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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:7

Article
Comparison Between Nanofilters and Reverse Osmosis Membrane In Desalination Iraqi Surface Water
مقارنة بين أغشية النانو (Nanofilters) مع أغشية التنافذ العكسي (Reverse Osmosis) في تحلية المياه السطحية العراقية

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Abstract

Nanofiltration (NF) has received increased attention as a possible treatment process providing high rejection of solutes and high water flux rate. Using NF as a desalination process for Iraqi surface water is considered in this research. A small system with one membrane of 4 inch diameter and 1 meter long was used to evaluate the performance of NF membrane for the desalination of Tigris River water in Baghdad, and compare it with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. The results showed that one could get double the permeate flow rate and spend about 20% less electric power when using NF membranes instead of RO membranes. Permeated water TDS values for NF membrane are low enough to allow for further adjustment for drinking water quality. NF rejection capacity for monovalent ions is lower than that of the divalent ions, and in general the salt rejection capacity is above 88%.

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Article
Effect of Addition Some Element Laser Surface Treatment on Wear Rate of Al-16%Si
تأثير اضافة بعض العناصر السطحية بالليزر على معدل البلى لسبيكة المنيوم - 16% سليكون

Authors: هويدة ابراهيم أحمد
Pages: 345-356
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Abstract

In this work laser surface treatment has used in hardening alloy which are (Al- 16%Si) after melting it and addition element which are (Mg,Cu,Ni) with high purity with suitable quantities by using pulsed Nd-Glass laser with pulsed duration (6Hz.) with overlapped-pulses.laser surface melting method done for the alloy,and wearing test performed with different loads before and after laser treatment ,the results show that wear rete and hardness increases after laser treatment. Keywords: high purity, Nd-Glass laser, laser surface melting, wear, hardness.

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Article
Design and Build a Controlled Hydrogen Fuel Cell Feeded by an Electric Circuit to Increase The Effectiveness Production of Hydrogen Gas
تصميم وبناء خلية وقود هيدروجيني مسيطرة عليها من خلال دائرة الكترونية وزيادة فاعلية أنتاج غاز الهيدروجين

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Abstract

In this research we report anew building system for fuel cell by the division of water into oxygen and hydrogen using a very small amount of electric power to obtain unlimited quantities of hydrogen fuel, by using the waves hit the water with specific frequencies, using a new building electronic circuit. To reach the situation of the most effective system, we built again another system by changing the polarity shape from cylindrical shape to the flat shape to increase the surface area and to obtain more space for the dismantling of the water molecules. Keywords: fuel cell, hydrogen fuel, electronic circuit.

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Article
Evaluation of Some Cytogenetic Effects of Bt.ASF.1 in Lab.mice
تقييم بعض التأثيرات الوراثية الخلوية للمبيد الحيوي البكتري Bt-ASF-1 في خلايا نخاع عظم الفئران المختبرية

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Abstract

This study was amid to detection the genotoxicity ffect of biocide (Bt-ASF-1) producing from Bacillus thuringiensis ( by oral nutrition ) in inhibition of the Cyclophosphoamide drug in mice (Mus musculus) . Cytogenetical tests were used to determination of the mitotic index ,micronuclei , chromosomal central association and chromosomal aberration . The results revealed the absence of toxicity and mutagenicity effects of biocide and its inhibition efficiency to prevent the toxicity and mutagenicity effects of CFA drug before feeding with biocide . Keywords : Genotoxic effects of Bt-ASF-1

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Article
Numerical Modeling of Flood Wave Behavior with Meandering Effects (Euphrates River, Haditha-Hit)

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Abstract

A numerical model for routing of flood wave in a part of meandering river is presented. It is based on a modified form of the complete one-dimensional Saint- Venant equations of unsteady flow. These equations were modified such that flows in the meandering river channel, left over bank flood plain, and right over bank flood plain were all identified separately. Thus, the differences in hydraulic and geometric properties and flow-path distances were considered for all three divisions of the valley cross-section. This development differs from conventional one-dimensional treatment of unsteady flows in rivers with flood plain wherein the flow is either averaged across the total cross-sectional area (channel and flood plain) or the flood plain is treated as off-channel storage, and the reach lengths of the channel and flood plain are assumed to be identical. The weighted four-point implicit finite difference method is selected to solve a modified Sain-Venant equations for its versatility and computing efficiency. The numerical model was applied to the Euphrates river at the reach between Haditha dam and Hit city along (124.4 km) to make a sensitivity analysis of the following parameters: maximum flood wave discharge, maximum flood wave elevation, lag time of the peak discharge, lag time of the peak level, and time of arrival of flood wave to a seven major cities along the Euphrates river in a case study and comparing it with a same parameters produced when a conventional one-dimensional treatment of unsteady flows in river with flood plains where the meandering in river is neglected.


