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مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة

ISSN: 83732222/25189255
الجامعة: جامعة ديالى
الكلية: العلوم
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

مجلة جامعة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة مجلة علمية فصلية تصدر عن كلية العلوم في جامعة ديالى وباللغتين العربية وألأنكليزية وتهدف للمساهمة في تطوير المعرفة وذلك بنشر البحوث الأصيلة والمراجعات في مختلف العلوم الصرفة والتطبيقية، بحيث تكون سجلاّ للدراسات في هذين المجالين.

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معلومات الاتصال

admin@djps.uodiyala.edu.iq
diyalajournal@gmail.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2010 المجلد: 6 العدد: 4

Article
Speeding Up Fractal Image Compression by Reducing Image Size
تسريع الضغط الكسوري للصورة بواسطة تقليص حجمها

المؤلفون: Eman Abdul-Jabar Saad ايمان عبدالجبار سعد
الصفحات: 1-17
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الخلاصة

In fractal compression the image to be encoded is partitioned into blocks called (ranges). Each range is coded by reference to some other part of the image called (domain) and by some affine transformation parameters. The number of ranges plays an important role in the compression ratio, encoding time and reconstructed image quality. In order to obtain high compression ratios, only a small number of blocks are allowed. Reducing the number of image partitions (Range Blocks) while keeping as much as possible the quality of the reconstructed image is the goal of this work (since, as the number of the ranges is reduced, the encoding time will be reduced and the compression ratio will be increased).In the proposed technique "Speeding up Fractal Image Compression (SFIC)", the image to be encoded is reduced to its quarter size then it will be partitioned to get about the quarter number of ranges produced in the traditional Fractal Image Compression (FIC), in the decoding stage the image will be decoded to its original size. From the experimental results we found that SFIC gives a high reduction in the encoding time and high increasing in the compression ratio with good reconstructed image quality.


Article
Modeling an Electronic Commerce Protocol for a Trusted Banking
نمذجة أتفاقية تجارة ألكترونية للأعمال المصرفية الموثوقة

المؤلفون: Sahab Dhiaa Mohammed سحاب ضياء محمد
الصفحات: 18-32
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الخلاصة

E-commerce Protocols represent the allowed interactions among communicating components. Protocols are essential in electronic commerce to constrain the behaviors of autonomous entities. This paper proposed an e-commerce protocol that consists of two players: merchant and customer. The two e-commerce parties i.e., merchant and customer perhaps lie in far distance. The merchant has its bank and the customer also has its bank and the two banks (merchant bank and customer bank) are connected to a trusted bank. The trusted bank is an international government bank. The function of the trusted bank is to check the validity of the customer credit card and carry out the required money transfer. The bank protocol can detect duplicated, reused, or expired credit card. The proposed protocol guarantees fairness. That is by engaging in the protocol, no one in the e-commerce transaction i.e., merchant or customer, can gain advantages over the other players by misbehaving, misrepresenting or by prematurely aborting the protocol. The merchant site has been built as a web service model. This model is based on open standards and protocols: HTTP and XMLbased protocols including SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), WSDL (Web Service Description Language, and UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration).


Article
Attack of multiplicative inverse without using extended Euclid's algorithm
مهاجمة الضرب العكسي بدون أستخدام الخوارزمية الأقليدية

المؤلفون: Adel Abed AL Gani عادل عبدالغني عبدالوهاب
الصفحات: 33-45
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الخلاصة

The multiplicative cipher is one of the substitution cipher types so it is modified in this paper by extend the mod scale with 190 instead of 26, then utilized to do encryption for a plaintext. Therefore it produces a variation of symbols with more randomized cipher text so that it is enhanced. Then the major work in the paper is to attack the produced cipher text by search about the key inverse which found by an invented and effective equation, instead of the tradition Euclid's algorithm therefore successful attack was done.


