جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2011 المجلد: 39 العدد: 2

Article
ESTIMATION for THE FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY of LIPO-OLIGOSACCHARIDE and N-ACETYL-D- GLUCOSAMINE on NODULATION of Medicago and Trifolium
تقديرالفعالية الوظيفية لعديد السكريات الدهنية ومركب الاسيتل كلوكوز أمين على تكوين العقد على نباتي الجت والبرسيم

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الخلاصة

In this study, Lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) nod factor isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium trifolii SU157 were stimulated (two and three) nodules formationon the root of their specific plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and white clover (Trifolium repens) respectively .This stimulation was clear on seedling grown on solid Nitrogen Free (NF) medium supplemented with (1.0 – 8.0 mg/L) Lipo-oligosaccharide . These nodules were small in size but became Larger with gradual increasing of LOS Concentration and increased in number on seedlings in inoculated with specific Rhizobium grown on solid NF medium supplemented with LOS from S.meliloti (11,10,11,12 Nodules/Plant) and R. trifolii (15,16,15,17 Nodules/Plant), comparing with grown on solid NF medium non- supplement with LOS molecule (8,13 Nodules/Plant). Where as the high concentration (8.0 mg/L) of rhizobial nod factor ;N-acetyl – D- glucosamine (GLcNAc) stimulated nodule formation on these Legume plants (1,2 Nodules/Plant).In contrast, these nod factors were unable, in the case of incompatable system , to form these nodules on the root of both clover and alfalfa seedlings. Light microscope study indicated that these nodules were empty and free from Rhizobium cells. Therefore this nod. factor are responsible for development of nodules on the host plant in the absence of rhizobial bacteria . The results of the statistical analysis by 3-way ANOVA of these values are significant at the level of potential alpha- 0.05 for alfalfa and clover plants.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DETERMINATION OF THE TRAINING NEEDS BY USING BORICH MODIFIED EQUATION FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN SOME GOVERNORATES OF NORTHERN IRAQ IN THE FIELD OF PLANNING AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROGRAMS
قياس الاحتياجات التدريبية بطريقة بوريك المطورة للعاملين بالإرشاد الزراعي في بعض محافظات شمال العراق في مجال تخطيط البرامج الإرشادية الزراعية*

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الخلاصة

The objective of this research is to assess the inservice training needs of the agricultural extension workers in Duhok & Erbil Governorates in the field of planning extension programmes and to find out if significant differences exist in the training needs according to some factors. The research sample included (71) respondents, the data were collected through a questionnaire which was specially designed for assessing the training needs by Borich model after testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The researcher used analysis of variance, t-test, and rank–order correlation to analyze the data. A need for training the extension workers was found in the field of planning extension programs and this need was greater for the workers in Duhok Governorate and priorites of the need differ between the two Govermorates, It was also found that there was no significant differences in the training needs according to, age, race, gender, academic level, specialization, position in extension, place of work, years of employment, years of extension employment, and previous training.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SOME FACTORS ON ROOTING PERCENTAGE AND SUBSEQUENT GROWTH OF MANZANILLO OLIVE CUTTINGS
تأثير بعض العوامل في نسبة التجذير والنمو اللاحق لعقل الزيتون صنف مانزينلو (Olea europaea L.)

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الخلاصة

Two separate factorial experiments were conducted during 2004 and 2005 seasons to study rooting and subsequent growth of Manzanillo olive cuttings. The first one study of seven dates of cuttings collection from (1st January to 1st July), monthly intervals and cutting position on the shoot (terminal with 2-3 mm, median with 4-5 mm and basal with 6-8 mm in diameter). While the second experiment include study three dates of cuttings collection (1st April to 1st June), monthly intervals, cutting position on the shoot (median with 3-5 mm and basal with 6-8 mm in diameter), and soaking the cuttings in 4 concentrations of IBA solution 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg.l-1 for 5 seconds. The results revealed that the maximum rooting percentage and number of roots per cutting (65.10% and 14.10 respectively) were on basal cuttings which were collected on the 1st of May in the first experiment. While the semi-hardwood basal cuttings with 6-8 mm in diameter which have been collected on the 1st of May and treated with 3000 mg IBA.l-1 showed superior rooting percentage, roots number per cutting, root length and shoot length (87.30%, 24.50, 11.40 cm and 10.30 cm respectively) in the second experiment

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE CURRENT USAGE OF EXTENSION METHODS BY AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NINEVAH GOVERNORATE AND RELATION WITH SOME VARIABLES
واقع استخدام الطرائق الإرشادية من قبل العاملين في الإرشاد الزراعي بمحافظة نينوى

