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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

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a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:5

Article
The Effect of Liquid Nitriding and Carborizing on Adhesive Wear Resistance of Carbon Steel 1020
تأثير النتردة والكربنة السائلتين على مقاومة البلى الالتصاقي لفولاذ كربوني 1020

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of Nitro carburizing on adhesive wear resistance of carbon steel (1020 AISI). Four groups of specimens were manufactured (A, B, C, D) with dimensions (D20*10 mm) according to ASTM standard . Liquid nitriding at 550 °C for one hour was applied for group B, liquid carburizing at 950°C for one hour was applied for group C, and double process of nitriding the carburizing in the same conditions as mentioned before was applied for group D. The hardness test, the adhesive wear resistance at different conditions (time, sliding velocity and load) and photo microstructure was checked by optical microscope, then phases was examined by the X-ray diffraction technique for all the specimens. It is found that the adhesive wear resistance was improved by all surface heat treatment. Nitriding and carburizing but Nitro carburizing it found that best improvement.


Article
The Effect of Changing The Shape of An Absorber Plate on The Temperature Distribution of The Storage Solar Collector
تأثير تغيير شكل صفيحة الامتصاص على توزيع درجات الحرارة لمجمع شمسي خازن

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Abstract

This research is a numerical study to determine the impact of changing the shape of absorber plate on the temperature distribution of the solar storage collector used to heat and store water at the same time. Absorber plate in a parabolic shape was used with different cases and study of the shape that gives the best distribution of temperature, by using a computer program based on (C.F.D) (computer fluid dynamic) to study the equations governing the flow of fluid freely within the storage collector as a result of solar irradiance falling upon. these equations is the equation of continuity , equations momentum in tow directions and the energy equation, solved these equations using the method (vortex - stream function) for a full breakdown of the temperature and flow within the storage collector . The results showed the possibility of improving thermal gradient for this type of storage collector through the use of absorber plate Followed by a parabolic equation and it gives maximum and minimum temperature (55 , 24 °C) respectively, offset by (41 , 19 °C) of the flat plate storage solar collector ,it inclined at an angle (◦ 45) on the horizon.

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Article
Effect of The Rock Size In The Surface on The Cost And Specification of Floor Tiles
تأثير مقاس الحجر في الطبقة السطحية على كلفة وخواص الكاشي

Authors: معن نهاد أبراهيم
Pages: 251-263
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Abstract

The floor tiles (mozaek) used largely to finish floor. These are different from kind to kind according to the size of the rock that used in the surface layer with its dimension and external form. The size of the rock in the surface layer affect on the cost and floor tiles specifications; it has been noticed in the results of lab- test for the samples according to Iraqi specification no. (1042) year (1984).The changes in the size of the rock in floor tiles make changes in the lab- test results especially in the modulus of rupture test which is the most important to indicator to know the floor tiles goodness the modulus of rupture decreases with the increasing of the marble rock size which is used in the surface layer . Absorbent and the total absorbent test noticed the test results change according to size marble rock changes.there are increase with the increasing of marble rock size. also the cost related to marble rock size as the rock consider the essential material which controlling the floor tiles cost, because there is a big contrast in marble rock price in different size.so the increase in the cost was 35%btween smallest and largest size.

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Article
Fabrication of Infrared Optical Window
تحضير نافذة بصرية للاشعة تحت الحمراء

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Abstract

An optical window for mid infrared region (8-12)mm has been fabricated by depositing Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) on zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrate. The effect of accelerating voltages has been studied in order to control the quality of the thin film. It has been found that the best transmission of (Y2O3) thin film on ZnSe substrate is about 98% when an accelerating voltage of 5kv has been applied, for thin film thickness of quarter of design wavelength (10mm).