Article
Effectiveness of Ciphering Approximate Sub-band of Wavelet Transformed Image
تأثير التشفير التقريبي للحزمة الجزئية لصورة محولة مويجياً

المؤلفون: Abeer M. Yousif عبير م.يوسف
الصفحات: 46-60
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الخلاصة

Image encryption plays a more and more important role in today's multimedia world. Image/video encryption algorithms working in wavelet domain attract some attention due to the prevalence of wavelet compression. In this paper, two partial stream encryption methods, based on transposition or substitution, have been studied to assess their effectiveness in concealing the perceptual content of images. To achieve the above goal, the wavelet domain, specifically the approximation coefficients, has been adopted as plaintext media. The set of conducted tests indicated that the use of substitution is more effective than transposition, and the encryption of Y-component alone is more powerful than encrypting RGB bands. The increase in wavelet passes reduces the image concealment capabilities. The ciphering of two most significant bits of approximate Y-subband reduces the image cipher space to %6.25 while the concealment level remains acceptable.


Article
Education is a an independence axiom system/In view of mathematical thinking (Analytic study)
التربية نظام بديهي مستقل/في ضوء الفكر الرياضياتي (دراسة تحليلية)

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الخلاصة

The introductions of the structure of mathematics begin with abstract thinking. If we can't apply such thoughts they will remain with the abstract things. But, if we can apply them, they will become with applicable. For example, the theory of the calculus though it is considered as an abstract theory but it can be applied in physics, chemistry, etc.Thus this paper aims at answer the question: Is education an independent axiomatic system? Al- Summery study showed that, education is axiomatic system that got its importance though education and its interchange with other sciences .Through, the researchers depended upon the interpretation of the axiomatic system independence says that any axiom of the above system is not a logical result of any other axiom in same system.


Article
Some electrical properties of thin PbS films
بعض الخواص الكهربائية للاغشية الرقيقة لكبريتيد الرصاص PbS

المؤلفون: Rasha A. almatooq
الصفحات: 95-104
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الخلاصة

An alloy of PbS has been prepared in an evacuated quartz tube (Pb: S = 50:50). The structure of the ingot examined by X-ray diffraction and found to be polycrystalline of cubic phase structure with dominate orientation at (200) plane. The PbS thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique under pressure 5×10-5 mbar with thickness of about 0.5 /m. These films have been annealed at different temperature (Ta) (373, 423, 473 and 523 K˚ ) under vacuum. The electrical measurements showed that the d.c. conductivity (σd.c.) decreased with increasing Ta, while the activation energy increased with increasing Ta. The Hall effect measurements prove that the films are P-type and the carriers concentration (nH ) decreased with increasing Ta. Hall mobility (/H), drift velocity (υd), carriers life time (τ) and mean free path (ι) have increased with increasing Ta. The thermoelectric power experiment confirmed the Hall Effect measurements. Seebeck coefficient (s), thermal activation energies (Es) and Energy of hopping (ΔW) for PbS films have increased with increasing Ta.


Article
Study of the Effect of Gamma rays on the Optical Bandgap of Poly (Methyl Methacrylat) (PMMA) Films
دراسة تأثير أشعة كاما على فجوة الطاقة البصرية لأغشية البولي مثيل ميثاكريلات (PMMA)

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الخلاصة

In this research, We study the effect of irradiation by gamma rays from (Cs137) source on the transmission, absorption coefficient and optical energy gap of the indirect, allowed, forbidden transition for poly (methyl methacrylat ) (PMMA) films prepared by using casting technique in room temperature. the absorption and transmission spectra has been recorded in the wave length rang (300-٩٠٠) nm .


Article
Study of the Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Electrical Conductivity of Ceramic
دراسة تأثير درجة حرارة الحرق على التوصيلية الكهربائية للسيراميك

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الخلاصة

In this study conventional ceramic technology used for preparing ceramic samples from dukhla kaolin, then studying the influenced of three pyramidal substances (Binder, lubricant, plasticizer) and sintering temperatures on the dielectrically properties and direct electrical conductivity measurements for ceramic bodies. The Duekhla Kaolin was washed by distilled water and dried out through (110 oc) for (24hr) in order to dispose f the waste water. The material was milled by porcelain miller out to the appropriate level of grains for the research purposes Dukhela Kaolin (D<200µm).Three groups of samples prepared) depending on the three pyramidal substances (Binder.Plasticier, Lubricant) of variable rates. The groups consist of (90%) Dukhela Kaolin with an addition of (10%) from the three ratios of the plasticized materials, then the ceramic bodies formed by using hot pressing. Then the samples were sintered under three different temperatures ( 1250 , 1300 , 1350○C) with a maturity period of (2hr) an elevation speed of (2○C /min) and a desecration speed of (5○C /min).The models were then placed an oven (10-2Toor),for measuring purposes. The conclusion of this search has shown that increasing of the binder rate increased the electrical on rate of binder material increased on electrical conductivity. And increasing the sintering temperature increased the direct electrical conductivity.