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الخلاصة

The objectives of this study aimed to identify the current usage of agricultural extension methods by agricultural extension workers in Nineveh governorate and its relation with some variables (Academic qualification, occupation specialization, period of employment, the former training in communications, sources of agricultural information, and attitudes towards agricultural extension). The sample of the study consists of all the workers in the official agricultural branches (175 employees, 120 of them were subjected to researching procedures). The researcher to achieve the goals of the study designed a special questionnaire consist of two parts. The first was concerned with the personal and vocational data, and the second is concerned with measuring of the usage degree, simple correlation, spearman rank correlation, the arithmetical means, standard deviation, the equation of Spearman Brown percentage, were used in analyzing the data. The result showed that group extension methods came first in usage. It was also revealed that there was a significant correlation between the degree of using the agricultural extension methods and the source of agricultural information and occupation, at the same time results showed that there was no significant correlation between the degree of usage and other variables. The researcher recommended to support the already used agricultural extension methods and to activate extension methods that were not used yet, and to increasing the number of extension worker who work in the agricultural divisions.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
اثر البطالة في النمو الاقتصادي (العراق والجزائر) انموذجا"

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الخلاصة

Unemployment phenomenum in Arabic countries in general in Iraq & Algeria(the example of the paper)in particular is being considered a problem of economic and social dimensions expressing clearly the weakness in economic structures and asocial mistake on the national level. It is considered a dangerous social blight which might break down human capabilities and vanish chances of growth and economic welfare.the cause of Employment represents one of the most important challenges which face Arab countries .without employment,there is a loss and uselessness for developed chances of human capital. Therefore,this paper is trying to know the effect of unemployment in economic growth in selected Arab countries (iraq&Algeria) for the period (1995-2008)throughout studying the relationship between the economic growth and the rate of change in unemployment by using law oukn.standard studies practiced in Iraq confirm the existence of variances in the field of rate of economic growth and the absence of continuous time series about unemployment and growth rates as well as the non –existence of statistical standards, so we couldnot have an accurate limitation for oukn factor and the actual rate of growth .As for Algeria, the standard analysis, for growth rates and the change in ratios of unemployment,shows that the natural rate of algerian economy is about 5.2% and it is the needed ratio to keep the present rate of unemployment stable.From this paper,we conclude that unemployment in a whole is astructural one created from the stoppage of the main sectors of production especially agriculture,transformal industry and most service activities and here the growth is considered a quantative change that could happen in two directions;the first is connected with the increase of labour productivity and the other is connected with the increase of labour supply in order to reduce the ratio of unemployment therefore; The study recommends the necessity of encouraging local and foreign investment to find employment for thegraduated and to encourage saving and follow policies that could reduce the ratio of unemployment for it is connected directly with the economic growth .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID AND SEAWEED EXTRACTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF POTATO PLANT (Solanum tubersum L) DESIREE CV.
تاثير حامض الهيومك وبعض مستخلصات الاعشاب البحرية في نمو وانتاج محصول البطاطا

المؤلفون: Taha Z. Sarhan طه زبير سرحان
الصفحات: 19-25
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in College of Agriculture Farms/University of Duhok. At the spring season 2009 on potato plants CV. Desiree. RCBD Design with two factors was applied to study the effect of Humic acid and two seaweed extracts Alga 600 and sea force 2 on potato plants. Humic acid and seaweed extracts treatments caused a significant increase in all vegetative growth and yield characteristics of potato CV desiree. The interaction between treatments also caused a significant effect and the plants which got a humic acid and sprayed with mixture of Alga 600 and sea force 2 gave the highest values of vegetative characters as compared with lowest values of control plants. Also the results appeared a positive significant effect of humic acid and seaweed extracts and their interactions on all yield quantitative characters

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
TRAITS EVALUATION FOR SOME F2 HYBRIDS IN TOMATO
ِتقويم صفات بعض هجن الجيل الثاني في الطماطة

المؤلفون: عبد الجبار اسماعيل الحبيطي
الصفحات: 24-33
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الخلاصة

This study comprised 20 F2-hybrids of tomato arranged in RCBD experiment with three replications to determine the most important traits which affect on tomato yield to be used as a selection index in tomato breeding programs. The studied traits were, number of fruits / plant, average fruit weight (g), early and total yield (kg/plant), plant height (cm) and number of branches per plant. The results showed existence of variation in most yield components, vegetative and qualitative studied traits. The total yield /plant had a highly positive and significant correlation with each of the early yield, average fruit weight. Which had positive direct effects on the total yield. whereas, the early yield had positive indirect effects on the tomato plant yield through fruit weight, no. of branches /plant and no. of fruits /plant

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF BREAD YEAST APPLICATION AND SEAWEED EXTRACT ON CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L.) PLANT GROWTH, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY.
تاثير الرش بخميرة الخبز وبعض مستخلصات الاعشاب البحرية في نمو وانتاج نبات الخيار

المؤلفون: Taha Z. Sarhan طه زبير سرحان
الصفحات: 26-32
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الخلاصة

An experiment was carried out in the plastic house of Horticulture Department/college of Agriculture/ Duhok University on Cucumber plants during 2009 growing season to determine the effect of bread yeast and seaweed extracts Alga 600 and sea force 2 on growth, yield and its component on Cucumber C.V. shadi. The results showed that spraying bread yeast or seaweed extract resulted in positive significant difference in shoot characteristics and in all yield traits as compared to untreated treatment. The interaction between yeast and seaweed extract was significantly enhanced all detected traits. Since cucumber plant received 6 g.l-1 bread yeast and sprayed with a mixture of 0.33ml.l-1 Alga 600 +2.5 ml.l-1 Sea force 2 were characterized by the highest values of all shoot and yield characteristics.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE ROLE OF MAGNESIUM IN INCREASING OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY AND WHEAT YIELD
دور المغنيسيوم في زيادة كفاءة الأسمدة الفوسفاتية و حاصل الحنطة

المؤلفون: Ghafoor A. Mam Rasul غفور احمد مام رسول
الصفحات: 33-39
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted during the growing season 2003 to study the influence of four levels of P (0, 60, 100 and 140 kg ha-1) and four levels of Mg (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) at two locations (Bakrajow and Kalar) on growth and yield of wheat and phosphorus fertilizer efficiency. The results indicated to the response of wheat to phosphorous fertilizer at Bakrajow location only. While the application of 40 kg Mg ha-1 caused significant increase in wheat yield at Bakrajow location only. The highest phosphorus fertilizer efficiency was 34.44% and 55.24% at Bakrajow and Kalar respectively while the Mg fertilizer efficiency was 7.6% and 22.8% at Kalar and Bakrajow respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZER AND ROCK PHOSPHATE ON IRON AVAILABILITY IN SOIL AND THE IRON CONTENT OF LENTIL
تأثير التسميد الحيوي والصخر الفوسفاتي في جاهزية التربة ومحتوى العدس من الحديد

المؤلفون: Mowafaq Younis Sultan موفق يونس سلطان
الصفحات: 34-42
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الخلاصة

Field experiment was conducted in Calciorthid to study the effect of biofertilizer( R. Leguminosarum mixture of the three rhizobial strains Le719, Le726 and Le735) and phosphate fertilizers as rock phosphate to determine the content of Iron in the Lentil (Lens culinaris) and its availability in the soil. The experiment was conducted by using (RCBD) this study involved three levels of phosphorus (0, 40, and 80 kg P/H) as rock phosphate besides two levels of inoculation (inoculated with rhizobial bacteria and non inoculated). K was added to all treatments at a rate of 10 kg K/H with three replicates. Samples of soil and plant were taken at three interval times 75, 105, and 137days after seeding for determining iron. Results showed an ability of strains under-study to increase the availability of Iron in the soil and the Lentil content of iron al so application of rock phosphate increase iron in the soil and plant. This study indicated the ability of using the rock phosphate instead of P fertilizer.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
APPLICATION OF RAINFALL INTENSITY – KINETIC ENERGY RELATIONSHIP FOR SOIL LOSS PREDICTION
استخدام علاقة الشدة المطرية بالطاقة الحركية للتنبؤ بمعدل فقد التربة

المؤلفون: Khalid F. Hassan خالد فالح حسن
الصفحات: 40-49
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الخلاصة

In order to explore the consequences of rainfall intensity – kinetic energy relationships for soil loss, climatologically data for monthly and yearly rainfall depth over period of 30-yrs for Mosul city which is located at northern Iraq, were analyzed for the rainfall erosivity index (EI30). The modified Fourneir erosivity (MFI) model was used as an indicator for the combination effect of kinetic energy(E) and maximum rainfall intensity at 30 minute (I30) on the soil loss. The results showed that EI30 index was varied within a year and between years of the rainfall records and was ranged from 25.1 to 411.9 metric unit with average 140.3metric unit .The monthly distribution of EI30 showed that the rainfall erosivity was very sever in four months (50% of rainy months ) through any year of recorder data and December to March was found to be the most erosive months in the studied region. Regression analysis for EI30 with mean annual rainfall depth showed that the natural log law is the best suitable mathematical function judged their relation and 83.3% of the changes in EI30 were due to variation in the rainfall depth.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CHEMISTRY AND TRANSFORMATION OF HUMUS COMPOUNDS IN SOME CALCAREOUS SOILS OF NORTHERN IRAQ
كيميائية وتحولات المركبات الدبالية في بعض الترب الكلسية لشمال العراق

المؤلفون: Hazim M. Ahmed حازم محمود احمد
الصفحات: 43-47
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الخلاصة

