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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
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Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:6

Article
Reducing the Concentrations of Chromium and Cyanide from Industrial Wastewater By Chemical Treatments Substitutes
خفض تراكيز الكروم والسيانيد في المياه العادمة الصناعية باستخدام بدائل المعالجة الكيميائية

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Abstract

The attempt on Chromium and Cyanide removing from industrial wastewater of chemical plotting was achieved by using the natural polymer ( animal gelatin 0 and calcium salts . Among three treatments with non treated wastewater , we were selected the treatment with calcium chloride and gelatin in which the chromium (Cr +6 ) reduced from 3.5 mg /l to 0.86 mg / l and the cyanide from 0.06 mg /l to 0.03 mg / l . The treatment with gelatin alone reduced concentration of the cyanide to 0.015 mg / l. Chromium adsorption in three treatments after two hours of stabling was ranged between 37 – 75 % and cyanide 30 – 75 % which became within the limitation.


Article
Effect of Additives of Recycled Al Alloy on the Microstructure & Mechanical Properties of Standard Al-Si Alloy Which Produced by Precision Casting
تأثير أضافة الالمنيوم المعادة الى سبيكة الالمنيوم - سيليكون القياسية المصنعة بطريقة السباكة الدقيقة على التركيب المجهري والخواص الميكانيكية

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Abstract

The expansion in using Al-Si Alloys for the industrial and engineering applications for their distinguished properties, presented in the combination between mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in addition to the light weight, leads to find substitution resources to produce these alloys and more than 40% of the world production depends upon such a kind of production. Therefore, it is necessary and important to search in details the mechanical properties and microstructure of the recycled or secondary alloys. In this research , many types of practical experiments are made for the Al- Si alloys by adding recycled alloys in different percentages (25- 36%) , which produced by precision casting ,specimens prepared for the testing of tension , torsion, impact, fatigue and microstructure ,to find the optimum mechanical properties with different variables by preventing the defects produced by casting such as the presence of hydrogen and Al2O3 and their effect on the mechanical properties .It has been found the higher percentage of the original alloy improving the mechanical properties in the new alloy.

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Article
Compromise Study Between The Hydrate And Dehydrate Coagulate (Alum ,Ferrous sulfate and Ferric Chloride )
دراسة تحليلية تفاضلية بين المخثرات المنزوعة وغير المنزوعة الماء ( الشب ، كلوريد الحديديك ، كبريتات الحديدوز)

Authors: غيداء ياسين رشيد
Pages: 291-305
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Abstract

This research focuses on the use of hydrate and dehydrate aluminum sulfate (Alum) ,ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride ,Which burnt in different temperatures degrees ,or use U.S.Pat.NO.4105747 to dehydrate of ferric chloride, and compare the result and selected the batter coagulate to remove the turbidity from the water sampling light 6NTU ,medium 55NTU ,high 150NTU turbidity use the jar test to find the change in PH and turbidity at the same condition . The study revealed the efficiency of the gradually dehydrate coagulant in reducing the turbidity from prepared samples by continuous burnt when using alum and ferrous sulfate, and when use ferric chloride in continues change from hydrate to dehydrate coagulant. The hydrate and dehydrate alum is batter coagulant for removal turbidity. The final turbidity from the light sample less than 1NTU and less than 2NTU from the medium samples, less than 3NTU from high samples. There is no change in the cost by using hydrate or dehydrate alum. It appears high increase of removal ratio between hydrate and dehydrate alum i.e from 64% to 85% for light samples and from 94% to 98% for medium samples, 91% to 98% increasing removing ratio from high turbidity samples.