Article
Study of Some Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water in Baladruze District
دراسة بعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية لمياه الشرب في قضاء بلدروز

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الخلاصة

The research is a study of some physical and chemical characteristics of three water purification stations in Baladruze District , Diala Governorate, which are supplied with water from Al-Ruze river a branch of Diala river ,The samples of the study are taken from the surface monthly from January to December 2009, the results shows that the (pH) concentration values are in the weak alkaline above the equivalent ratio of the (pH) for all the stations during all the months of the year , the results also show that the water studies samples contain salt ratio within the permitted ratios for drinking water in the most months of the year , New Baladruze station recorded the lower ratio (235 ) ppm compared with the two other stations, whereas the Old Baladruze station recorded the higher ratio in January (320 ) ppm , the electrical conductivity measures show that it increase with the increasing the quantity of total dissolved solids in the water ,the ratio of dissolved oxygen approximate values (8-12) ppm during the year ,the results of total hardness of water show that the studied water samples were within the degree of hard water for the most months of the year , Baladruze water station (Million Gallon) recorded less ratio of Total Hardness (164.3) ppm ,the magnesium and calcium concentration ratio showed that the high ratio of calcium is ( 71.4 ) ppm in Baladruze station (Million Gallon ) , and the low ratio was in New Baladruze water station (38.9 ) ppm , magnesium concentration values for all the months of the year was universal for calcium concentration ratios in all the stations , as for water turbidity was between in congruent in some months it recorded ( Turbidity > 5 NTU) and congruent with the permitted qualifications for most months of the year in all water purification stations .


Article
Study of Sorption and Thermal Conductivity of Unsaturated Polyester Resin (UPE) and Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Composite Reinforced by Glass Powder
UPE/NBR دراسة خاصية الانتشارية والتوصيلية الحرارية لخليط من مدعم بمسحوق سيراميكي

المؤلفون: بشرى حسني موسى
الصفحات: 136-148
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الخلاصة

In this research we prepared composites material based on polymeric material which it blend of unsaturated polyester resin (UPE) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and reinforced by glass powder as a filler which added with different volume fraction (10,15,20)% Vf and compare it with blend alone by lay-up method .We studied physical tests such as thermal conductivity and sorption test to find diffusion coefficient for all samples after immersion it in same time for specific time (7 weak) in different chemical solution such as (H2O ، HCL with concentration 0.5 N ، C3H6O), the result show that the addition of glass powder to (UPE/NBR) blend lead to increase of thermal conductivity , and it was found the maximum value of diffusion coefficient in acetone solution and the minimum value of diffusion coefficient in water


Article
Preparation and in vitro Evaluation of Ketoprofen Solid Dispersion System
تحضير وتقييم فعالية الكيتوبروفين الصلب في المختبر

المؤلفون: Laith H. --- Ahmed A.Hussein --- Zainab thabit
الصفحات: 149-162
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الخلاصة

For poorly soluble drugs, such as ketoprofen, the rate of oral absorption is often controlled by the dissolution rate in the G.I.T. Therefore the solubility and dissolution behavior of a drug is key determinants of its oral bioavailability. Several formulations of liquisolid capsules containing two ratios of ketoprofen: Vehicles (1:1 and 1:2) were prepared. In this study the ratio of microcrystalline cellulose (carrier) to silica (coating powder) was 20:1 for all formulations and then changed to 10:1. The dissolution behavior of ketoprofen from liquisolid capsules and conventional capsule formulation was investigated at two different pHs (1.2 and 6.8). The x-ray diffraction ( XRD )of solid dispersion of ketoprofen in ratio of 1:1 was characterized to ascertain if there were any physicochemical interactions between the drug and carrier that could affect dissolution.The results showed that liquisolid capsules demonstrated considerably higher dissolution rate than those of conventionally made capsules. This could be attributed to increased wetting properties and surface of drug available for dissolution. XRD showed a change in crystal structure toward an amorphous form of ketoprofen.