Humus compounds contribute improving the soil chemical and physical characteristics which give buffering capacity feature to the soil, these compounds expose to several processes that decompose them to another form by internal environmental of soil system and external conditions. This study concerning the chemical transformation through the depth of soil pedon in some calcareous soils of semi-arid regions of Northern Iraq. Results showed that humic acid concentration was more than fulvic acid, as well as the percentage between the acids was higher than one (1), indicating to a high organic decomposition which related to climate conditions. Also results stated that there was a decreasing in humic and fulvic acid values with soil depth, in such condition results gave an indicating presence of fulvic transformation to humic acid which causing an increasing in its concentration due to condensing process considered as a characteristics happen in the agriculture soils which have high temperature and dry season during the year.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF ZINC ON YIELD AND QUALITY AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SUGAR BEET (Beta vulgaris L.)
تأثير التسميد بالزنك في حاصل ونوعية البنجر السكري ومحتوى العناصر الغذائية

المؤلفون: W. Al-Baddrani وحيدة علي احمد البدراني
الصفحات: 48-58
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted at two locations (Aridisols and Entisols at Ninevah province) to study the effect of three levels of zinc ( 0 , 5 , 10 ) mg Zn .L-1 sprayed to the leaves of sugar beet and their interaction on the growth , nutrients uptake and quantity and quality of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.),by using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates.The results of this study showed that the use of higher levels sprayed with zinc caused a significant effect on yield quantity by increasing the total yield , yield per plant, weight per one root , and qualitatively (perx , sugar percentage , purity , raw sugar, pure sugar). Higher response to fertilizer (Zn) application was found in the soil of compared Aridisols soil with Entisols soil , in the root yield quantity and quality (by increasing the total yield , sugar percentage, and sugar yield of sugar beet) .Also the fertilizer efficiency and inter needed of the elements were higher in Aridisols soil when compared with Entisols soil of at all levels of added Zinc fertilizers.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE SOIL LOSS
تأثير خشونة السطح على معدل فقد التربة

المؤلفون: Khalid F. Hassan خالد فالح حسن
الصفحات: 50-56
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الخلاصة

Field measurements and lab analysis were conducted to determine the effect of soil surface roughness ( oriented and random) resulted from discing and chiseling on the soil loss by wind erosion. Some soil ridges parameters were measured in the field and aggregation (clods and non-erodible aggregates) were determined in the lab. The soil loss of the two operations was determined as a function of these variables. The results showed that the large proportions of random roughness(large clods) and clear oriented roughness (soil ridges) in the tilled layer after soil discing have a greatest effect in reducing the amount of soil loss and potential erosivity of soil by wind action in comparison with soil chiseling .This is attributed to the fact that the soil clods easily crushed into fine aggregates after soil chiseling but remained unchanged in soil discing .The statistical analysis coming in agreement with the results of the lab and field investigation

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
BLOCK LEVEL PLANNING OF CROPS USING GIS
نموذج في تخطيط الأنتاج الزراعي باستخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

المؤلفون: K. Mahendran ك.ماهندران
الصفحات: 57-64
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الخلاصة

The geographical information system (GIS) is a computer-based technology that describes, stores, manipulates and analyzes information spatially and produces output in the form of maps and data tables which could be used for precise planning and decision making in agricultural development process too. Land, soil and land use pattern are the most viable factors to decide the agricultural yield. The southern part of Tamil Nadu, India mainly depends on rain and ground water potential for agriculture. The soil information on Athoor block of Dindigul District related to the agricultural sector is prepared from the soil survey data. The digital data sources are created using GIS. The administrative boundary was overlaid with soil data for the purpose of agricultural planning at the block level. The suggested cropping pattern will help the farmers to improve the yields.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DIGITAL CORRELATION OF SOIL MUNSELL COLOUR AND COMPARE IT WITH DIGITAL IMAGE CLASSIFICATION FOR DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF SOIL USING CLASSIFICATION PROGRAM
المضاهاة الرقمية لأطلس ألوان التربة ومقارنته بتصنيف المشهد الرقمي لعينات ترب مختلفة باستخدام برنامج التصنيف

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الخلاصة

The research depended on reading soil color by using Munsell soil color chart for Twenty four soil samples with two duplicates. The soil samples were collected from three Iraqi governorate containing four samples of soil storm sediments that blowing on the town in different times. Then re-reading the same sample in same last optical way but in digital method, and performing some image enhancement like cutting, resizing, reading image on digital Munsell soil color on the computer screen after fix and punching the Munsell soil color page in usual program, then reading the value of soil and Munsell soil color as reflective to check the optical recognize accuracy and harmony soil surface. The study referred to the sameness and converges of most samples with usual optical reading of real Munsell soil color, so we can depend on it in case of the absence of papering Munsell soil color.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY OF POTASSIUM QUANTITY – INTENSITY PARAMETERS IN SOME CALCAREOUS SOILS IN NORTHERN IRAQ
دراسة مقاييس الشدة والكمية للبوتاسيوم في بعض الترب الكلسية لشمال العراق

