest and broad-mindedness, which goes back to the vision of professionalism enjoyed by the existing contact to avoid collision with the values of society. - The effect of the fear factor on the treatment media to represent (partial selection of the events) and (try to find a "consensus" in the brainstorm),

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ثنائية اللغة والأسلوب في نتاجات مندلي موخير سفاريم

Authors: نعمة جاسم محمد
Pages: 1036-1044
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Mandali Mukar Safarim is the name of literary Shalom Jacob Abramovich (1835 - 1917) And is one of the most important classical writers of Yiddish literature literature and Hebrew literature In the 19th century Poet Haim Nahman Bialik Said of him (National Secretary of the Hebrew literature) Mandali wrote Ntegath language Yiddish and Hebrew He was seen to be (Abu Hebrew literature) Mandali has gained education and culture close to the Jewish people Through which he lived his life in the Jewish towns His writings were concerned with Jewish community Ntegath have been translated into several languages He died at the age of (72) years in Odessa.

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Article
British Policy in the Arabic Gulf Region
السياسة البريطانية في منطقة الخليج العربي للفترة من 1792 ـ 1820

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This research is a review or a demonstration for the primary British military invasion in the Arabic gulf region specially after the reduce of the Dutch control in that remarkable important trading region, so there was no doubt that a foreign force shall be arose in that region to take the Dutch position which was in control for more than a century, so the French arouses with their napoleons imperial point of view and the British with their remarkable economist strategic horizon to struggle and fight each other for a piece of the gulf region with all its bounties. Both of them (the French and the British) was doing their best to enter that vital region according to two mechanisms: the first one is to use their military forces and the second is to compromise politically or financially with the leaders of the Arab In the first chapter of this research we showed the primary stages of the British invasion in the Arabic gulf and their struggle against the French Armada to force their military presence within that region. In the second chapter we had studied the nature of the British invasion of Persia taking advantage of the financial and political Conditions at that important era. The third chapter sought in the British invasion of Iraq especially the vital port of al-basrah then the gradual approaching Baghdad The center of Ottoman government in Iraq back then. The Researcher- FarisIbrahem Al-katib Master researchs in Modern History Epilogue: In the current research we can summarize the most important historical and political landmarks into: 1.the Arab gulf region with all its nature resources and the strategic geographic position make it in the sight of multiple imperial nations those as a pray for their greedy nature those struggled and fight to poses it’s bounties and take advantage of its strategic position and fortunes for centuries, that’s the fact that demonstrate the competition of among those nations to invade it along the time. 2.in the spotlight of what been demonstrated and reviewed of the historical facts in the theme of this research we can clearly see that the British political mind is the most successful one in reading the political area with high level of efficiency according to long ranges of planning time tables, they are the most successful of all to achieve and accomplish all their goals no matter how much time it may takes like the English saying “it’s better late than never) that fact demonstrate for us how the British took advantage of the political and commercial gap left the Dutch in the region which was the secret of their success to achieve their hard political goals in spite of the presence of the Ottoman giant and how they use their keen political sense to achieve those goals and. 3. The successes of the diplomatic corps in dealing with the region public especially the Arabic tribes with the successful politician proficiency and the real investor, they gave them the liberty to choose and practice their religion and tribe leadership, their focus was on the political and financial factors. 4.The management was very skillful when it comes to choose their intelligence agents and politicians those been sent to the Arabic region that is the secret of their set of fast and followed up political and financial successes of the British government in the Arabic gulf region in spite of all the imperial competitors in that vital region. 5. The British management was depending in its political work on the intelligence logistic and high level of information gathered from all the countries they intend to deal with, they were sending multiple kinds of specialists in all professions like doctors or relics experts to gather to collect as much as possible of needed information about those countries or people, that has remarkable importance to ease the mission of the British government in one hand and to put the successful solutions to deal with the people of those countries on the other.

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الفروق بين الكتابة() واللغة

Authors: د محمد صنكور
Pages: 1069-1086
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Writing is the human memory which preserves his heritage and the best means to record his knowledge, science, and ancient thought and culture. Since writing has reduced the dimensions of time and place of the person knowing that the nature of language in the first place is a spoken audio form, but its written system, whatever is given the ability and regularity, unable to transfer language in full. Research included the following topics: 1- Introduction: How did the writing appear? And when? 2- The importance of writing in social upbringing and in the educational and cultural system. 3- Types of writing. 4- Writing (Language and lexical) 5- The differences between written and spoken language: Search elaborated in following and discussing these differences in terms of (sounds and dictation, to depart from the measurement taken in writing in the Arabic language and the Holly Quran. 6- Statement of the differences between writing and language in the Arabic language and in English. 7- In conclusion, the researcher compared between writing and language in the theoretical framework in which he counted twenty-four differences between writing and language.