Article
Assessment Lead Content In Skin Whitening Products Available In Iraqi Markets
تقييم محتوى الرصاص في مستحضرات تبييض البشرة المتداولة في الأسواق العراقية

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Abstract

It seems evident from a wealth of scientific research that Lead is toxic. Because of the nature of the Iraqi markets, different brands of skin-lightening creams are widely available. In this study, 17 skin-lightening cream samples were collected and analyzed for Lead by atomic absorption spectrometry (ASSP) after an acid digestion procedure. About 53% of the tested skin-lightening cream samples contained Lead at levels well above the FDA's acceptable limit of 0.01 ppm. These findings are alarming and have wide legal and educational implications for Iraq in particular and developing countries in general. Further investigation for possible adverse health effects is also needed.

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Article
Study The Implications of The Decomposition by Acidic Particles of The Novolak Composites
دراسة أنعكاسات التحلل بفعل الدقائق الحامضية العالقة في هواء المدن على متراكبات النوفولاك

Authors: رولا عبد الخضر عباس
Pages: 315-332
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Abstract

The study tries to illustrate the most important danger of urban air pollution by acid particles ,and its effect on rain, which often turn it into sulfuric acid or sulfurous . Then it studies the problem of their impact on the Novolak composites, which work extensively in an open environment, especially in areas with industrial activity. The study focuses on the role of those pollutants, which used in certain concentrations in traces images reflect on the composites resistance of the flexural creep at the time of dropping the load. The composites were prepared by reinforcing the Novolak material, by glass fibers one time and asbestos glass the other time. In addition, hybrid composites, by reinforcing Novolak material, with the pervious fibers (30% glass fibers +asbestos glass) were prepared. These samples were prepared in two different rates from the solid material (HMTA), which represented once by (10%) weight and (14%) weight the other time, in order to notice the effect of the solid material on the flexural creep to the preparing models. The rate of the weight fraction of all materials was 60%. It is clear from the study that the resistance of the Novolak material to the flexural creep can be improved, by reinforcing it with fibers, and increasing the rate of (HMTA) because of their importance in raising the rate of the flexural creep strain loss % in addition to the effect of the loss on raising the value of coefficient of flexural creep modulus of the resin material.The results show that, there are many factors help in polymeric composites decomposition .The most important factor is the high rate of the moisture content of the pure rain, which has 6.8 acidic functions (collected in Iraq -Alkadhimiya) in the polymeric composite substance .It is clear that the flexural creep strain increased ,with the accumulation of liquids . So that the effect of this increasing, when the value of coefficient of flexural creep reduced will be clear. The research tries to ascertain that the danger implied in the assimilation of the prepared composites of (PH) exponent of value less than (6.8). It is proved practically from the study that the collected rain from (Baghdad -Aldwoora) of (PH) exponent of value (6.3), which rose the lose value of coefficient of flexural creep. This lose doesn’t stop at this point, but the reducing of (PH) value of the unpolluted water from 6.8-5 once and 2.31 another time in the laboratory ,cause increasing in coefficient of flexural creep lose rate. So that the Novolak composite exposing to the rain characterized in raising in the acidic degree ,when it is on the effect of continuous loading that increase creeping.

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Article
A Study of Changes in the Chemical Properties of Soil due to Irrigation by Polluted River Water (Army Canal in Baghdad) for a Long Period

Authors: Shaimaa Taleb Kadhum --- Ayat Hussain
Pages: 1032-1051
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Abstract

Soil is an essential natural resource for support of human life, but with time, its degradation has been constantly increasing due to the deposition of pollutants. The aim of this research is to study the changes of the chemical properties of the soil which has been irrigated for a long period with polluted river water, and the effect of each property on the other properties. The study was on the agricultural soil besides Army canal in Baghdad city which is irrigated by the canal water. This canal ends at Al-Rustamia wastewater treatment plant. Samples of soil which is irrigated and not irrigated with canal water were taken. The samples were analyzed to find the chemical properties such as heavy metals(Pb,Zn,Ni,Cr,Cd) and other parameters of soil (SO4 ,Cl,TSS,pH,OM). Samples were taken from points far from the canal (non irrigated soil), the other samples have decreasing distances from the canal bank and the last one is just at the river margin (irrigated soil) to find out the differences in chemical properties. The relation between soil concentrations of heavy metals and the other parameters in the chemical properties of the soil was studied the following results were found: A positive corelation between SO4 and OM, TSS and EC was found, also Zn and Pb with SO4, Zn and Pb with OM. Also, a comparison was done between the properties of irrigated soil and the properties of non irrigated soil. Results show that Pb and Ni increased out of the allowable limits, Ec and TSS increment has also been found especially in the non irrigated soil.


Article
A Numerical Prediction of the Turbulence Parameters in Two-Dimensional Ventilated Rooms

Authors: Ayad M. Salman
Pages: 1052-1068
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Abstract

Turbulent flow in two-dimensional ventilated room has been numerically simulated in the present research. A modified form of Wilcox's two-equation LRN k-w model is proposed for predicting internal turbulent ventilation flows. The modifications include adding a turbulent cross-diffusion term in the w-equation, and re-establishing the closure constants and damping functions, with the application of the wall-function method. The turbulent cross-diffusion for specific rate, w, is modeled with two parts: a second-order diffusion term and a first-order cross-diffusion term. The air was used as the working fluid, and the length of ventilation enclosure (9 m), and height of ventilation enclosure (3 m). The study was made for Reynolds number values of (Re=7.5´103). A finite volume method is used with a staggered grid arrangement. The continuity, momentum and turbulence model equations are solved with hybrid method by using SIMPLE algorithm. A computer program in FORTRAN (90) was developed to carry on the numerical solution. The Computational algorithm is capable of calculating the hydrodynamic and turbulence properties such as the velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy, specific dissipation rate (w), turbulent Reynolds stress, and terms of convection, production, diffusion, destruction, turbulent cross-diffusion and square root mean of fluctuating velocity. The results showed the peak value of velocity near the wall jet region and negative value of velocity near the bottom region (floor region) i.e. recirculating zone. The maximum value of turbulent kinetic energy near wall jet region in the first horizontal section of ventilation enclosure, and the profile become flattened in the second section of ventilation enclosure room. The same behavior in the turbulent Reynolds stress distribution because depending on velocity in his calculations. The same behavior between production term and destruction term but the values of production term is positive and the value of destruction term is negative. The distribution approximately symmetry. The numerical results were compared with other previous theoretical results. The agreement was good, confirming the reliability of the proposed mathematical model and computational algorithm in investigating the performance of turbulence model in numerical simulation of turbulent ventilation flows.


Article
Effect of Soaking on the CBR-Value of Subbase Soil

Authors: Zeena Tariq Jaleel
Pages: 1069-1079
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Abstract

The effect of soaking on the top and bottom CBR value of a sub-base is studied in this paper. Fourteen CBR samples were prepared at 95% relative modified AASHTO compaction .Two CBR samples were prepared for each soaking period of 0,4,7,14,30 and 60 days. These samples were prepared and compacted mechanically in the laboratory. The first group was tested in case of unsoaked while the second group was tested in case of soaking. The results showed that, a significant drop in the CBR for top and bottom due to the soaking was observed compared with natural case due to softening of soil particles Which means that the bearing capacity of subbase soil decrease with increase of soaking time. Most of decrease in soaked CBR value is pronounced inthe first days for top and bottom CBR, respectively. And it dropped to 20% and23%value for top and bottom after 60 days soaking period and this drop is in full of weakness of soil with soaking.

Keywords

Subbase --- Soil --- CBR --- Top and Bottom --- Soaking.


Article
Performance of Cooling Tower with Honeycomb Packing

Authors: Nagam Obaid Kariem --- Hayder Mohamad Jaffal
Pages: 1080-1093
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The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally and theoretically heat and mass transfer characteristics of the cooling tower. The investigation carried out at a mechanical forced direct cooling tower. A column-packing unit is made of a new type of packing named honeycomb (plastic). Air and water are used as fluids and the runs are done at the air and water mass flow rates ranging between 0.05 and 0.15 kg/s, and between 0.1 and 0.25 kg/s, respectively. The inlet water temperatures ranging between 35 and 50 oC. A mathematical model based on the equations of mass transfer and energy is used and solved to determine the characteristics of cooling tower, pressure drop, temperature ratio, and tower effectiveness. There is reasonable agreement from the comparison between the calculated and measured data.


Article
Influence of Corrosion Rate on the Double Butt Welding Shapes Design for Low Carbon Steel

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The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of butt welding shapes on the corrosion rate, microstructure and temperature of carbon steel type St37.The double butt welding was performed by V angles 15°,30° and 45°. The finite element analysis via ANSYS software is performed, this analysis includes a finite element model for the thermal welding simulation. The temperature distribution was obtained. From the results of the microscopic structure it is evident that the geometric shape has an important role in the welding process, when the geometric value of the welding region gets bigger, the faults get less due to increase of heat quantity in the welding region and the corrosion rate for the rain water is less than of sea water. The work presents the finite element model for numerical simulation of welding in carbon steel St37 double butt welding.


Article
Soaking Effects on the Shear Strength Parameters and Bearing Capacity of Soil

Authors: Alaa Dawood Salman
Pages: 1107-1123
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Abstract

This research includes complete study of the laboratory examinations for soil layers and its engineering properties for certain areas of Baghdad city (Alkadhimya, Alaitaifiya, and Alhurriya). The soil was classified according to USCS and showed the soil is considered as a non homogenous Because of the presence of multiple chemical materials in the soil, some chemical examinations have been done such as sulphate percentage, gypsum content, total soluble salts, in addition to the amount of acidity and alkality (pH) in the soil. In this research the direct shear test was used to obtained to value (cohesion and internal friction angle) for the soil in both natural situation and (24 hour) in water soaked situation. The laboratory tests results showed that these soils have high bearing capacity was varied between (1200 --- 3000) kPa while (760 --- 1000) kPa at soaking state and that the parameters of shear (cohesion and internal friction angle) decrease when soaked in water but the main decrease was in cohesion value. Soaking of soils reduced cohesion by approximately (2-2.5) folds, while the angle of internal friction exhibited marginal reduction


Article
Surface Roughness Effect on Fatigue Life Preditions under Cumulative Damage

Authors: Khairallah S. Jabur
Pages: 1124-1130
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Abstract

The influence of surface roughness parameter on the fatigue life is studied using rotory bending loading under room temperature and zero mean stress (R=-1). Three levels of average surface roughness (Ra), namely smooth, medium and rough, are considered. For the above three levels, three equations which describe the S-N curve are established. The application of these equations to specimens tested under cumulative fatigue damage shows that the roughness parameter must not be ignored. Hence a new model considering this parameter is formulated which may take the form From the applications of the proposed model, it is concluded that fatigue life predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

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Article
Membrane Action in Orthotropically R.C. Rectangular Slabs Supported on Three Edges Only with Variable Axial Restraints

Authors: Hisham M. Al-Hassani --- Sura Abdul Muneim Salman
Pages: 1131-1144
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Abstract

In this paper, large deformation analysis is carried out on uniformly loaded orthotropically reinforced concrete rectangular slabs that have one free edge and different restraints on the other edges. For the purpose of such analysis, the slabs are assumed to behave in a rigid-perfectly plastic manner and to yield under the combined effect of bending and membrane action. Two cases are analysed; the case of a slab having two adjacent edges fixed- one edge simply supported and one edge free, and the case of a slab having two adjacent edges simply supported- one edge fixed and one edge free. Results of the analysis indicate considerable enhancements in the load carrying capacity of such slabs above those predicted by Johanson's simple yield line theory(1).The amount of the load enhancement in a particular slab is found to depend on many parameters such as the steel ratio rx + , orthotropy ratio g, compressive strength of concrete fʹc , yield stress of steel fy , and the slab aspect ratio Ly/Lx, such that a higher enhancement in load is achieved for a slab having a higher value of fʹc but lower values of Ly/Lx , rx + , g and fy .

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Article
A Hydrodynamic Study in a Sieve Plate Sectionalized Bubble Column

Authors: Burhan Sadeq Abdulrazzaq
Pages: 1145-1156
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Abstract

The sectionalization of conventional bubble columns to tray bubble column by perforated trays has been used in chemical, biochemical, and petroleum processes as an effective way to improve the gas-liquid contacting efficiency, and reduce liquid backmixing. In this study, an experimental semi-batch tray bubble column setup has been built. Column 0.15 m inside diameter and total height of 2.20 m is sectionalized into four stages using three perforated plates to investigate the effect of tray geometry, superficial gas velocities and liquid phase physical properties on overall gas holdup. The overall gas holdup is measured experimentally by bed expansion technique. For studying the effect of physical properties of the liquid phase, two different gas and liquid systems are used (airwater and air-methanol solution).Methanol solution was used as the liquid phase to simulate the hydrodynamic behavior of the high gas holdup systems. Remarkable increases of up to 80% in the overall gas holdup have been observed in tray column as compared to conventional bubble column when this liquid system was used. Experimental results of tray bubble column shows significant increase the overall gas holdup in comparison with conventional bubble column. Correlations have been used for the estimation of the fractional gas holdup in bubble column with and without tray. Comparison of the model predictions with the experimental data and with the published data of other authors shows fine agreement which ensure the reliability and confidentiality of the adopted the correlations to be used in further designation.


Article
Study the Effect of Electrical Current on Average Surface Roughness of Borosilicate Glass at EDM Machining and Comparison Using Matlab Program

Authors: Shukry H. Aghdeab --- Ahmed A. Abulwahhab
Pages: 1157-1165
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Abstract

Machining of electrically non-conducting materials like glass is still a major problem. The principle of electric arc was used to generate high electrical discharge (spark) at high currents to machine non-conducting materials at any hardness. EDM system was build for machining of non-conducting cutting materials such as glass including the use of powder (graphite) mixed for dielectric solution (tap water) by supplied DC current values (200, 250, 300, 350 and 400A). Voltage of (70V) was used to cut 3mm thickness of borosilicate glass (BSG) to obtain the average surface roughness (Ra) of about (0.003-0.012μm). Matlab program has been used to investigate the process control for EDM that could the Ra experimental and theoretical with accuracies of 94.236, 94.034, 96.628 and 92.875% respectively. From the reading of the magnitude of the roughness it was found that differences between the theoretical and experimental values for 3mm thickness of BSG was never exceed (8%).

Keywords

Surface Roughness --- EDM --- MRR --- REW


Article
Hybrid Simple Genetic Algorithm (HSGA) and the Effect of using Fitness Functions for Layout Problem

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Abstract

In this research there is a wide study about Hybrid Genetic algorithm was presented in addition to Varity in fitness functions and there are effect on used algorithm. Results occur by using disjoint algorithm with genetic algorithm. We applied on two matters which are the (10) ten objects and the more complex , the (30) thirty objects . This way called hybrid simple genetic algorithm. This way developed to solve this subject of different objects layout.