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الخلاصة

Potassium supplying power by using Beckett approach to evaluate some criterias of potassium thermodynamics and their uses as indicators in evaluating of soil fertility in some arid soils, location of KIRKUK province in northern of Iraq. Forms of soluble, non-exchangeable and exchangeable potassium were determined. However the study involved the estimation of activity ratio intensity - quantity factor, labile, potential buffering capacity, molar free energy of potassium and Gabon selectivity coefficient. The results showed that all soil samples had alkaline reactions (7.4-7.9), and contain appreciable amounts of calcium carbonates (270-300), active calcium carbonates (93-137) gm.Kg-1 respectively with dominate semictite and illite clay minerals. Forms of water soluble-K (12-17) mmole.m-3, exchangeable and non-exchangeable-K ranged from (0.48-0.91), (0.9-1.8) C.mole.Kg-1 respectively. Regarding to Q/I ratios suggested by beckett, the values ranged widely from (70-128)×10-4 mole.L-1/2 , the labile pool of potassium values were ranged from (0.34-0.99) C.mole Kg-1 , while potassium potential capacity values ranged from (48.57-83.06) C.mole.Kg-1/mole.L-1. On the other hand Gibbs free energy -∆G values were negatively spontaneous reactions and ranged between (-2939 to -2581) colories.mole-1 and Gapon selectivity coefficient values ranged from (1.67-3.46) L.mole-1.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ACCLIMATION AS AMETHOD TO REDUCE THE HEAT STRESS EFFECT ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIVE PARAMETER OF BROILER
الأقلمة كوسيلة للتخفيف من التأثير السلبي للإجهاد الحراري في بعض الصفات الفسلجية

المؤلفون: I.M.Ibrahim إبراهيم متي إبراهيم
الصفحات: 79-87
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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to expose chicks during the early ages to heat stress for acclimating them with high temperature environment during the following days. In this experiment 400 broiler chicks were divided into two groups each of 200 chicks . The first group was grown under normal conditions , while the second exposed to heat stress (39±25C)during 6,12,18 and 24 day of ages for 6 hour/day. At the end of 28 days of age the two groups of chicks were exposed to cycling heat (25-36-25)5C from 1000 to 1800 o'clock until 56 days of age and they were fed ad liblitum with continuous supply of water and light, Each group was assigned to replication six each of 30 chicks where feed and water were available. Statistic analysis of data showed significant ((P ≤ 0.05) increase in weekly weight gain in acclimated birds at seven and eight weeks , water consumption , blood pH , red blood cells at eight week , Hemoglobin concentration , glycogen concentration in liver and heart and heat tolerance for acclimated birds . Significant decrease((P ≤ 0.05) for acclimated birds in food consumption in eight week of age , food conversion ratio in seven and eight week of age , blood glucose and decrease in body temperature in six and eight weeks at the three period of measurement .No significant differences in live body weight , packed cells volume and slightly decrease in acclimated birds mortality .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF FEEDING PROGRAMS ON SOME PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER
تأثير برامج التغذية في بعض الصفات الإنتاجية لفروج اللحم

المؤلفون: Rafh Mohammed Taher رافع محمد طاهر خليل
الصفحات: 88-97
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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted on 60 unsexed one day old Ross broiler chicks to study the effect of four different feeding programs on productive characteristics during 0-8 weeks . The birds were raised in individual cages and distributed in to 4 treatments with 15 birds as replicates . Three rations were formulated including starter, grower and finisher ration which included 2800, 2900, and 3047 Kcal/Kg ME and 22 , 20 ,19.19(%) CP respectively. T1 included feeding grower ration from 0 – 8 weeks, T2 and T3 included feeding starter- grower- finisher rations for 3-3-2and 2-4-2 weeks respectively , while T4 included feeding starter and finisher rations for 0-4, 5-8weeks respectively. Statistical analysis showed that T1 had significant increase(P≤ 0.05) in body weight at 2,4,6,8 weeks , weight gain, growth rate, feed consumption, feed , protein and energy conversion ratio, during 0-4 weeks. Differences were not significant during 5-8 weeks in most traits , T3 showed significant decrease comparing to T1 in feed, protein, and energy conversion ratio during 5-8 weeks. Treatments had no significant effect on dressing percentage , percentage of carcass parts and edible giblets , and first treatment had best economic efficiency.

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Article
USING OF ANIMALS RUMEN CONTENTS AS A SOURSE OF PROTIEN IN BROILER DIETS
استخدام محتويات كرش الحيوانات كمصدر للبروتين في علائق فروج اللحم

المؤلفون: Duraid Th. Younis دريد ذنون يونس
الصفحات: 98-102
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الخلاصة

The aim of this study were to identify the effect of using of animals rumen contents as asource of protein instead of premix (protein concentrates) in productive performance of broiler chicks. Two hundred unsexed chicks (Cobb500) one day old divided to four groups (50 birds / group ) as follows : T1( Control) , T2 , T3 and T4 Replacement of 10 , 20 and 30% of rumen contents instead of premix . Chicks were reared until marketing age (42) days , food and water were supplied Ad Liblitum . Statistic analysis of data showed No significant differences (p≤ 0.05) in live body weight , average weekly weight gain , average food consumption and food conversion ratio for birds of control and those which fed on diets contained 10 and 20 % rumen content with premix .Significant decrease(p≤ 0.05) in that traits for birds fed diet contained replacement of 30% rumen content with premix. No significant differences(p≤ 0.05) in dressing percentage and mortality .