Article
The Frequency Theoretic Estimation of non-Linear Key Generator Sequences

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Abstract

The Randomness is one of the basic criterions to measure Key Generator Efficiency. The key generator depends basically on Linear FeedBack Shift Register which is considered as one of the basic units of Stream Cipher Systems. In this paper, the frequency postulate of Randomness criteria is calculated theoretically for non-linear key generator before it be implemented or constructed (software or hardware), this procedure save time and costs. Two non-linear key generators are chosen to apply the theoretical studies; these key generators are the Product and Brüer.


Article
Output-Feedback Stochastic Nonlinear Stabilization and Inverse Optimality

Authors: Radhi A. Zaboon --- Auras K. Hameed --- Jehad R. Khider
Pages: 1251-1264
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Abstract

Output-feedback (observer-based) robust and optimal control law which guarantees global (local) asymptotic stability in probability for nonlinear stochastic dynamic system are stated, developed and proved with the help of stochastic Lyapunov function approach supported by necessary theorems and an illustrative example. The inverse optimal stabilization in probability with suitable performance index has also been stated and developed.


Article
Steganograhy in Images by Using Intersecting Planes

Authors: Esraa Jaffar Baker
Pages: 1265-1275
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Abstract

Steganography is the art of hiding, and transmitting information using apparently innocent carrier without expose any suspicion. In this paper the proposed system is an implementation of image steganography techniques. This system will be used for embedding a steganography string into an image, which is true color image by using LSB technique to embedding text. The proposal technique is depending on the selection of the pixels that uses geometrical mathematical for intersecting planes. In this method the message cipher are repeated many time this help us to increased secure message. This method tests by many images, and give the results without distortion the image steganography.


Article
Using Geographic Information System (GIS) to Manage Civil Engineering Projects

Authors: Asmaa Abdul Jabbar
Pages: 1276-1289
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Abstract

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used in many fields of Science; one of these fields is civil engineering. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based tool used to solve engineering problems related to spatial data. GIS, its complete potential to construction industry has not been realized. GIS technologies have the potential to solve space related problems of construction involving, integration of information, urban planning, and project site selection, soil studies, Hydrology and environmental studies. Proper use for these tools necessitates training the GIS techniques.

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Article
Influence of Flap Angle on the Aeroelastic Behavior of Wing- Flap Configuration Using Fully Coupled Structure-Fluid Interaction Model

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Abstract

The influence of trailing edge flap angle on the aeroelastic behavior of a vibrating wing-flap configuration is investigated in this work. For this purpose an aeroelastic numerical model with fully coupled structure-fluid interaction is developed. The flow and structural solvers are coupled via successive iterations within each physical time step. The aerodynamic model is based on a hybrid unsteady panel method which is still a good approach to calculate the unsteady loads. While the nonlinear plate equation solved by an assumed mode method is used to represent the structure wing model. The results for a vibrating rectangular wing-flap configuration in low subsonic attached flow are presented, including the effect of flap angle on the unsteady pressure coefficient, time history of lifting coefficient and aeroelastic behavior of the wing. These results clearly show the effect of strong structure-fluid interaction and illustrate the utility of the present model which may be used in the preliminary stage of the wing design.


Article
Random Insertion Watermarking By Computing Angle Between Two Lines In Blue Components On Postage Stamp

Authors: Nada Mahdi al- Husseiny
Pages: 1308-1328
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Abstract

This paper presents a new approach for watermarking by using geometric analytic and mathematical model providing robustness to embed the watermarking in postage stamp (ps) image, using the angle between two lines to insert the embedded information in blue component for pixels. Analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry, or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system and analysis. The modern and advanced meaning refers to the geometry of analytic varieties, to develop a data-hiding method that has a good performance in color images. Furthermore, the watermark must be either robust or fragile; depending on the application. The expression "robust" in this paper refers to the capability of the watermark to resist manipulations of the media. Two types of watermarked attack was used; the JEPQ compression as lossy compression (where compressing and decompressing data retrieve hidden information that may be close enough to the original image), and the enhancement filter (mean filter). This proposed watermarking system refers to the watermark objective evaluation test or (WOET).


Article
Training Artificial Neural Networks by PSO to Perform Digital Circuits Using Xilinx FPGA

Authors: Hanan A. R. Akkar --- Firas R. Mahdi
Pages: 1329-1344
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Abstract

One of the major constraints on hardware implementations of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is the amount of circuitry required to perform the multiplication process of each input by its corresponding weight and there subsequent addition. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a suitable hardware IC for Neural Network (NN) implementation as it preserves the parallel architecture of the neurons in a layer and offers flexibility in reconfiguration and cost issues. In this paper the adaption of the ANN weights is proposed using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as a mechanism to improve the performance of ANN and also for the reduction in the ANN hardware. For this purpose we modified the MATLAB PSO toolbox to be suitable for the taken application. In the proposed design training is done off chip then the fully trained design is download into the chip, in this way less circuitry is required. This paper executes four bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) implemented using Xilinx schematic design entry tools as an example for the implementation of digital circuits using ANN trained by PSO algorithm.


Article
Microcontroller-Based Sun Path Tracking System

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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to design and construct a solar tracking system based on a microcontroller. The system design depends on some mathematical equations to send three signals to drive circuit to change the position of the solar cell by changing the polarity of two motors. These mathematical equations are used to compute the solar height angle (elevation) and the solar horizon angle (azimuth), whereas the usage of the fixed solar cells does not accomplish the desired object, that means the use of fixed solar cells does not grant a suitable output during a day and a season, where the sun position differs at the morning to the noon and at the setting of the sun, this is due to the spherical shape of Earth and to its rotation around the sun. The solar cell is controlled vertically and horizontally at period equal to one hour, whereas the stored data that denote of the sun position is computed each hour from the sunrise to the sunset, the amount of the stored data is different from a day to another, this variation is produced by the difference of day length during the year, whereas the amount of computed data at the summer is more than the amount of computed data at the winter. The microcontrollers vouch for processing the data and issue the commands to actuators to change the orientation of the solar cell. All obtained results are very acceptable, when the system has tested in certain days. By using the microcontroller, the project efficiency is improved, and the cost of hardware is reduced.


Article
The Seismic Analysis for a Multi-Story Building Due To UBC 1997&IBC 2006 Codes

Authors: Alaa K. Abdal Karim
Pages: 1360-1371
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Abstract

This Study is aimed to investigate the seismic design for typical ten-story building by using codes formulas for evaluating the base shear forces, and distribution of these forces, and lateral displacements along the height of this building, also a comparison is made between two seismic codes. These different design codes are: UBC 1997 and IBC 2006 codes. It is concluded from this analysis that the maximum computed lateral displacements for this building by using UBC 1997 is equal to (58.6%) relative to lateral displacements computed by using the IBC 2006, also it is concluded from the results that the value of base shear obtained by using IBC 2006 code is higher than the value obtained by using UBC 1997 code by (66.6%). The results of the bending moments obtained from the computer analysis of the applied static seismic codes, shows that the bending moments of columns is higher when using IBC 2006 code.

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Article
Neural Network-Based Robust Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) of Synchronous Generator
منظم الجھد الي المتين الذي يعتمد الشبكة العصبية لمولد متزامن

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Abstract

The voltage stability and power quality of the electrical system depend on proper operation of AVR. Nowadays, Design technology of AVR is being broadly improved. Nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties are unavoidable problem faced in controlling the output voltage of Synchronous Generator (SG) when working alone or with others. This paper proposes a Nonlinear Auto Regressive-Moving Average control (NARMA-L2) as a voltage controller which is one type of Neural Network (NN) plant structure. Nonlinearities due to the effect of saturation in machine between generated voltage and field current, uncertainties arise because variation of the load connected with time and the change of rotors resistance with temperature. Due to this fact, Proportional- Integral- Derivative (PID) controller cannot be used effectively since it is developed based on linear system theory. NN controller shows less over shoot and settling time than PID controller with different conditions of load. Also NN controller shows high robust characteristic than PID controller. استقرار الجھد في المنظومة الكھربائية يعتمد كثيرا على اشتغال السليم لمنظم الجھد الي (AVR .(في الوقت الحاضر ، يجري على نطاق واسع تحسين وتصميم تكنولوجيا ال AVR . أل/خطية وعدم وثوقية المتغيرات ھي المشكلة التي تواجھھا السيطرة على الجھد الكھربائي والتي من َ الصعب تجنبھا في المولد المتزامن و ضمن الشبكة َ عندما يعَمل لوحده أ . ھذا البحث يقترح استخدام التحكم الموائم ل:نظمة الغير خطية (L2-NARMA ( , وھو احد تراكيب مسيطرات الشبكة العصبية (NN (الذكية ومقارنة أدائه مع المسيطر التناسبي - التكاملي - التفاضلي التقليدي PID .((ال/خطية ناتجة عن حالة التشبع بين الفولتية المتولدة وتيار المجال ،وعدم وثوقية المتغيرات الناتجة عن تغير الحمل مع الوقت وارتفاع درجة الحرارة التي تغير مقاومة ملفات الجزء الدوار. نتيجة لھذا الواقع, مسيطر PID  يمكن استخدامه بشكل فعال وذلك @ن تصميمه على أساس نظرية النظام الخطي. مسيطر الشبكة العصبيه اظھر اقل ارتفاع عن مستوى الجھد المطلوب واقل وقت للوصول الى الجھد المقبول من مسيطرPID ولحات الحمل المختلفة. كذلك لوحظ أن متانة منظم الجھد ا@وتوماتيكي مع مسيطر NN أفضل منھا في حالة مسيطرPID.