Article
Preparation of High Concentrations of Trivalent Uranium by Acid Control and Studying It’s Stability
تحضير تراكيز عالية من اليورانيوم الثلاثي من خلال التحكم بالوسط الحامضي ودراسة درجة اسقراريتها

المؤلفون: K.S.Sahab --- T.N.Jassim, N.A. Al-aani
الصفحات: 163-170
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الخلاصة

High aqueous trivalent uranium concentrations ( ≥2.0 M) in hydrochloric acid medium have been prepared , using zinc amalgam and by controlling the acid concentration during preparation .Stabilities of 1.5M U(III) in different HCl concentrations(3, 4, 5 and 7)M were studied. It was found that U (III) is more stable in low acid concentration, due to the formation of chloro-complex compound with U (III) at high concentrations.The half oxidation time was calculated from experimental data. It was found that the half oxidation time of U(III) is (6 - 211) days and it decreased with increase of acid concentration.Addition of low concentrations (2mmole) of Cu+2, Cr+3, Ni+2 and Fe+2 ions (impurities) to 1.5M aqueous solution of U(III) in 3M HCl , decreased the U(III) half oxidation time dramatically (2-6 hours).It was concluded that the presence of impurities in U(III) solution act as a catalyst for oxidation of U (III).


Article
Biological and spectral study of newly synthesized derivates of 5,5 diphenyl 4,2 imidazoline dione by mannich reaction
تحضير ودراسه طيفيه وحياتيه لبعض مشتقات المركب 5،5 - ثنائي فنيل 4،2 ايميدازوليدين دايون الجديده والتي حضرت بطريقة تفاعل مانخ

المؤلفون: مصطفى كطان شنيشل --- مؤيد احمد رديعان
الصفحات: 171-191
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الخلاصة

Several newly derivates of 5,5 diphenyl 4,2 imidazoline dione by mannich reaction were synthesized by raction of phenytoin with paraformaldehyde and primary amines to yield the following : Where R=Aromatic ring Identification of these compounds using spectral techniques such as uv-visible ,and IR were carried out. Analytical results of elements and molecular weight determination using freezing point agree with suggested chemical formula for these compounds . Study of antibacterial biological activity of these compounds showed good inhibition effects. These new compounds may be suitable drugs for epilepsy and other dieses due to there different solubilities in organic and inorganic solvents


Article
Effect of different levels of pesticides and in growth and numbers of Azotobacter Bacteria cells under period of incubation.
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من خليط مبيدات الأدغال في نمو وأعداد خلايا بكتريا الازوتوباكتر تحت مدد حضن مختلفة

المؤلفون: إسماعيل خليل السامرائي --- فارس محمد سهيل
الصفحات: 192-208
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الخلاصة

Two laboratory experiments were carried out with (CRD) design. Each experiments were included (144 ) experimental units for each incubation period and comes of (12 ) bacterial isolation , ( 4) level of herbicide mixture ( 0.0 , 75+25 , 150+50 , 300+100 ) and (3 ) replication five period of incubation ( 3, 7, 10 ,14 , 21 ) days were used for measuring ( MIC ) of growth and bacterial cells number .The results showed that the isolation ( I1,I2 ,I3 ) which were taken from treatments of mixed pesticide considered as resistant local isolations to mixed pesticide compared with the isolations ( I4, I5 , I6 ) which were taken from untreated treatment with mixed pesticide .So the ( MIC ) of ( I1 ,I2 and I3 ) isolation is ( C4 ) for (3 ) days incubation and growth in all concentration for the period of incubation (7 ,10 , 14 and 21 ) days , while the isolation ( I4 , I5 and I6 ) was not recorded growth and numbers with (3 ) days incubation the ( MIC ) in ( C4 ) for the incubation period ( 7 , 10 , 14 and 21 ) days . The results also showed that the isolation ( I7 ,I8 and I9 ) which were taken from treatments of pesticide mixture addition as considered resistant local isolation for mixture of pesticide compared with isolation ( I10 , I11 and I12 ) .