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دور الكلمة في تركيبة اللغة الكوردية (الاســــــــــــم نموذجًا)

Authors: sabah Musa Ali صباح موسى علي
Pages: 1087-1108
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Cince the beginning of creation, the societion emergence, and the appearance of languages, human beings, life stepped towards evolusion and prosperity. Then the need for various types of means started to help human beings in order to fulfil their needs. Across time and during the formation of passtural societies,and as man started breeding sheep and cattle ,his needs for counting the members of his tribe as well as his sheep and cattle appeared so that he would be able to know their number and size. After the emergence of so many change in number, man started inventing numbers and digits. Number was in racing and competion with time and evolution in man life . Therefore ,the invention of units,decimals, hundreds, thousands, millions,billions, etc.appeared. Number is the symbol which carries meaning and a high value, It has its properties in language and it is one of the importand parts of speech, eachlanguage has its own specifis in dealing with number, and its uses. Moreover,each language has its writing system that discriminates it from other vital language. In the present research, we shed light upon the role of number in the formation and morphology of Kurdish words. We dealt withpropernouns as avival sample of the study then we moved towards the role of number on nouns in Kurdish. The effects of Arabic on the nouns due to the religious, geagraphic, and social factors are also dealt with A list of Kurdish proper nouns and their meaning is presented in the study. Original books and resoucer of language, affected on Kurdish and of which Kurdish is affected,are consulted, A comparison of denotation, meanhng ,metonymy, and context ys also made in the study. Success and help are required from god and thanks for him. Dr. sabah Musa Ali

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التعزية والمواساة في العصر النبوي

Authors: محمد علي حسين
Pages: 1126-1137
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From the thing that Arabs depend on in their social life , and made it great virtues and merits Akram and ethics condolence and sympathy with them and this was commensurate with the nature of their lives in the tribal so city in which they lived .The purpose of condolence to reduce the pain of misfortune wham the people of the injured and orged them to Altsber and calc elation and mitigate of grief to speak good and appropriate to recall stories and pride in what they lost and Islam come to affirm virtue agreed by the religions and traditions , social and humanitarian norms and began with calls to the Koran that emphasize sense of rights and aphelion to the group to communicate among them selves and become the consolation of rights .So there is a cod because it is out on the lips of his messengers and cheek the meaning of succession rights in the ground and thus achieve people worship God .The calls Cain after the prophet in the censed of the wounded Bmuseibh .Where is attributed his compaction in grief and after the work of Muslims to console earth other and comfort each other .

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تقييم كفاءة خدمات جامعة كربلاء

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The University of Karbala (new location), which is under construction towards the east of the city in the region Freiha and km (2000 meters) on the holy shrines in the ancient city, and is an important site and is located near the ancient city, and was chosen to be the basis for expansion and urban growth and urban and service-in that region, which will be in a great many years the most important areas in the province of Karbala through multiple uses of land and technical services, social, health and others that should exist with the University, so the advantage of location University of Karbala, a prime location into the fabric of the city and its design, and choice in this place is a good choice, as well as space for a university in the new design basis, which amounted to more than (830 acres) after that was (397 acres). And in this paper will discuss the efficiency of this site within the design basis for the city and the services extended to this site.

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كاريطةريي فةرهةنط لة بنياتى دروستةسينتاكسييةكاندا

Pages: 1151-1177
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This research is claiming that Kurdish sentence structure depending on the information structure which they are hiding in the lexical item. This Linguistic description expresses and show that the lexical entry of each item has it in Lexicon, there for; the structure type of Kurdish phrases are (X-) and like reversal equation, the sentences operation is producing lexical item, which all of them are type (X-) and the whole process named (Lexicalization). In the result the research attempt to prove that Kurdish (VP) structures are existing in (TP) structure and all of these (the two past structures) are inflecting in (AGR P), which make Kurdish sentences projects type of (Agreement).

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LA VISIÓN REALISTA DENTRO DE LA OBRA "FORTUNATA Y JACINTA "DE BENITO PÉREZ GALDÓS .

Authors: Aseel Arzuquí Waheb
Pages: 1187-1193
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Table of content: volume: issue: