جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2010 المجلد: 38 العدد: عدد خاص بمؤتمر قسم الوقاية

Article
EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND AMENDMENTS ON THE PINE DAMPING OFF AND SOIL PROPERTIES
تأثير البسترة الشمسية والمصلحات على موت بادرات الصنوبر و خواص التربة

المؤلفون: Wazeer A. Hassan وزير علي حسن
الصفحات: 2-11
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الخلاصة

The effects of solarization using polyethylene mulching for 45 and 60 days combined with soil amendments of chicken manures (CM), mixed fungicides of metalayxl 2g and benlate 1.5g L-1 (Met.&Ben.), biocontrol agent of Trichoderma harzianum (T.h.). and NPK fertilizers 180kg N h-1 on the pine damping off in Malta nursery had been ascertained in Summer 2008. Pre-emergence damping-off on the pine seedlings grown in dry soil was 83.33% with disease severity of 60%, while solar heating for 45 days reduced the disease occurrence to 45% and its severity 11.67%. Amendments of CM., Met. & Ben., and T.h. after 60 days controlled disease to a lesser extent than other treatments. Obvious increasing of organic matter, 2.63%, NH+4– N 0.08 g N and NO–3 – N 0.05 g N 100g-1 soil in addition to soluble nutrients of P 8.91 mg and K 0.035 Meq K 100g-1 soil was recorded in the mulching soil. At the same time composted heating plots decreased C/N ratio to relatively optimal levels of 15.75 and 18.59 after both of solar periods, alkaline soil pH (8.41 – 9.56) did not incongruous with the efficiency of biocontrol T.h. in the decomposition of organic matter and availability of the most nutrients even in the solarized soil.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY ON FUSARIUM WILT of CHICHPEA
دراسة الذبول الفيوزاريومي على الحمص

المؤلفون: A.K.Al-Taae1 علي كريم محمد الطائي
الصفحات: 5-13
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الخلاصة

Results of the survey carried out in fourteen regions in Alqush site of Ninevah province during the two seasons 2009and 2010 showed that disease incidence of Chickpea wilt were gradually different from region to others.The means of disease incidence of two seasons were 45 and 42.5% in Crana and Hatara respectively.Results of isolation and diagnosis showed that the Chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris (Padwick) Sato& Matuo.Results of screening twenty one genotypes of chickpea for susceptibility to Fusarium wilt indicated that seven genotypes were resistant (FILP05-73C , FILP06-93C , FILP06-114C , K-850, L-550, WR-315 and FLIP) four were moderately resistance (FLOP05-160C ,FLIP06-19C ,FLIP06-155C and JG-74), nine were susceptible (FLIP03-35C, FLIP03-17C ,FLIP03-99C,FLIP05-24C , FLIP05-83C, FLIP06-40C, FLIP06-41C FLIP06-145C and FLIP06-157C) and Rafidane was highly susceptible to fusarium wilt.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MORPHOMETRICAL STUDY OF THE STINK BUG Apodiphus amygdali (GERMAR) (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) IN IRAQ
دراسة مظهرية قياسية للبق النتن Apodiphus amygdali (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) في العراق

المؤلفون: Sarkawt Hussein Muhammed سركوت حسين محمد
الصفحات: 12-18
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الخلاصة

The morphological characteristics in association with dimensions of all the stages of A. amygdali were studied during season 2007. The egg is barrel in shape, bright green in colour when freshly lay, usually deposited in masses which contain 14 eggs each. The average body lengths and widths of each of the five nymphal instars were: (2.80, 2.22); (4.36, 3.22); (6.10, 3.94); (10.38, 6.01) and (12.40, 7.04) mm, respectively. The adult measurements were: (14.48) mm long and (7.60) mm wide for male and (16.48) mm long and (8.32) mm wide for female, the first nymphal instar characterized by shiny orange, the rest instars are grey, while the adult is red to reddish bronze and gray to black.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CONTROL OF WHEAT COVER SMUT USING CERTAIN FUNGICIDES
مكافحة مرض التفحم المغطى على الحنطة باستخدام بعض المبيدات الفطرية

المؤلفون: A.K.Al-Taae علي كريم محمد الطائي
الصفحات: 14-19
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الخلاصة

Efficiency of sex fungicides (Premis, Vitavax , Dividend ,Dithane S 60 , Sumi-8 and Raxil) were evaluated as seed dressing using recommended concentration from manufactured companies to control common bunt disease of wheat. The two fungicides Dividend and Sumi-8 showed a high efficacy in control the disease fully 100%, and this fungicides did not differ significantly from the other Vitavax and Raxil, while the Premis fungicides was become in second grade which was opposing the disease at 92.52% and the Dividend at concentration 0.5g / kg of grain was 100% the same efficiency used by manufactured company 1g/kg of grain. These indicated the possiblelity for a successful use in resistant processing which was helpful in decreasing the economic for from control when used in low concentrate, furthermore, was in decreasing the negative effects on environmental and human hygiene.

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Article
EFFECT OF PIRIMOR ON SOME BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF Coccinella septempunctata L.WITH SPECIAL CARE TO THE INTEGUMENT AND FAT BODIES AS DEFFENSIVE BARRIER
تأثير البريمور في بعض العمليات الحيوية للدعسوقة ذات السبع نقاط مع الاشارة الى الجليد والاجسام الدهنية كحواجز دفاعية

المؤلفون: Talal T. Mahmoud طلال طاهر محمود
الصفحات: 19-27
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الخلاصة

The results showed that the pirimor (0.01) has highly effective against the aphid,Aphis fabae Scop. 70%The percentage of predators eggs Coccinella septempunctata L to failed hatch and the percent mortalities; 1st.,2nd., 3rd.,4th. Instars, pupa and adults were; 20,25, 20,10,5, 10, and 13% respectively. The predatism efficiency rate of treated stage decreased during all larval and adult stages. Pirimor tended to decrease the period from egg to adult. Morphological deformities occurred in over14.28%of the adults developed from treated1st.instar larvae. Sex ratio differed slightly from the control. Cuticle thickness of each stage till the adults, was decreased slightly. Fat bodies diametersin treated stages were increased as aresult of insecticide storage.It could be concluded that the cuticle an the fat bodies were among the most important defense activities in predators.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME HARD AND SOFT WHEAT CULTIVARS FOR COVERED SMUT AND ITS CONTROL
حساسية بعض اصناف القمح الناعم والقاسي للاصابة بالتفحم المغطى ومكافحته

المؤلفون: M.S. Hassan محمد صادق حسن
الصفحات: 20-26
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الخلاصة

An experiment conducted at College of Agriculture, Univ. of Baghdad during seaso 2006 to evaluate susceptibility of some hard and soft wheat cultivars for covered smut caused by Tilletia spp. Results showed high resistance of C.Vs. Tamuz 2 , Iratum and Durum wheat C.Vs., Umrabi, Sham 3, and Aksad under artificial inoculation , while Latifia, SaberBeg and Milad showed high susceptibility toward this infection. Water Agar and Corn Meal Agar media gave the highest spore germination in the laboratory. Most of the chemical fungicides and organic substances were more effective against this disease particularly Carboxin and Vitvax-plus which prevented spores germination completely on W.A. with no effects on the grain viability. Field trials showed significant effects of Dividen, Raxil and Vitvax-plus with complete reduction of disease in Sali cultivar 98.3% and 96.6% in SaberBeg respectively. Carboxin reduced infections by 97.3% in Sali and 98.2% in SaberBeg. Wheat flour treatment also reduced disease incidence in both Sali and SaberBeg by 90.8 and 88.3% respectively compared with 84.3% and 74.0% used skim milk in Sali and SaberBeg respectively. Finally Chemofoom application reduced infected plants by 80.3% in SaberBeg , cultivars.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDING THE DEVELOPMENT AND STAGE DESCRIPTION OF CITRUS NEMATODE Tylenchulus semipenetrans (MEDITERRANEAN RACE) ON SOUR ORANGE AND LEMON
دراسة تطور نيماتودا الحمضياتTylenchulus semipenetrans سلالة حوض البحر الأبيض المتوسط المتطفلة على النارنج والليمون الحامض ووصف أطوارها