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Article
EFFECT OF FEEDING RATION TREATED WITH FORMALDEHYDE ON REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF AWASSI EWE LAMBS
تأثير التغذية بالعلف المعامل بالفورمالديهايد على الأداء التناسلي المبكر للفطائم العواسية

المؤلفون: M. M. Kassem مظفر محي الدين قاسم
الصفحات: 103-108
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الخلاصة

Thirty two Awassi female lambs of 5.5-6 months old, with average initial body weight 37.2 Kg were divided into two groups each of sixteen ewe lambs. Group one was fed a ration containing 16.5% crude protein (Untreated) UT. Group two was fed on the same ration but after treating the barley, wheat bran and Soya-bean meal with formaldehyde T. Both began feeding at May 2005 until the end of September 2005. Results showed similar average daily feed intake for 0.803 v 0.791 kg, average body weight at mating was 45.9 v 45.2 kg, and age at mating 280.6 v 279.7 day for the UT group and the T group respectively. The treatment caused significant differences in the estrous behavior 93.7% v 43.7%, conception rate 68.8% v 18.8% and parturition rate 68.8% v 18.8% respectively as compared with the UT group.

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Article
NON-GENETIC FACTORS THAT PREPARATED PENEUMONIA INCIDENCE IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE AND THEIR EFFECT ON MILK-PRODUCTION IN THE MIDDLE OF IRAQ
العوامل اللاوراثية المهيئة للإصابة بمرض ذات الرئة لدى ابقار الهولشتاين وتأثيرها في إنتاج الحليب في وسط العراق

المؤلفون: Garabed A. Baghdasar كره بيت اواديس بغداسار
الصفحات: 109-115
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الخلاصة

Statistically analyzed 5226 records for factors preparated pneumonia incidence which were parity , year and season of incidence with 2046 records refer to total milk production (TMP) and location period (LP) were collected during 1998 to 2001 on Holstein cows at Al-Nasr Dairy Cattle Station near to Al-Soueria . The over all mean for the % of pneumonia among cows was 10.73% and affected high significantly by parity, year and season. The over all mean ± SE for TMP was 4198.75 ± 24.45 kg which significantly (p <0.01) affected by parity , incidence and lactation ion period , while it was (p<0.05) for year and season of incidence. The TMP for healthy cows was 4348.11 ± 84.99 kg while the production reduced to 4163.39 ± 84 kg in those infected cows. The over all mean ± SE for LP was 326.74 ± 1.72 days and this was affected highly significantly by parity , year and case of disease but did not affected by season of incidence so as a shorter LP for infected cows was 313.77 ± 6.56 day and increased to 324.67 ± 5.98 days in healthy cows . So, we need to do more studies for this disease and do a genetic evaluation for higher resistance cows.

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Article
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF Myrtus communis AND Eugenia caryophyllata ESSENTIAL OILS ON GROWTH OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BURNS OF UNDER FIVE YEARS CHILDREN
التأثير التثبيطي للزيت الأساسي المفصول من أوراق الآس Myrtus communis وثمار والبراعم الزهرية للقرنفل Eugenia caryophyllata على الأنواع الجرثومية المعزولة من الحروق لدى الأطفال دون الخامسة

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الخلاصة

Isolation and identification of bacteria that contaminated burns in children under the age of five years in both genders treated in Al-Zahrawy hospital for the period from September to November 2009 of Seventy samples collected from burns and cultured on blood agar, 52 isolates were identified and included 24 isolates 34.28% were Staphylococcus aureus, 16 isolates 22.85% were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 isolates 8.57% were Escherichia coli, 4 isolates 5.71% were Klebsiella spp. and two isolates 2.85% were Proteus sp. The study also included extraction of essential oils from Myrtus communis and dried flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllata. The inhibiting effects of these oils were investigated on growth of bacteria that isolated from burns using disk diffusion method. The essential oils showed good inhibiting effects on the bacteria and the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata was better than Myrtus communis essential oil.