Article
Image Features Evaluation Using New Algorithm Proposed For Reducing Image Feature Number & Size Stored In Database

Authors: Shahlaa T. Abdulwahab
Pages: 1176-1194
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Abstract

This study proposes technique that capable of reducing image features size and number stored in the database. The proposed technique depends on the image content of numerical values for the three basic colors (red, green and blue) and then stores it in the database and to be used for image retrieval. This technique has been developed based on recent image retrieval procedures that include Color Descriptor Matrix, YCbCr Color Space and Discrete Cosine Transform. Those procedures have been applied sequentially on the image and finally Kekre’s Transform has been applied in the last stage of this technique to evaluate image features and reduce its stored size in the database. The validity and accuracy of the proposed technique have been evaluated through experiments by applying Kekre’s Transform on Color Descriptor Matrix instead of using Kekre’s Transform directly on the image in order to reduce its feature stored size. Another experiments have been tested and evaluated that include the application of YCbCr Color Space on the Color Descriptor Matrix and finally Kekre’s Transform to be executed and explore the image features size and compare it with the previous stage. The effect of applying the Discrete Cosine Transform on the YCbCr Color Space and finally the Kekre’s Transform on the image features size has been studied and compared with the previous step. It is concluded that the best reduction in image features size stored in the database can be obtained only when Kekre’s Transform applied in the last step of the proposed technique with unchanged threshold based image retrieval ratios. Parametric study has been conducted to investigate the effect of applying the new algorithm on both isolated and mixed image groups. Good precision ratios of 82% and 65% have been obtained for the isolated and mixed image groups respectively.


Article
Evaluation of Drilling Process for Clamped-Free-Clamped- Free Rectangular Plate Using Vibration Analysis

Authors: Mauwafak Ali Tawfik --- Sami Ali Nama
Pages: 1195-1207
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Abstract

In this paper, the superposition method was used to obtain the solution for the forced vibration of clamped-free-clamped-free (CFCF) isotropic rectangular plates subjected to a concentrated drilling force. This method was found to work extremely well, and fewer terms in the series were used to provide an equivalent accuracy of solutions. The drilling force signals can be represented by Fourier series; the terms of the series were used to calculate the plate dynamic response at any point on the plate surface. The effect of the drilling conditions on Fourier series terms was analyzed and an empirical equation was derived to calculate the fundamental Fourier frequency at different drilling conditions. It was found that the speed and feed have pronounced effects on the Fourier fundamental frequency term.

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Article
Study The Proton Momentum Distribution of The 51V (γ,p)50Ti Reaction at Energy of 59.2 Mev

Authors: Alaa .B. Kadhim --- Raafat. A. Muslim --- Khaled. H. Mahdi
Pages: 1208-1215
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Abstract

The technique developed by Findlay and Owens for the extraction of a consistently effective momentum distribution from the 51V (γ,p)50Ti reaction data is applied to the cross sections obtained for each of the discrete low lying excited states ( 0.0 , 1.6 , 2.7 , 3.2 , 3.8 , 4.4 and 6.0 ) MeV ,respectively.The momentum density and momentum mismatch have been calculated using the method of Findlay and Owens for each excited state. This program has been written for this purpose using Fortran-77 language.The momentum scaled distribution would illustrate that the simple Direct Knockout Model (DKM) behavior observed in the (γ,p) reaction could be regarded as evidence for the importance of the DKM process in the (γ,p) reaction. Clearly the application of the procedure given by Findlay and Owens leads to a more consistent momentum distribution

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Article
Proposal to Complex DES Security Using Diffie Hellman Injection

Authors: Shatha habeeb Jafar
Pages: 1216-1226
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Data Encryption Standard (DES) is based on a round of starters, from the results of the use of multi-stage permutation and replacement to the more complex algorithm which adopts the symmetric key. Diffie- Hellman is based key generation algorithm puts a shared secret key between two parties A and B, which depends on the prime number. This research suggest a technique it is objective is the blending between the two encryption methods DES and Diffie Hellman to make DES more safe and secure. That by propose two options first one include injection the encryption DES after the seventh round with Diffie-Hellman just as key distribution algorithm then the results of the last back to the eighth round to complete the encryption process of DES. The second include injection the encryption DES after the eighth round with Diffie-Hellman just as key distribution algorithm to generate key the results of the eighth round will be encrypted using stream cipher then back to the ninth round to complete the encryption process of DES.

Table of content: volume:29 issue:6