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الخلاصة

The results indicated that the citrus nematode (Mediterranean race) completed it’s life cycle in about 7 and 8 weeks on the root of the lemon and sour orange respectively ٫ the number of nematode stages parasitized on lemon roots or extracted from it’s soil were higher than that of sour orange. Second stage juveniles parasitized on lemon and sour orange roots did not differ significantly in the value of parameters including the thickness of the cuticle٫length of stylet ٫ width of the basal bulb in addition to values of b and c٫ while they differed significantly in the length and width of the body٫ length of esophagus and posterior part of the body with the highest value recorded in the juveniles parasitized on lemon except (a) value recorded for juveniles parasitized on sour orange which was the highest. Concerning the males٫ no significant differences were recorded between them in most parameters including values of body width٫ thickness of cuticle and length of stylet ٫esophagus and spicules in addition to values of b and c.while the males extracted from the soil planted with lemon showed higher values in length of the body and length of the posterior part of the body٫but higher value of (a) was found in males extracted from soil planted with sour orange. Mature females parasitized on lemon were significantly bigger than those parasitized on sour orange because the higher value of body width٫neck length٫body width at vulva٫ post vulval section length and post vulval section width but did not differ significantly in the thickness of cuticle. Size of egg masses and number of eggs formed by females parasitized on lemon were significantly bigger than those formed by females parasitized on sour orange with no differences in egg size.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
POPULATION DENSITY OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne javanica ON CUCUMBER PLANT AND SOME METHODS OF CONTROL
الكثافة العددية لنيماتودا تعقد الجذور Meloidogyne javanica على نبات الخيار وبعض طرائق مكافحتها

المؤلفون: Sulaiman N.Ami سليمان نائف عمي
الصفحات: 34-39
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الخلاصة

The results revealed that the interaction between region of survey and period of taking samples was significant on the population density of root-knot nematode M.javanica,which reached it's maximum level (1264 nematode stage / 200gm soil) in soil of khabat field in september,then declined to it's minimum level (121 nematode stage / 200gm soil) in soil of koshtapa field in may.Three treatments were applied for controlling root –knot nematode M. javanica on cucumber plant cv. Babylon included vydate (24%) in its liguid formula and two biocotrol agents included Trichoderma harziaum and Bacillus thuringinesis as a single,two fold and triple treatments after joining with each other.The results indicated that all treatments improved some growth criteria of cucumber plants ( length and weight of shoots and roots ) and reduced some infection criteria (number of root –knots,root-knot index,nematode population density and its rate of reproduction ).It was also noted that treatment effects increased after joining them with each other,i.e the triple treatment which represented of applying two biocontrol agents after 15 days of vydate application was the best one.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
SUCEPTIBILITY OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS TO COMMON BUNT
حساسية بعض أصناف الحنطة للإصابة بمرض التفحم المغطى

المؤلفون: A.K.Al-Taae علي كريم محمد الطائي
الصفحات: 44-49
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الخلاصة

The results form the susceptibility estimation for five cultivars of bread wheat, Vees, Adnania1, Adnania2, IPA99 and Abo-Graib and three durum wheat cultivars, Om-Rabia, Sham1 and Sham5 against the common bunt disease indicated the durum wheat were resistant and more best from the bread wheat, therefore, Om Rabea cultivar showed a highly resistant for disease, and the infection percent was not encroach means 4.49% that's a significantly differences from the other cultivars, which follow it the sham1 cultivar significantly differences from the other cultivars too. The Vees cultivar was appeared highly sensitive to disease and infected percent which became 71.59%, while Abo-Grieb and IPA99 were showed 57.89 and 51.32% respectively. The durum wheat were comment a resistant against T. laevis more than T. tritici, where as the bread wheat cultivars become susceptible to each species of fungus.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFICIENCY OF PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AS BIOCONTROL AGENT OF CUCUMBER DAMPING OFF DISEASE CAUSED BY PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM .
كفاءة الفطر Paecilomyces lilacinus كعامل للمكافحة الاحيائية لمرض سقوط بادرات الخيار المتسبب عن الفطر Pyphium aphanidermatum

المؤلفون: A. Q. Waheed أياد قحطان وحيد
الصفحات: 55-60
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الخلاصة