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Article
A Modification of TEA Block Cipher Algorithm for Data Security (MTEA)
التحديث في التشفير الكتلي TEA لأمنية البيانات (MTEA)

Authors: Gaidaa Saeed Mahdi
Pages: 822-832
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Abstract

This paper attempts to develop a simple, stronger and safer cryptographic algorithm which would not only be a secure one, but also reduces total time taken for encryption and decryption. The modified algorithm MTEA is a new secret-key block cipher of 64 bit that uses good features of Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) and RC6 algorithms. The proposal algorithm uses the RC6 encryption algorithm as key scheduling to generate subkey. These generated key will be used in META algorithm's round. An effort is made to enhance performance of the resulting algorithm. Proposed MTEA algorithm improved TEA algorithm which is a simple classical Feistel network with 64 rounds and operating on 64 bit blocks of plaintext to produce 64 bit blocks of ciphertext with 128 bit key.يحاول هذا البحث تطوير خوارزمية تشفير بسيطة أقوى وأكثر أمانا ، والتي لن تكون فقط أمنة ، ولكن أيضا تقلل الوقت الإجمالي المتخذ لتشفير وفك الشفرة. الخوارزمية المحدثة هي تشفير كتلي جديد ذات مفتاح سري من 64 بت يستخدم مي ا زت جيدة من (MTEA) الخوارزمية المقت رحة تستخدم خوارزمية .RC وخوارزمية 6 (TEA) خوارزمية التشفير الصغير كجدولة لتوليد المفاتيح الفرعية.. وسوف تستخدم هذه المفاتيح في جولة خوارزمية RC التشفير 6 الجهد المبذول هو لتحسين الأداء للخوا رزمية الناتجة عن ذلك. الخوارزمية المقترحة .MTEA مع 64 جولة Feistel التي هي شبكة كلاسيكية بسيطة من نوع TEA تحسن خوارزمية MTEA ، وتعمل على كتل 64 بت من النص الصريح لإنتاج كتل 64 بت من النص المشفر مع مفتاح 128 بت.

Keywords

Tea --- cryptography --- Feistel Network --- block cipher --- AES.


Article
Complex Discrete Wavelet Transform-Based Image Denoising
تحويل المويجة المركب لازالة التشويش من الصور الرقمية

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Abstract

Dual tree complex discrete wavelet transform is implemented for denoising as an important image processing application. Two wavelet trees are used, one generating the real part of the wavelet coefficients tree and the other generating the imaginary part tree. A general computer program computing two dimensional dual tree complex wavelet transform is written using MatLab V.7.0. for a general (NxN) two dimensional signal. This paper introduces firstly a proposed method of computing one and twodimensional dual tree complex wavelet transform .The proposed method reduces heavily processing time for decomposition of image keeping or overcoming the quality of reconstructed images. Also, the inverse procedures of all the above transform for multi- dimensional cases verified. Secondly, many techniques are implemented for denoising of gray scale image. A new threshold method is proposed and compared with the other thresholding methods. For hard thresholding, PSNR gives (13.548) value while the PSNR was increased in the proposed soft thresholding, it gives (14.1734) PSNR value when the noise variance is (20). Denoising schemes are tested on Peppers noise image to find its effect on denoising application. The noisy version has SNR equals to (11.9373 dB), the denoising image using WT has SNR equals to (17.4661 dB), the denoising image using SWT has SNR equals to (18.1459 dB), the denoising image using WPT has SNR equals to (19.3640 dB), the denoising image using Complex Discrete Wavelet Transform has SNR equals to (21.9138 dB) using hard threshold and has SNR equals to (22.1393 dB) using soft threshold. Matlab V.7.0 is used for simulation.


Article
Derivation of Analytical Expression for Mode-Coherence Coefficients of Uniform-Distributed Wave Propagating Within Different Media
اشتقاق تحليلي لمعامل تشاكه النمط للموجة ذات التوزيع المنتظم المنتشرة خلال أوساط مختلفة

Authors: Noor Ezzulddin Naji
Pages: 851-855
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Abstract

A derivation of an analytical expression for the mode-coherence coefficients of uniform-distributed wave propagating within different homogeneous media – as in case of hyperbolic Gaussian beams – was presented and a simple method of superposition of two such beams was proposed. The results obtained from this work are highly-qualitative applicable in study and analysis of the propagation of Hermite-Gaussian beams especially in the problems of radiation-matter interaction and propagation of laser beam employed in modern free-space and fiber optical communications.