Article
Residual Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Exposed to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Manolia Abed Al-wahab Ali
Pages: 1386-1390
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Abstract

This study aims to investigate the residual mechanical properties (compressive strength, modulus of rupture and dynamic modulus of elasticity) of selfcompacting concrete (SCC) exposed to elevated temperatures ranging from (100- 800 oC) as well as studying its fresh and hardened properties at normal temperature. Also it aims to study the influence of high reactivity metakaoline (HRM), as a partial replacement by weight of cement, for improving its mechanical properties after and before exposure to elevated temperatures. The concrete specimens were subjected to a temperature range of (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800oC) with an exposure duration of 2-houres. The test results showed that the performance of SCC containing HRM is higher than that of SCC without HRM , where the residual compressive strength of HRM SCC after an exposure to a temperature level of (800oC) was 73.2% while for the normal SCC was 65% from their original strength .At the same exposure temperature (800oC) , the loss in modulus of rupture is higher than that of compressive strength , the difference was between (2% - 12.4%). Also the reduction in dynamic modulus of elasticity (Ed) is higher than that of compressive strength and modulus of rupture ,where the residual (Ed) was between (47.3% - 63.5%) after 800oC exposure.

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Article
Eyes Recognition System Using Central Moment Features

Authors: Sundos A. Hameed Al_azawi
Pages: 1400-1407
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Abstract

Central moment is widely used in pattern recognition because of their discrimination power and robustness. For eye recognition these moments can also be normalized so that the moments are also size invariant. In this work, the proposal Eyes Recognition with Moments System(ERMS) including two methods, first method Shape Feature Extraction(SFE) by using central moment and some image processing techniques worked together for the features extraction, second step is a method to recognition of eyes features by comparing between an input test eyes features (moments) from the input image and an eyes features which store d in the features database.

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Recognition --- Eyes --- Central Moment


Article
Object Tracking using Generalized Gradient Vector Flow

Authors: Israa A. Alwan
Pages: 1408-1424
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Abstract

The aim of an object tracker is to generate the trajectory of an object over time by locating its position in every frame of the video. In this research, we present an object contour tracking approach using Generalized Gradient Vector Flow (GGVF). GGVF active contour, or snake, is a dynamic curve that moves within an image domain to capture desired image features. Mostly, GGVF is not sensitive to initial conditions and converges to the optimal contour. Given an initial contour near the object in the first video frame, GGVF can iteratively converge to an optimal object boundary. In each video frame thereafter, the resulting contour in the previous video frame is taken as initialization so the algorithm consists of two steps. In the first step, the initial contour is applied to the desired object in first video frame. The resulting contour is taken as initialization of the second step, which applies GGVF to current video frame. To evaluate the tracking performance, we applied the algorithm to several real world video sequences. Experimental results are provided.


Article
Surface Fitting and Representation By Using 2D Least Squares Method in CAD Applications

Authors: Tahseen F. Abbas --- Omar A. Raheem --- Abdulwahab N. Abbas
Pages: 1425-1437
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This paper presents a general method for automatic surface fitting from scattered range data and describes the implementation of three methods for fitting surfaces: linear, quadratic and cubic. It uses a modified 2D least squares method to fitting, reconstructing and modeling several surfaces and statistical criteria to compare the three approaches. The comparison is performed using a mathematically defined data as real data obtained from the proposed models. The method can be used in a variety of applications such as reverse engineering, automatic generating of a CAD model, etc, and it has proven to be effective as demonstrated by a number of examples using real data from mathematical functions ( sine, cosine, exponential and cubic). By applying the proposed surface fitting model the standard deviation was found to be (0.04-0.26), (0.02- 0.07) and (0.0-0.12) mm for linear, quadratic and cubic fitting models respectively.


Article
Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Exhaust and Noise Emissions from 4-Stroke S.I.Engine

Authors: Maher A.R. Sadiq --- Yassar K. Ali --- Aimen Rashad Noor
Pages: 1438-1450
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Abstract

Considering pollution problems and energy crisis today, investigations have been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on the exhaust emissions and noise level has been experimentally investigated at various engine loads. Results of the engine test indicated that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels increases the power output of the engine dramatically (up to 50 %). While the CO and HC emissions decrease as a result of the leaning effect caused by the ethanol addition; and the CO2 emission increases because of the improvement of combustion. Also, it was noted that the noise level emission increases slightly with the increase of ethanol content. Finally, the results showed that ethanol can be used as a supplementary fuel to gasoline in modern spark ignition engines without major changes, and it can help to save our environment from toxic pollutants and to save a considerable part of the available oil.

Table of content: volume:29 issue:7