The results of the inhibition activity of culture filtrate of six isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus grown on potato extracts sucrose broth (PSB) and soybean extract sucrose broth(SSB)against Pythium aphanidermatum , showed that the isolates PL3 and PL4 were the superior in reducing radial growth rate of P. aphanidermatum which recorded 1.83 , 2.16 cm and 0.93 , 0.93 cm for the culture filtrate of PSB and SSB respectively , Greenhouse result revealed that isolates PL3 and PL4 were the best in increasing the most growth parameters ( shoot and root length, no. of leaves and flowers / plant , dry and soft weight of shoot and root/plant) which recorded (30.33 , 27.0) cm ,(13.0 , 12.0) cm , (6.33 , 5.33) leaf/plant, (1.66 ,1.66 ) flower / plant, (1.40 ,1.43) gm/plant, (0.61, 0.63) gm/plant respectively, while the pathogen treatment recorded ( 3.66 , 2.33 ) cm , 1.33 leaf / plant, 0.0 flower/ plant, (0.55, 0.12) gm / plant . Also, greenhouse result showed that isolate PL3 was the more efficient in reducing the disease incidence to 6.66 %. Field experiment showed that isolates PL3 and PL4 significantly reduced disease incidence to 18.66 and 21.66 %. isolate PL3 significantly superior than the fungicide Ridomil in reducing cucumber disease incidence 23.16 % .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
USING COAL TO REDUSING FUSARMIC WILT CAUSED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. CAPSICI ON PEPPER
استخدام الفحم النباتي في تقليل الإصابة بالفطر Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.capsici المسبب لمرض ذبول الفلفل

المؤلفون: Nidhal Y. Mohammed Al-Morad نضال يونس محمد
الصفحات: 61-68
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted at the Department of plant protection, College of Agriculture and forestry, University of Mosul, during the growing season of 2007 – 2008.The result of field survey which was carried out on pepper field in Al- Rashedia and al Gayara / Ninevah governorate showed that pepper wilt disease was caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici .Pathogensity test showed that the fungi caused total wilt to the pepper plants for verity California Wonder. In greenhouse experiment ,adding coal to the planting soil with three grade (50,100,150 mish) ) caused significant decrease in diseases severity which were 0.22,0.28,0.29 respectively comparing with control treatment 0.59.In greenhouse experiment ,adding coal to the soil with three fining grade (50,100,150 mish) and three different type of application mixing with planting soil ,direct application in planting site and soil drenching with or without gum had improved all growth parameter that were studied compeering with control treatment.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF Trichoderma harzianum ON DELIVERY SYSTEMS IN ENHANCING SEEDS GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF SOUR ORANGE (Citrus urantium)
تأثير نظام إطلاق الفطر Trichoderm harzianum في تحفيز إنبات بذور ونمو شتلات النارنج Sour orange (Citrus aurantium)

المؤلفون: Falih H. Saeed فالح حسن سعيد
الصفحات: 69-74
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the delivery systems (Soil treatment , seeds tretment , with water irrigation) of three Trichoderma harzianum isolates (T.9 ,T.26 and T.28) in enhancing sour orange seeds germination and seedlings growth , The results reverted that vitalization of Trichoderma isolates with water irrigation and as seeds tretment was more efficient than soil treatment , in reducing the period required for seeds germination 21.3 ,21.8 days compared with 24.1days in soil treatment method in increasing percentage of seeds germination 69.01,67.76,65.14% compared to 43.7% in control untreated treatment, The results also showed the suporility of seeds treatment method over soil treatment and irrigation treatment in enhancing seedling growth 16.47cm,14.3cm,0.62gm, 1.7gm,0.22gm and 0.59gm for tested plant growth parameters stem length , root length ,fresh weight of root system, fresh weight of shoot system , dry weight of root system and dry weight of shoot system respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
NEW BIOTYPE OF Trichoderma spp EFFECTIVE IN PRODUCTION OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
طرز حيوية جديدة من الفطر Trichoderma spp. كفوءة في انتاج بعض منظمات النمو

المؤلفون: Kahld Hassan Taha خالد حسن طه
الصفحات: 75-82
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الخلاصة