Article
A Study of The Effect of Carbon Black Powder on The Physical Properties of SBR/NR Blends Used In Passenger Tire Treads
دراسة تأثير أضافة الكاربون الاسود على خصائص الفيزياوية لخلائط المطاط (SBRINR) المستخدمة في نفس الأطار

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Article
High Resolution Miniaturized Lens Arrays Scanners and Image Formation Systems For Medical Applications
تصميم منظومات مسح وتصوير عاليه التفريق ذات مصفوفات من العدسات المصغرة المايكروية للتطبيقات الطبية

Authors: Samira M. Arif --- Mohamed S. Ahmed --- Dayah N. Raouf
Pages: 871-885
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Abstract

The optical design of miniaturized high resolution micro lens arrays systems MLAs, for scanning and image formation, is achieved. The types of scanner systems that have been handled are microlens array MLA scanner system with f-number F# 2.54, for two scanning angles. The one with higher scanning angle predicts the influence of increasing aberrations on the output. The imaging capabilities of single and multiple array systems are presented. Their performance characteristics are studied and analyzed to fit medical applications, the most important are compactness and resolution. The overall size of the designed systems is a fraction of a centimeter and the resolution is in a few micrometers regime. However, it is found that optimizations are needed to enhance the quality of images, specifically for larger scanning angles.


Article
Effect of Fibers on Some Engineering Properties of Cement and Lime Stabilized Soils

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Abstract

Recently, many attempts were made to use metal fiber reinforcements to improve some soil properties. In this research, the effects of fibers on the compaction and mechanical properties of cement and lime stabilized soils (silty and clayey soils respectively) were studied. Variables such as stabilizer (cement and lime) content, amount and type of metal fibers were studied. Results indicated that the addition of fibers lead to increase in the maximum dry unit weight. On the other hand, a maximum values of unconfined and tensile strength were obtained with the addition of 0.5 % short fiber (FS) and 1.5 % long fiber (FL) respectively. During the flexural test a brittle manner failure was observed for the unreinforced samples and samples prepared with little amount of fibers 0.5%. Finally, the addition of fibers increases the fracture energy of cement stabilized silty soil and lime stabilized clayey soil.


Article
Mechanical Properties of High Performance Carbon Fiber Concrete
الخواص الميكانيكية لخرسانة ألياف الكاربون العالية الأداء

Authors: Wasan I. Khalil --- Akar Abdulrazaq
Pages: 906-924
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Abstract

In this research mechanical properties of high performance carbon fiber concrete are studied. The experimental work includes, producing high performance concrete using superplasticizer and condensed silica fume reinforced with different volume fractions (0%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%) of carbon fibers. The effect of chopped carbon fibers on the mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile and flexural strengths, and modulus of elasticity) of high performance concrete was also studied. Generally, the results show that the addition of carbon fibers improves the mechanical properties of high performance concrete. Also the results show that Using condensed silica fume as addition by weight of cement increases the compressive strength more than that as replacement by weight of cement. The percentages increase in compressive strength of concrete containing 15% silica fume as replacement and as addition by weight of cement are about 14% and 26% respectively. The addition of carbon fibers causes a slight increase in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of high performance concrete when the fiber volume fraction increases, while the splitting tensile and flexural strengths shows a significant increase relative to the reference high performance concrete (without fiber). The percentage increase in splitting tensile and flexural strengths for high performance concrete with fiber volume fraction 0.5% at 28 days is about 45% and 46% respectively.


Article
A Proposed Equation for the Evaluation of the Nominal Ultimate Bending Moment Capacity of Rectangular Singly Reinforced RPC Sections
معادلة مقترحة لاحتساب سعة العزم القصوى لمقطع مستطيل من خرسانة المساحيق الفعالة مفرد التسليح

Authors: Suaad Kh. Ibraheem --- Hisham M. Al Hassani
Pages: 925-934
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Abstract

Based on compressive stress – compressive strain curves of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) which have been established recently in a Ph.D thesis(1), an equivalent bi-linear compressive stress block for RPC sections under pure bending moment is proposed and used to derive an equation for calculating the nominal ultimate bending moment capacity (Mn) of rectangular singly reinforced RPC sections. The accuracy of the derived equation of Mn is examined by comparison with the results of existing experimental tests.