Article
Study the effect of some factors in the induction of callus from the plant beans
دراسة تأثير بعض العوامل في استحثاث الكالس من متوك نبات الفاصوليا

المؤلفون: Satar A.S. ستار عبد الله شلاهي
الصفحات: 209-226
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الخلاصة

The best microspores developmental stage was determined by adopting a new rapid taining method using orcein- HCl stain. It was found that the third stage was better the stage for callus induction. For anther culture conditions the pretreatment temperature (3Cْ) was applied for 1-13days,basal MS media were used as liquid ( with or without ficoll ) and solid (with 0.8% agar or 0.5% agarose ), hormones with BA: 0.5 and 1mg/l and IAA: 0.1,0.5 and1mg/l) or without hormones, activated charcoal (0.1,0.3 and 0.5%), colchicines(25 mg/l),too different concentration from sucrose [3,4,5,6%].Casein hydrolysate , amino acids and lighting conditions full darkness and light (white and red). The result showed that the pretreatment temperature gave less callus induction than the control treatment. The solid media gave better callus induction than liquid media especially when agarose was used. Whereas activated charcoal treatment and colchicine (added to the media) did not induce callus formation and the sucrose (4%) gave better callus induction (33.3%). The results also revealed that the red light gave callus induction (5%) better than the white light and darkness.


Article
Propolis effect of the Iraqi (Iraqi propolis) in some types of yeasts that cause damage to fruit juices
في بعض انواع الخمائر المسببة ( Iraqi propolis ) تاثير العكبر العراقي لتلف عصائر الفواكه

المؤلفون: Ziad Tariq Sidra زياد طارق السدرة
الصفحات: 227-239
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الخلاصة

This research aims to know the viability of alcoholic extract of Ekbr Iraqi on the inhibition of growth of three kinds of yeasts isolated from fruit juices damaged the Candida tropicalis and Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia tropicalis. Results showed that the focus damper minimum (Minimum Inhibition Concentration - MIC) to extract alcohol for Ekbr was 0.1 , 0.4, 0.1 mg / ml to the yeast Candida tropicalis and Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia tropicalis, respectively, in orange juice, 0.4, 0.8, 0.2 mg / ml, respectively, in apple juice, while the focus was damper minimum (MIC) of sodium benzoate has reached 40, 160.80 micrograms / ml, respectively, in orange juice and 320 640 320 micrograms / ml, respectively, in apple juice. results show that disclosure of the chemical qualitative contain Propolis on resins (Resins) and flavonoids (Flavonoids) and phenols (Phenoles) as components of an effective .


Article
Evaluating the prevalence of specific Treponemal antibodies in Iraqi blood donor
تقييم مدى انتشار الأجسام المضادة اللولبية في المتبرعين بالدم العراقي

المؤلفون: Mohammed A. Saleh محمد عبد الدايم صالح
الصفحات: 240-249
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الخلاصة

Detection of specific antibodies to Treponema pallidum in serum is correlated with Syphilis. The study aimed to know the seroprevalence of Specific treponemal antibodies among Iraqi blood donors in relation to age and sex. This study was conducted on 8,147 subjects attending National Center for Blood Transfusion/Baghdad for donation of blood during January 2009 to May 2010. A total of 8,147 blood donors were screened to detect the presence of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum by Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Test (TPHA), according to standard test kit protocol, initially reactive samples were reconfirmed by repeat testing and repeatedly reactive samples were considered seropositive for Syphilis. The results of this study showed that seroprevalence of specific antibodies to Treponema pallidum among blood donors were found 1.75%. Moreover, the seroprevalence in males was 1.53% and in females was 0.22% .Furthermore, this study showed increase in seroprevalence was found among persons within second to third decade. The study revealed considerably higher Specific treponemal antibodies among the male donors than Female donors. In conclusion, our results indicate that syphilis is found among healthy donors in Iraq and that there is need to introduce Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Test for the screening of donated blood for specific treponemal antibody in all blood transfusion centers in Iraqi governorates.