In order to produce a new biotype effective in enhancement of some growth regulators, seven isolates of the indigenous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, Thk20, Thk80, Th1, Th2, Th3, Th4, Th5 and T.viride were used. The most effective Trichoderma spp. isolate was Thk20 in producing GA3 and IAA with an amount 44.34 and 33.71 mg/L respectively. The results showed the ability of some isolates to improve plant growth through enhancing IAA and GA3 biosynthsis: Isolates Thk20, Th1 and T.viride increased GA3 content to 905.46, 944.18 and 597.29 ng /g F.W. respectively, while the isolate Thk20, Thk80 and T.viride increased IAA content to 682.33, 347.85 and 795.6 ng /g F.W. respectively. Thk20 spores were exposed to UV aiming a new biotypes .The new biotypes were tested for their efficiency as a plant growth promoter. The biotypes N9,N15,and N22 exceeded the other biotypes parent isolate for it's GA3,IAA production with an amount 57.34,44 and 44.5 mg/L respectively while in parent isolate was 31.58 mg/L for GA3 and 44.1,39.52and 33.39 mg/L respectively. while in parent isolate was 28.71 mg/L for IAA.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
PURIFICATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS (PLRV), DETERMINATION ITS SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND MOVEMENT WITHIN THE PLANT
تنقية فايروس التفاف أوراق البطاطا PLRV وتحديد خصائصه المصلية وحركته في النبات

المؤلفون: Sabir N.H. Diwan صابر نبات حافظ ديوان
الصفحات: 83-88
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to purify of Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), study its serological properties, importance, and its movement within the plant. It was found that the more suitable host for virus multiplication was potato plants. An average of 5.76 mg of purified virus per 100 g of leaves and stems at purity of 1.46 was obtained. The purified virus had preserved its infectivity and immunogenicity. An antiserum against the virus was obtained after 4 injections of pure virus, each of 1 ml at 0.8 mg/ml. The first 3 injections were intramascular with Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant weekly. The fourth booster one was in the external ear vein after 2 weeks. The efficiency of the AS was tested by ELISA test with pure virus and extracts from virus infected plants. It was found that the absorbance of ELISA reaction at 405 nm is 0.616 at 10-2 dilution for pure virus (at 0.8 mg/ml), and 0.396 for extract from virus infected plants at the same dilution as compared with 0.03 for extract from healthy plants, and 0.009 for extraction buffer. Results showed that the percent of infected tuber from virus inoculated plants after 10 – 30 days of germination reached to 100% after 4 weeks of the last inoculation, 80% and 87.5% from virus inoculated plants after 40 days of germination collected after 2 and 4 weeks of the last inoculation respectively. The percent of infected tubers was decreased to (55.55 and 65.0)% , (34.78 and 40.0)% from plants inoculated after 50 and 60 days of germination, collected after 2 and 4 weeks of the last inoculation.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
INVESTIGATING Trichoderma ISOLATES AS DEFENDER ENZYMES INDUCERS AGAINST Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici IN TOMATO PLANT
اختبار كفاءة عزلات من Trichoderma في استحثاث بعض الإنزيمات الدفاعية ضد الفطر

المؤلفون: Warka S.Q. Al-Taee ورقاء سعيد قاسم الطائي
الصفحات: 89-100
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الخلاصة

Inorder to get an effective isolate of Trichoderma as biocontrol agent, six isolates of T.harzianum and isolate of T.viride were used for control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici, the cause of vascular wilt of tomato .Results revealed that the isolates of Th1, Th3, Th4 and T.viride were the best antagonisum fungi, these results were supported by marked highest biomass, reduced PH of culture media, and their sporulation. There isolates also improved significant induction of plant systemic disease resistance throughout inducing peroxidase, polyphenoloxidas and catalaze in tomato roots. Isolates of Th3 and T.viride were the most effective bicontrol agents since inducing of these enzymes by 1.192 and 1.288 min/g f.w for peroxidase and 0.724 and 0.564 min/ g f.w for polyphenoloxidase , and 0.065, 0.054 min/ g f.w for catalaze, respectively. Therefore, the total phenols accumulation in the roots were exceeded to 1.42 and 1.12 for each isolate, respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
NEW BIOTYPES OF TRICHODERMA SPP EFFECTIVE IN INDUCING RESISTANCE ACTIVATION AGAINST Rhzioctonia solani CASUAL AGENT IN BEAN PLANTS Phaseolus vulgaris.
طرز حيوية جديدة من الفطر Trichoderma spp. كفوءة في استحثاث مقاومة نباتات الفاصوليا Phaseolus vulgaris ضد الفطر Rhizoctonia solani

المؤلفون: Kahld Hassan Taha خالد حسن طه
الصفحات: 101-111
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الخلاصة

