Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884/E26180707
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2007 volume:8 issue:4

Article
The Effect of Solvent Extraction of Light Lubricating Oilon Viscosity Index and Chemical Composition

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted for the improvement of viscosity index of light lubricating oil fraction (40 stock) obtained from vacuum distillation unit of lube oil plant of Daura Refinery, using solvent extraction process. In this study furfural solvent was used to extract the undesirable materials which reduce the viscosity index of raw lubricating oil fraction. The studied effecting variables of extraction were extraction temperature range from 70 to 110°C, and solvent to oil ratio range from 1:1 to 4:1 (wt/wt). The n-d-M method was used for calculation of carbon distribution and structural group analysis of the raffinate produced from furfural extraction. Also the three component phase diagram for a mixed-base oil and furfural at different temperature was drawn. The results of this investigation show that the viscosity index of lubricating oil fraction increases with increasing extraction temperature and increasing the solvent to oil ratio and reaches 115.6 at extraction temperature 110°C and solvent to oil ratio 4:1. Further more, the results show that the viscosity, refractive index, density, sulfur content and percentage yield of produced raffinate were decreased as the extraction temperature or solvent to oil ratio increases for extraction process.


Article
Effect of Feed Concentration on the Production of PregelatinizedStarch in a Double Drum Dryer

Authors: Riyadh S. Al-Mukhtar
Pages: 13-17
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Abstract

Double drum dryer is operated for producing pregelatinized maize starches using feed starch slurries of different solids(7, 10 and13 g/100 g )content . Steam pressure (2,3,and 4 bar), the level of pool between the drums (4,7,and 10cm) , and speed of drums rotation (3,4,and 6 rpm) are varied together with the feed solids content in a practical range of values. The response of the dryer is registered by measuring several output variables, i.e. external drum temperature,product moisture content, mass flow rate.


Article
Continuous De-emulsification of Crude Oil Using Packed ColumnUnder Various Conditions

Authors: G. A. R. Rassoul
Pages: 19-24
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Abstract

This research dealt with desalting of East Baghdad crude oil using pellets of either anionic, PVC, quartz, PE, PP or nonionic at different temperature ranging from 30 to 80 °C, pH from 6 to 8, time from 2 to 20 minutes, volume percent washing water from 5 to 25% and fluid velocity from 0.5 to 0.8 m/s under voltage from 2 to 6 kV and / or using additives such as alkyl benzene sulphonate or sodium stearate. The optimum conditions and materials were reported to remove most of water from East Baghdad wet crude oil.


Article
The Production of Ethanol from Sugar Beet Waste byImmobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

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Abstract

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads and activated charcoal for use in the production of ethanol from batch fermentation of sugar beet waste. Treatment of the waste with NaOH to increase the ability of lignocellulose material to hydrolysis by acid (2N H2SO4) to monosaccharide and disaccharide (mainly glucos). The high reducing sugar concentration obtained was equal to 9.2gm/100ml (10Brix) after treatment. Fermentation parameters, are (pH, glucose concentration (2.5-25 gm/100ml), immobilized agent concentration (2.5-25 gm/100ml) were studied to find the optimum physiological condition. And the highest ethanol concentration obtained from the fermentation in the presence of 20%(wt/v) calcium alginate was (9.322%(wt/v)) at 13.75%(wt/v) glucose concentration and pH 5 .The experimental results were correlated by empirical second order polynomial equation with correlation coefficient 96.734% and variance 93.574%

Keywords

sugar beets --- ethanol


Article
Prediction of Fractional Hold-Up in RDC ColumnUsing Artificial Neural Network

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Abstract

In the literature, several correlations have been proposed for hold-up prediction in rotating disk contactor. However,these correlations fail to predict hold-up over wide range of conditions. Based on a databank of around 611 measurements collected from the open literature, a correlation for hold up was derived using Artificial Neiral Network (ANN) modeling. The dispersed phase hold up was found to be a function of six parameters: N, vc , vd , Dr , c d m / m ,s . Statistical analysis showed that the proposed correlation has an Average Absolute Relative Error (AARE) of 6.52% and Standard Deviation (SD) 9.21%. A comparison with selected correlations in the literature showed that the developed ANN correlation noticeably improved prediction of dispersed phase hold up. The developed correlation also shows better prediction over a wide range of operation parameters in RDC columns.


Article
Prevention of Scale Formation in Heat Exchanger Pipesby Using Magnetic Field

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Abstract

The possibility of using the magnetic field technique in prevention of forming scales in heat exchangers pipes using hard water in heat transfer processes, also the studying the effective and controllable parameters on the mechanism of scale formation. The new designed heat exchanger experimental system was used after carrying out the basic process designs of the system. This system was used to study the effect of the temperature (40-90 °C) and water flow rate (0.6-1.2 L/min) on the total hardness with time as a function of precipitation of hardness salts from water and scale formation. Different magnetic field designs in the heat exchanger experimental system were used to study the effect of magnetic field design and strength (200-500 Gauss) on the total hardness with time as a function of precipitation of hardness salts from water and scale formation.


Article
Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Phenol in a Trickle Bed Reactor

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Abstract

Catalytic wet air oxidation of aqueous phenol solution was studied in a pilot plant trickle bed reactor using copper oxide catalyst supported on alumina and silica. Catalysts were prepared by impregnating method. Effect of feed solution pH (5.9, 7.3, and 9.2), gas flow rate (20%, 50%, 80%, and 100%), WHSV (1, 2, and 3 h-1), temperature (120°C, 140°C,and 160°C), oxygen partial pressure (6, 9, 12 bar), and initial phenol concentration (1, 2, and 4 g/l).Generally, the performance of the catalysts was better when the pH of feed solution was increased. The catalysts deactivation is related to the dissolution of the metal oxides from the catalyst surface due to the acidic conditions. Phenol oxidation reaction was strongly affected by WHSV, temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and initial phenol concentration. While gas flow rate had a marginal effect.


Article
The Effect of Photo-Initiated Oxidation on Mechanical Properties ofHigh Density Polyethylene / Linear Low Density Polyethylene Blends

Authors: Nabeela A. Mohammed --- Najat J. Saleh
Pages: 53-58
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Abstract

The long – term behaviour of polyethylene products used out doors is affected by weathering. In the present work,weathering test was carried out to find the effect of the environment conditions on the mechanical properties of HDPE/LLDPE blends with different weight percents (0, 15, 30, and 45 %) relative to the LLDPE by increasing the exposure times to (100, 150, 200, 250, 300) hr. A series of tests (destructive), tensile, impact and hardness were carried out on the prepared samples, the results obtained declare the changes on the material behaviour from ductile to brittle and the polymer shows a decline in the mechanical properties with increasing the exposure times. In the present work empirical equations were reached which could be used to calculate one of the mechanical properties in terms of exposure time, weight percent of LLDPE content and to other mechanical properties.


Article
Efficiency and Reliability of Reverse Osmosis Desalination Systems

Authors: Ayad A. F. Al-Dulaimi
Pages: 59-62
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Abstract

This study is concerned with the evaluation of the effect of Euphrates River water quality in Al-Samawa region during the period 1984-2003 on efficiency and reliability of reverse osmosis desalination systems by calculating the calcium sulfate scaling index depending on the following indicators: - TDS, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+1, Cl-1, So4-2, HCO3-1. It was found from data analysis that this index for these units is greater than permissible limit. Also, the fitted relationship between this index and TDS is logarithmic, i.e. this index varies more rapidly than TDS, and consequently it is more representative to the water quality than TDS.


Article
The Effect of Time and Corrosion Products Formation on CorrosionRate of Carbon Steel Pipe Under Turbulent Flow Conditions

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Abstract

The effect of time (or corrosion products formation) on corrosion rates of carbon steel pipe in aerated 0.1N NaCl solution under turbulent flow conditions is investigated. Tests are conducted using electrochemical polarization technique by determining the limiting current density of oxygen reduction in Reynolds number range of 15000 to 110000 and temperature range of 30 to 60oC. The effect of corrosion products formation on the friction factor is studied and discussed. Corrosion process is analyzed as a mass transfer operation and the mass transfer theory is employed to express the corrosion rate. The results are compared with many proposed models particularly those based on the concept of analogy among momentum, heat, and mass transport. The capability of these models to predict corrosion rates in presence of corrosion products is examined and discussed. It is found that formation of corrosion products with time decreases the corrosion rate (or mass transfer rate) at low Reynolds number and temperature while it increases the corrosion rate at high Re and temperature. It increases momentum transport and this increase depends on temperature,Reynolds number, and corrosion rate. Increasing roughness due to the formation of corrosion products causes overestimation of analogy correlations results by increasing friction factor and decreasing corrosion rate.

Table of content: volume:8 issue:4