Article
Speaker Recognition Based on Semantic Indexing
تمييز أصوات المتكلمين بناءا على الارشفة الدلالية

Authors: Mohammed Sahib Altaei --- Khamail Abbas --- Marwa Jawad
Pages: 935-947
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Abstract

In this paper, a new pitch extraction method is established to be employed in improving the performance of the eigenvoices problem. This required indexing the pitch of the voice in a document matrix and then mapping the voice documents into preserved semantic features. The proposed voice recognition system was built to be operated in two phases; enrollment and recognition. Closed dataset of different voices belong to different sexes and ages of speakers were enrolled in the first phase. The results of the recognition phase were promising of about 81% for both sexes. This ensures the successful recognition task and the efficiency of the proposed system.


Article
Aerodynamic Parameters Analysis of Transonic Flow Past Unswept and Swept Wings
تحليل عوامل الأيروديناميكية لجريان حول صوتي على الأجنحة المتراجعة والمستقيمة

Authors: Raad Shehab Ahmed
Pages: 948-960
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Abstract

The transonic flow past unswept and swept wings has been studied. For this purpose the transonic potential flow equation is solved for inviscid compressible flow. The shock waves are replaced by discontinuities across which the entropy is conserved. The velocity field and pressure coefficients are estimated as function of free stream Mach number. The results show the effect of free stream Mach number on shock waves location and the velocity field around the wing section. The Euler solution and potential flow solutions are identical at subsonic flow; however, at supersonic flow the potential theory can no longer predict the flow field correctly. The results show the important effect of sweep angle on the value of the critical Mach number for wings. By using Visual foil plus the pressure distribution and lift coefficient and Mach contours for flow Past a NACA 0012 airfoil can be predicted.


Article
Evaluation of Low Density Parity Check Codes Over Various Channel Types
تقييم شيفرة المتكافيء المنخفض الكثافة على قنوات مختلفة للاتصالات اللاسلكية

Authors: Mahmood Farhan Mosleh
Pages: 961-971
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Abstract

Low density parity check (LDPC) codes are one of the best error correcting codes in today’s coding world and are known to approach the Shannon limit. As with all other channel coding schemes, LDPC codes add redundancy to the uncoded input data to make it more immune to channel impairments. In this paper, the impact of low-Density Parity-Check code (LDPC) on the performance of system under Binary Phase Shift keying (BPSK) over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and other fading (Raleigh and Rician) channels is investigated. Obtained results show that LDPC can improve transceiver system for various channel types. At Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-4 such code with code rate of ½ reduces the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) by range of 6.5 to 9 dB for fading channels in contrast to uncoded system. By studying modern research it has been found that turbo code can achieved same manner but LDPC decoder faster than turbo decoder and can be implemented in parallel.

Keywords

LDPC --- BPSK --- Rician --- Rayleigh


Article
Pulse Laser Parameters Effect on Tissue Thermal Damage Zone in Coagulation Process

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Abstract

Owed to wide use of pulsed lasers in a medical field, a deep understanding of their effects on the temperature increase in tissue and the subsequent tissue thermal damage in a coagulation process may be a matter of importance. The influence of laser beam profile, repetition rate and pulse width on temperature distribution and the subsequent thermal damage in tissue are studied using finite element method, which solves the axis-symmetry bio-heat equation in tissue subjected to far IR pulse laser irradiation. Some conclusions are obtained: as energy/pulse remains constant, Gaussian laser beam profile rather than a top-hat beam will increase the in-depth tissue thermal damage at and near the center of the spot region, increasing in repetition rate will increase the temperature distribution and subsequent damage zone. As pulse width decrease, high temperature may be reached leading to cause a quantitatively and qualitatively damage which can be recognize as an increase in the size of the damage zone and a higher value of thermal dose. An increase in pulse width will reduce the rate at which energy deposed in the tissue which result in low extent of temperature increase which result in reduction of the damage zone quantitatively and qualitatively.