The results showed that application of the bioagents Trichoderma spp. isolates as a conidial suspension greatly reduced the percentage of disease and the disease index caused by R. solani in bean plants at different rates. The most effective Trichoderma spp. isolates were Thk20 Thk80 which reduced disease percentage to 23% and Thk80 32% and disease index to 0.27 and 0.34 respectively. The results indicate that isolates Thk20,Thk80,Th1 and T.viride have a strong tendency to induce resistance against R.solan.The isolate Thk 20 differed significantly and caused significant raising in Peroxidase activity 18.3 /min/g f.w follow that the isolates Th1 and T.viride 11.48 and 8.45 /min/g f.w .Thk20 and Th1 isolates differed significantly and caused significant raising Poly Phenol Oxidase activity with 0.265 and 0.189 /min/g f.w while the isolate T.viride caused significant raising in Catalaze activity with 13.85/min/g f.w, following that the isolates Thk20 and Th1 with 12.81 and 9.45/min/g f.w respectively . Thk20 spores were exposed to UV aiming a new biotypes which were segregate by its ability to grow on CM medium The new biotypes were tested for their efficiency as bio-control agents and as a plant growth promoter. The results showed that biotypes N7,N8,N9,N10,N15,N16 and N22 caused significant reduction in disease percentage but showed no significant differences with parent isolate Thk20. The biotype N8 succeeded in reducing the disease index to 0.4 .The results Strongly suggest that biotypes N8,N9,N15, and N22 have a propensity to induce resistance against R. solani which is reflected in significant increase of Peroxidase, Poly Phenol Oxidase and Catalaze activity.

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Article
RECORD AND DIAGNOSIS OF TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS (TMV) ON PEPPER CROP Capsicum annuum IN MOSUL FIELDS.
تسجيل وتشخيص فايروس موزائيك التبغ (TMV) على محصول الفلفل Capsicum annuum في حقول مدينة الموصل.

المؤلفون: N.A. Kassim نبيل عزيز قاسم
الصفحات: 112-118
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الخلاصة

The results of diagnostic study of pepper crop in Mosul fields infected with severe green mosaic symptoms and distortion, showed that the causal agent is Tobacco mosaic virus, which diagnosed using indicator plants: tomato and tobacco respond as systemic infection, showed mosaic symptoms and datura, goosefoot and wild tobacco plants, responded locally to infection as local lesions without systemic infection. Physical properties tests revealed that TIP = 90 – 95c, DEP = 10-5 – 10-6 and LIV= more than 182 days, the aging of TMV in dried leaves is more 15 months. The agglutination serological test revealed that the causal virus is TMV, by using locally prepared antiserum.

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Article
EFFECT OF INTRACTION OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS AND FUSARIUM WILT ON PEPPER
تأثير الإصابة المشتركة بفيروس موزائيك الخيار والذبول الفيوزاريومي على الفلفل

المؤلفون: N. A. Kassem نبيل عزيز قاسم
الصفحات: 119-124
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الخلاصة

The effect of mixed infection with cucumber mosaic virus (with mosaic symptoms) and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f sp capsici on pepper in Ninevah province was performed.Results revealed that inoculation with the virus prior to the fungal inoculation caused the most severe effect compared with thatin which the fungal inoculation preceeded or the single infection with either one.The fore-mentioned treatment increased Fusarium wilt to 85% and caused a great reduction in chlorophyll content,plant height and dry weight of vegetative parts.This result illustrated the role of the virus in weakening the plant and reducing its resistance to Fusarium wilt.

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Article
EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF SOME BARNYARDGRASS PATHOGENIC FUNGI ON ITS CONTROL BY USING MULTIPLE PATHOGEN STRATEGY.
تقويم كفاءة بعض الفطريات الممرضة للدنان في مكافحته بأستعمال استراتيجية المسبب المتعدد

المؤلفون: Kamil S. Juber كامل سلمان جبر
الصفحات: 125-135
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الخلاصة