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Article
EFFECT OF DENSITY ON ACCUMULATION OF BASAL AREA OF STAND OF PINE IN NORTHERN IRAQ
تأثير كثافة المشجر في النمو التراكمي للمساحة القاعدية للصنوبر البروتي في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: Maha Ali Mahmood مها علي محمود
الصفحات: 125-131
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الخلاصة

This experiment has been carried out in Aqrai, Atroosh and Zawita zone on stand of Pinus brutia Ten. In Northern of Iraqi to determinate on accumulation the effect of density between trees for the growth of basal area for the length of rotation of trees. Different types of measurements have been taken for (30) random samples with an area of (0.1) ha. Measurement cover basal area , mean height and number of tree per hectare , by using different regression in statgraf system to derive mathematical equations. In order to select on equation that give the best fit , the following criteria were employed in the evolution process coefficient of determination R2 , standard error (S.E) , a mathematical relation between basal areas in the hectare as , dependent variable , on the other hand , age ,number of the tree in hectare , mean height as independent variable , we obtain the following equation: G=-2.6559+2.08333 A (1-e (-0.001020N)) Culmination of basal area length cutting cycle of Pinus brutia Ten. in Iraqi was estimated by using the equation above,we found increasing for growth basal area, when the number of tree increase to (750) tree| ha and age year. While the annual basal area growth was deceased, when the number of tree increased. From that the manager can select the best number and age which, he wanted in the produced of the stand Pinus brutia Ten.

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Article
COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS, ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS AND SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS USING PARTIAL DIALLEL CROSS IN COMMON WHEAT (Triticum aestivum. L)
تحليل القدرة على الائتلاف وتقدير قوة الهجين وبعض المعالم الوراثية باستخدام التهجين التبادلي الجزئي في الحنطة الناعمة (Triticum aestivum. L)

المؤلفون: Mohammed Ali Hussein محمد علي حسين
الصفحات: 132-141
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الخلاصة

Six varieties of common wheat (T. aestivum. L) (Sham 4, Adnania, Tamuz 2, IPA 99, Maxi paik, and Abu-Graib) were used in partial diallel crosses. The varieties were planted in 2007 – 2008 of Malta research station . Duhok to produce eight hybrids. In season 2008 – 2009 the hybrids and parents were sown in the field in a randomize complete Block Design with three replication. The characters studies were yield, its components harvest index , biological yield and protein percentage. A significant difference among genotypes (parents and F1 crosses) for all characters were detected. Mean squares of general and specific combining abilities were significant at 0.01 for all characters. The parent Abughreb and maxipake showed highly general ability effects for all traits except for protein and spike length . The value of additive genetic variance was more that the dominance for the most traits also broad sense and narrow sense heritability was high for all traits. The hybrids (Shamy × Maxipake) , (Tamuz 2 × Maxipake) showed heterosis that measured as deviation of F1 from mid parent for most characters there fore in these crosses, a hybrids variety development programme was suggested.

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Article
EFFECT OF LARVAL INSTARS AND HOST KIND ON SOME NUTRITIONAL PARAMETERS OF Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn. )
تأثير العمر اليرقي ونوع العائل الغذائي في بعض المقاييس الغذائية للدودة القارضة السوداء

المؤلفون: Nazar M. Almallah نزار مصطفى الملاح
الصفحات: 142-148
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الخلاصة

The results of the present study showed a significant effect of the host kind (corn , sugar beet) and larval instars on some nutritional parameters of Agrotis ipsilon under laboratory condition (28 ± 1 C and 65 ± 5% R.H) The Ist instar larvae exhibit higher average values of ECD & ECI and RGR which reached 85.51, 170.55 and 0.294 respectively and the 2nd , 4th and fifth larval instars showed higher average values of AD and reached 82.76 , 82.95 and 83.21 respectively. The results also showed that the larva reared on corn exhibit a higher average values of ECD and ECI and reached 47.77 and 89.09 respectively while the larva reared on suger beet showed a higher average value of AD and RGR.

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Article
COMPARATIVE SEASONAL ACTIVITY STUDY OF Dysaphis pyri (Boy.) AND Dysaphis reamuri (Mord.) ON SOME POME FRUITS VARIETIES
النشاط الموسمي المقارن لنوعي مَنّ التفاف أوراق الكمثرى الأحمر والأخضر

المؤلفون: Nazar M. Al-Mallah نزار مصطفى الملاح
الصفحات: 149-155
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الخلاصة

The results of studying the comparative seasonal activity of Dysaphis pyri (Boy.) and Dysaphis reamuri (Mord.) on some pome fruits varieties in Ninavah province during the year 2009 showed that the infestation by two species of aphids started during the last week of March, the infestation percentage by D. pyri reached its peak 37.78% of the east during the last week of April on Khatoni variety of pear, and reached 57.78% of the east during the first week of May on Ana apple variety. The average infestation percentage by Dysaphis reamuri (Mord.) reached 1st peak during the last week of April 35.56% of the east on Khatoni pear variety, and reached 53.33% of the east on Vestibilla apple variety during the first week of May. The result of Analytical study also show that a significant difference in infestation percentage and number of nymphs and adults of two species of aphids according to the kind of pome fruits varieties, direction and sampling date, and apple varieties were preferred by the two species of aphids in comparison with pear varieties, and D. pyri species was the most dominate species on pome fruits varieties.