Article
Constructing a Macro Virus to Upgrading Antivirus Programs
بناء ماكروفايروس لتطوير برامج مضادات الفايروسات

Authors: Wesam S. Bhaya --- Alaa Abd Alhesain
Pages: 986-993
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Abstract

A virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. a macro virus is a virus that is written in a macro language, a language built into a software application such as a Word processor, and causes a sequence of actions to be performed automatically when the application is started or something else triggers it. The aim of this paper is to upgrade heuristic antiviruses, especially, which dealt with macro viruses by finding new features no taken into account to detect such viruses. This is done by building undetected computer macro virus. This paper explains a construction of a macro virus that works under all versions of Microsoft Word (compatible virus) and infects data Documents that belong to MSWord (Most well known and widely-used program in the world). Also, the proposed virus is undetected by most current commercial antivirus programs especially which used heuristic techniques and other techniques to detect unknown viruses. Thus, it can reveal some related antivirus vulnerabilities.


Article
The Primary Decomposition of the Factor Group
أيجاد التجزئة الاولية للزمرة الكسرية

Authors: Manal Naji Al-Harere
Pages: 994-1001
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Abstract

The main purpose of this work is to find the primary decomposition of factor group K (The factor group of all z-valued class functions module the group of Z-valued generalized characters for elementary abelian group G),where G is a finite abelian group of type , p=3. This work depends on finding the rational valued character matrix from the character table of and finding the invariant factors of this matrix. We have used the MATLAB program to calculate some results of this work.

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Article
Optimum Design of Composite Laminated Plate Using Genetic Algorithm and RSM
التصميم الامثل لصفيحة مركبة باستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية وطريقة أستجابة السطح

Authors: Ammar Ali Hussein Al-filfily
Pages: 1002-1020
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Abstract

The paper is focused on the application of the response surface method (RSM) in structural optimization. Applications of the response surface method in the design of composite laminated plate have been discussed. The response surface method consists of two stages. In the first stage, the random variables is selected in order to perform a deterministic computer simulation (finite element solution) in the sample points. In the second stage, the approximation of the function (which represent the buckling load) is performed in order to obtain response surfaces using PDS module included in the ANSYS Program. This response surface is incorporated into a genetic algorithm (GAs) for optimization of random input variables to obtain maximum buckling load for composite laminated plate subjected to both mechanical and thermal loading. GAs are stochastic optimization algorithms based on natural selection and genetics. In contrast to traditional gradient-based methods, GAs work on populations of solutions which evolve typically over hundreds of generations. Four and five different variable formulations are examined. It was found that for SSSS boundary condition and two layer laminate the optimum values of buckling load for all thermal loading occur at q1=33o, q2=59o, t1=1.23 mm and t2= 1.25 mm, also it can observe that the significant random variable are t1 and t3 (in the case of five independent variables) since the value of buckling load effected with t1 and t3 more than for t2.


Article
Solving Non Linear Function with Two Variables by Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
حل معادلة غير خطية ذات متغيرين باستخدام خوارزمية أمثلية السرب الجزيئي

Authors: Ahmed Shawki Jaber
Pages: 1021-1031
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Abstract

The meaning of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) refers to a relatively new family of algorithms that may be used to find optimal (or near optimal) solutions to numerical and qualitative problems. The genetic algorithm (GA) is an adaptive search method that has the ability for a smart search to find the best solution and to reduce the number of trials and time required for obtaining the optimal solution. The aim of this paper is to use the PSO to solve some kinds of two variables function which submits to optimize function filed. We investigate a comparison study between PSO and GA to this kind of problems. The experimental results reported will shed more light into which algorithm is best in solving optimization problems. The work shows the iteration results obtained with implementation in Delphi version 6.0 visual programming language exploiting the object oriented tools of this language.

Keywords

Table of content: volume:29 issue:5