This study had been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated fungi on Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. individually or in combination by using multiple pathogen strategy under glass house and field conditions. Test of spraying Barnyard grass 21 days old with spore suspension of pathogenic fungi isolates individually or incompination under glasshouse condition showed that all the treatments gave significant increase in disease severity as compared with the control treatment which was not treated with pathogenic fungi, with the superior of the treatment of mixture of the isolates AA5+ CT4 + DA6 + DM6 over the treatments of these fungi individually. The disease severity in the mixture treatment was 97 %. Results of soil treatment with spores suspension of pathogenic fungi isolates were showed the mixture of the isolates CD3 + FO3 + FSe6 gave highest effect in percentage of seed germination and disease severity 12.5% and 78.2 % individually, Field condition experiment showed highest effect on the disease severity to the mixture of isolates AA5 + CT4 + DA6 + DM6 on both weeds Barnyardgrass and Watergrass which are the most distributions in rice fields when compared with the treatment by single fungus and the disease severity was 80.8 % on Barnyardgrass and 71.6 % on Watergrass. The results showed that all treatments on rice plants have no significant reduction in the disease severity as compared with the control treatment which was not treated with pathogenic fungi.

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Article
EFFECT OF CHALCONES ON Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani ISOLATED FROM SEED AND ROOTS OF Kochia scoparia.
تأثير الجالكونات في الفطر Fusarium oxysporum و Rhizoctonia solani المعزولة من بذور وجذور نبات شعر البنات

المؤلفون: Lina Aamel Abdul-Jabbar لينا عامل عبد الجبار
الصفحات: 136-147
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الخلاصة

Fungi had been isolated from the roots and seeds of Kochia scoparia, it was found that Fusarium oxysporum was the most predominant as it was about 33 % from the whole number of other fungi (isolated from the roots) and Rhizoctonia solani (which had been isolated from seeds) by 11 %. Substituted and an substituted chalcones were prepared (1, 2, 3) and four concentrations of them were used (0,25, 0,5, 1,0, 2,0 g/l), their inhibition effects on the growth of F. oxysporum and R.solani were studied. The conc. 0,25 g/l of chalcone (1) gave an inhibition percentage of 57,3 % for the mean perpendicular diameters (MPD) for the F. oxysporum at the 7th day of incubation.The inhibition surface area (ISA) for the F. oxysporum 64 % , while the same conc. 0,25 g/l gave 100 % for the MPD on R. solani at the same period. The inhibition surface area for F. oxysporum was 97.7 % using conc. of (2 g/l), the same conc. gave 100 % inhibition for R.solani at the 7th day of incubation. The conc. 0,25 g/l of chalcone (2) causes the inhibition 7 % of F. oxysporum at the 7th day of incubation for MPD and the percentage of ISA was 14,3 %, while the same conc. 0,25 g/l manifests an inhibition of 86 % for R. solani at the 7th day of incubation for MPD, while ISA was 92,7 % . The conc. 2 g/l of chalcone (2) causes the inhibition of 92 % for MPD at 7th day for F. oxysporum , while ISA was 95,2 % , the same conc. 2 g/l displayed 100 % inhibition on R. solani for MPD and ISA. The conc. 0,25 g/l of chalcone (3) causes an inhibition of 32 % for F. oxysporum to MPD at the 7th day of incubation, the ISA was 43,3 % and the inhibition was 100 % for R. solani , while conc. of 2 g/l of chalcone (3) causes the inhibition of 100 % for F. oxysporum and R.solani at the 7th day of incubation.

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Article
EVALUATION OF SENSITIVITY FOR 10 PURELINES TOMATOES INDETERMINATE IN DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL MODES TO CONTROL OF LEAF MOLD CAUSED BY Cladosporium fulvum
تقويم حساسية 10 خطوط نقية من الطماطة غير محدودة النمو في انماط زراعية مختلفة للسيطرة على مرض عفن الاوراق المتسبب عن الفطر Cladosporium fulvum

المؤلفون: Inad D. Abood عناد ظاهر عبود
الصفحات: 148-155
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الخلاصة

Indeterminate tomato pure lines were planting in two agricultural modes :mode of arbour and seprate drip irrigation and selective 10 purelines highly total soluble solvent and have moderately resistance for leaf mold caused by Cladosporium fulvum.Claudia hybrid was sensitive for leaf mold disease as cultivar control treatment and the plastic houses as acontrol mode.The percentage of disease incedent and severity were decreased in new agricultural modes, the pureline : SH–B-16 in the first mode and SH-A-1 in the second mode were decreased of percentage disease incedent 77.9%, 78.9% respectively, while in conyrol treatment reached to 100%. All the purelines were decreased of severity in two agricultural modes and not exceeded (8%) when compared with same purelines which planting in plastic house mode which reached disease severity to ten time (81.2%) and the production of each plant was increased for the purelines SH-N-4, SH-A-1, SH-N-22 , SH-Q-19 , SH-P-8 , SH-R-61 in new two agricultural modes when compared the same purelines production in plastic house mode