Article
Study the efficiency of the enzyme glucose Oazomez product from the local isolation of the bacterium Streptomyces sp. HM5 in converting glucose to fructose
دراسة كفاءة إنزيم كلوكوز أيزوميريز المنتج من عزلة محلية من البكتريا Streptomyces sp. HM5 في تحويل الكلوكوز إلى الفركتوز

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الخلاصة

used for producing High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)for a long time ago . the enzymatic method is better than chemical method for producing HFCS . There are some organisms such as Streptomyces can produce this enzyme. The aim of this research is to study the efficiency of glucose isomerase produced from local isolate of Streptomyces by determination of the conversion of glucose to fructose in three sources (Corn syrup; date syrup and standard glucose). Three samples were used as a substrate glucose corn syrup, date syrup and standard glucose solutions. Partial purified enzyme (glucose isomerase) produced from Streptomyces sp. HM5 was also used. Total and reduced sugars were determined by spectrophotometric method, specific rotation and TLC technique. The optimizations of time, substrate and enzyme concentrations were also studied. The results indicates that the optimum time for conversion glucose to fructose was 35 – 40 hours in three substrats . The optimum concentration of glucose corn syrup, standard glucose and data syrup were 30; 20 and 10% respectively. The optimum volum of enzyme is 0.5 ml with specific activity equal to 10. 80 U/ ml. The applied study shows that can be convert glucose to fructose in glucose corn syrup by using glucose isomerase produced from Sterptomyces sp. HM5 and the product can be use in many foods industries because of its higher sweeteners with low cost.


Article
Epidemiological study of Hymenolepis nana in children in Kalar city / Sulaimani province
دراسة وبائية في Hymenolepis nana الأطفال في مدينة كلار / محافظة السليمانية

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الخلاصة

A total of 321 stool samples from children (169 males and 152 females) attending to Kalar general hospital with complain of gastroenteritis were collected and tested. Microscopic examination of samples revealed that an overall of 4.04% (13/321) of children were infected with H. nana. The frequency of H. nana infection in preschool (1 - <6 years) and school age children (6-12 years) was 0.92% and 5.63%, respectively. Non significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between frequency of infected children in both ages. The frequency of H. nana was higher in males (5.32%) than in females (2.63%) but it was not significantly different (P>0.05). The highest frequency of H. nana infection was observed in school age children in both city center (7.77%) and villages (4.71%). No significance correlation (P>0.05) was observed between H. nana infection and gender, sources of drinking water and different localities of Kalar city. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed between H. nana infections in orphan children and children whose father's employees, laborer, farmer, or idle. H. nana infection was not observed in children whose mother's were employed.


Article
Effect of plant growth regulators in both chemical and physical characteristics leaves and the fruits of eggplant
اثر منظمات النمو النباتية في الصفات الفيزياوية والكيمياوية لاوراق وثمار نبات الباذنجان

المؤلفون: ضياء عبد الستار شكر
الصفحات: 287-297
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الخلاصة

Research has been done in the Department of Science - College of Basic Education - University of Diyala led GA3 concentration (200-100 ppm) resulted in significant increase in the length of the fruit in the average weight of the fruit and low in fruit diameter. The ccc led to the lack of the average number of seeds in fruits are moral, while a CK, GA3 (200-100 ppm) to increase the percentage of dry matter are not significant, CK), GA3, NAA, IAA) concentration (100-200 ppm ) led to the increase in carbohydrates are not significant and resulted in ABA, NAA both concentrations to low ratio percentages of phosphorus in the fruits are moral, LED (GA3, CK, ABA) concentration (100-200 ppm) to increase the ratio percentages of potassium in the fruits are not morale and led the transaction with (NAA, MH) to the opposite effect NAA concentration) 200 100 ppm) led to a few percentage of phosphorus in the paper are significant GA3 concentration (200-100 ppm) and NAA concentration (200 ppm) has led to a lack of content Alkruvili paper plant (chlo. (A + B), chlo.B, chlo.A) are significant compared to untreated plants.