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Article
TESTING THE EFFECT OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF CHEMICAL
اختبار تأثير تراكيز منخفضة من المبيدات الكيماوية ومقارنتها بأخرى من مستخلص أزهار

المؤلفون: Osama S. Mohammad أسامة سعيد محمد
الصفحات: 156-162
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الخلاصة

The results of testing low concentrations of the insecticides: Cerin, Sibex, and Sypermethrin showed high significant percentages of killing the larval and adult stages of T. confusum and Trogoderma granarium comparing with hop leafs extract and garlic slices, reached 90 % for the adults and 100 % for larvae when Cerin insecticide used at 100 ppm, and 100 % for adults and larvae when Sibex used, and 93 % for the adults and between 93 % with ٍSypermethrin at 150 ppm concentration, while garlic slices gives 10 to 17 % for the adults and larvae of the red flour beetle( T. confusum). On the other hand the lowest concentrations of the three insecticides showed higher effects on the larval and adult stages of Khapra beetle (T. granarium). The percentages of dead insects 100 % for the adults 90 % for larvae when Cerin insecticide applied at 100 ppm concentration, and 93 % for adults and 80 % for larvae when Sibex used, while 90 % for the adults and 80 % for larvae when Sypermethrin applied at the same concentration. While the highest concentrations showed higher percentages of death for the two stages of the insect. Values of LD50 for the three insecticides against the flour beetle adults were: 0.028, 0.069 and 0.075 ml / L. , while these values for the adult Khapra beetle were: 0.021, 0.017 and 0.037 ml / L., moreover values of LD50 for the larval stages of flour beetle were: 0.028 , 0.074 and 0.076 ml / L. and that for the larval stage of Khapra beetle were : 0.023, 0.031 and 0.035 ml / L. for the three insecticides respectively . The extract of hop leafs showed no any effect against the two stages of the two beetles even the used concentrations were so high.

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Article
IRRIGATION METHOD AND STICKY TRAPS EFFECT ON SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF LEAFHOPPER Empoasca decedens (Paoli) on POTATO
تأثير طريقة الري والمصائد اللاصقة في النشاط الموسمي لحشرة قفاز الأوراق

المؤلفون: Wafa Abid Yahya Al-Khafaf وفاء عبد يحيى
الصفحات: 163-171
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الخلاصة

Irrigation methods and sticky traps study of the leafhopper Empoasca decedens (Paoli) Which were conducted in AlRashidieh region during growing season 2006 and 2007 in two potatoes fields showed that the infestation of leafhopper started in the third week of September with an average of 0.6 adult and reached its peak in the fourth week of November with an average 19.4 adults using hunting hand net double blow in both two fields The study also indicated that the heights population density of insect eggs was in the fourth week of September with an average of 6 and 2.4 eggs respectively in both fields these averages have increased, reaching a peak in the third week of November with an average 23 and 10.4 eggs respectively, the study also indicated that the population density of Nymphs reached a maximum amount during the second and fourth week of November with an average of 19.6 and 8.2 Nymph in both fields respectively, while the lower average was in the third week of September with r an average o f3.2 and 3 Nymph when the stick yellow traps were used the result shows that the best dimensions of was 60 × 60 cm at 25 cm from the level of earth also found that the best direction was the Eastern, the North ,the South and last West with an average 59.8 ,39.5, 28.58 and 26.87 adults respectively. The study also showed that the best irrigation way to reduce insect population sprays was the irrigation giving lower of adult 20.77 comprise with the irrigation by flooding irrigated which given was 56.60 adult

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Article
STUDY ORGANIC WASTES EFFECT ON VASCULAR FUSARMIC WILT PATHOGEN Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici ON PEPPER
اختبار تأثير المخلفات العضوية في مكافحة مسبب مرض الذبول الفيوزارمي الوعائي Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici في الفلفل

المؤلفون: Nidhal Y. Mohammed Al-Morad نضال يونس محمد
الصفحات: 172-180
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الخلاصة

Effect of three types of organic wastes cow. sheep, poultry was studied using pepper in decrease pepper wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici in three verities (California Wonder , Local Varity Hot pepper, Local verity sweet pepper). Susceptibility result showed that the three pepper varieties recorded different disease severity where California Wonder was the most susceptible with 0.59 while Hot pepper and sweet pepper did not differ significantly with disease severity (0.15,0.23) respectively. In greenhouse experiment, using three types of organic wastes cow, sheep, poultry caused significant decrease in diseases incidence of where the percentage with sheep wastes was 18.88 % while cow and poultry did not differ significantly. In greenhouse experiment, adding organic wastes improved some of Pepper growth parameter , where poultry wastes significantly increased shoot height in verities California Wonder verity 57.4 cm/plant ,while cow wastes significantly increased root height in Local Varity Hot pepper 16.63/plant , sheep wastes significantly increased wet weight in verities California Wonder verity 118.25 gm / plant in addition to dry weight 49.9 gm /plant .

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