Article
Assessment of the Immunogenic Potential of the Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine Virus (G-61) in Broiler Chicks
تقييم القدرة المناعية للأمراض المعدية لفيروس اللقاح (G-61) في أفراخ اللحم

المؤلفون: Basim, I.H. Al-Ibady
الصفحات: 298-307
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الخلاصة

Using of numerous methods of vaccination of broiler chicks leading to variation in the average of immune response that elicited against Gumboro vaccine viruses. The study aimed to determine the effect of the immunogenicity of the live attenuated infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine virus (G-61 strain) in Broiler Chicks. A total of (160) chicks were divided into four equal groups namely A, B, C and D (40 chicks per group). The chicks of groups(A, B and C) were vaccinated with live attenuated IBD(G-61) vaccine at (14) days old, via the aerosol, intranasal and drinking water routes respectively while chicks of group D were left without vaccination as a control. An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the antibodies titres against infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine virus in sera of chicks at (28) days of age. At (29) day of age, chicks of all groups were challenged by using of a virulent IBDV. At (40) day of age, the levels of antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus have been measured by indirect ELISA. The results obtained showed that higher levels of antibodies were noted when the vaccine administered via aerosol route as compared to the intranasal and drinking water. Following challenge of vaccinated chicks, the protection rates noted are correlated to the levels of antibodies elicited. It is concluded that the choice of approach to achieve higher and protective immune status against infectious bursal disease viruses in chicks is to apply IBDV (G-61) vaccine strain in broiler chicks via the aerosol route.


Article
Effect of Ramadan Fasting on the levels of IL-1α , IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 Cytokines
تأثير صيام رمضان في مستوى IL-1 , IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 Cytokines

المؤلفون: Majid M. Mahmood --- Khalil I.A. Mohammed
الصفحات: 308-313
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الخلاصة

Ramadan fasting is one of the pillars of islam. It is often a subject of discussion whether or not Ramadan fasting confers any effect on immune cytokines.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the level of IL-1α , IL-2 , IL-6 and IL- 8.The study was performed on (30) normal healthy fasting and (30) normal healthy nonfasting individuals in the month of Ramadan (September 2009). Blood samples were obtained after the second week of the fasting and were analyzed for IL-1α , IL-2 , IL-6 and IL-8 .There was a slight elevation in IL-1α , IL-2 and IL-8 and a slight decreasing in IL-6 cytokine level but the differences didn’t reach the degree of significance (P>0.05).Slight elevation of IL-1α , IL-2 , IL-8 and slight decreasing of IL-6 in normal healthy fasting in comparison to normal healthy non-fasting individuals were observed. Thus Ramadan is safe and causes Immunomodulation. Ramadan fasting, Immunomodulation, Interleukins.


Article
Density of commensal rodent species in Baghdad area
كثافة أنواع القوارض في منطقة بغداد

المؤلفون: Raad Hammodi Hasson
الصفحات: 314-320
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الخلاصة

Commensal rodents are important medically & economically in human life .Estimation of commensal rodent species densities in districts of Baghdad area. Baited trap/night method campaign lasted about 4 months in 1988 ; density equation & soft ware statistical analysis programs were applied.Density means were 30.16 ± 4.2 , 2.067 ± 0.989 , 0.695 ± 0.548 & 32.92 ± 4.18 for Rattus norvigecus , Rattus rattus , Mus musculus & the sum means of rodents respectively ; Only Rattus norvigecus & the sum of means have normal distribution (A-D normality test) . R. norvigecus, R. rattus, M. musculus & the sum of means, in addition to the negative Correlations between the three species were not significant at 0.05 levels respectively. Differences between R. norvigecus and each of R. rattus & M. musculus or between R. rattus & M. musculus density means were significant at 0.05 level; where the R. norvigecus mean was the highest.Species densities varies among Baghdad's districts , where the R. norvigecus mean was the highest then R. rattus & finally M. musculus . Given parameters are useful for rodents control and minimizing its transmissible diseases

الكلمات الدلالية

Rodent --- density --- Baghdad. --- القوارض، والكثافة، بغداد

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