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY THE ACTIVITY OF SOME PARASITES OF CITRUS LEAFMINER EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CHEMICAL TREATMENTS ON THE EMERGENCE OF THE ADULT PARASITE Ratzeburgiola incompleta (Poueek)
دراسة مسح وتشخيص الأعداء الطبيعية وعلاقتها بنشاط حفار أوراق الحمضيات

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الخلاصة

The survey of parasites showed that there are four parasitoids can be considered as natural enemies of citrus leafminer. All these belong to the family Eulophidae and the order Hymenopter. These parasitoids are Ratzeburgiola incomplete, Cirrospilus sp., Pnigalio sp. and Baryscapus sp. However, the parasitoid R. incompleta was the dominant which represents 44.4% of the total parasitism. A compatible in the time of occurrence between the abundance of the citrus leafminer and the parasitoids was noticed , that is in fall of 2005 the peak of citrus leafminer population density reached the maximum during September with 79 alive stages / 100 leaves and with percentage of parasitism of 22%. In spring 2006, however, the peak of the pest reached the maximum during May with 95 a live stages / 100 leaves and with percentage of parasitism of 32%.Studying the effect of different chemical treatments on the emergence of the adult parasite R. incompleta revealed that confidor soil treatment and the treatment with IGR Match® had the least effect on parasite emergence. Accordingly, these treatments can be considered in applying of IPM to control this pest.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SOME INSECTICIDES AND SPRINKLING TIMES IN CONTROLLING THE WHEAT LEAF MINER (Syringopais temperatella Led.) (Lepidoptera: Scythridae)
تأثير بعض مبيدات الحشرات ومواعيد رشها في مكافحة حشرة حفار أوراق الحنطة (Lepidoptera: Scythridae) (Syringopais temperatella Led.)

المؤلفون: Sua'ad Irdeny Abdullah سعاد ارديني عبدالله
الصفحات: 162-168
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الخلاصة

It was found that chemical control had an obvious effect in decreasing the number of pest and giving better characteristics for the plant including dry weight especially when sprinkling pesticides more than once at two dates, The three pesticides achieved (Wide 20%, Diazinon 60% and Alphacypermethrine 5%) the highest effectiveness especially when applied in two dates, the first in 12/3/2008 and the second at 2/4/2008, the Diazinon pesticide when sprinkled at both dates stated above, was characterized by achieving the greatest effect until the 7th days after sprinkling with a percentage of 100%, followed by Alphacypermethrine but until the 5th days after sprinkling, while the highest effectiveness of Wide pesticide was shown at the first day of sprinkling at the stated date with a percentage of 98.51% . The effectiveness of pesticides was inversely reflected in the percentage of infested leaves and positively in the (which is an indicator of healthy plant and a measure of yield quantity), it was shown that the sprinkling of the three pesticides when applied for two times at both the two dates has achieved the lowest percentage of infested leaves especially Diazinon by a percentage of 20.52% (infected leaves) in the 7th day after sprinkling, and the highest average of dry weight reached 0.95 mg/20 plant, followed by Alphacypermethrine which achieved the lowest percentage of infested leaves that reached 22.23%, at the tenth day after sprinkling, besides the dry weight reached (0.74 mg/20 plant), and finally Wide pesticide at the tenth day after sprinkling but with a percentage of 48.78%, and dry weight that reached 0.54 mg/20 plant.

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Article
EFFECT OF ROYAL JELLY AND HONEYDEW, ITS CONCENTRATIONS AND TREATMENT METHOD OF Aphis fabae Scolopi ON PREDATION EFFICIENCY OF THE LARVAL INSTARS OF Coccinella septempunctata L
تايثر الغذاء الملكي والندوه العسليه وتراكيزها وطريقة معاملة من الباقلاء الاسود Aphis fabae Scopoli في الكفاءه الافتراسيه للاعمار اليرقيه للدعسوقه ذات السبع نقاط Coccinella septempunctata L.

المؤلفون: Juma'a T. Mohammad جمعة طة محمد
الصفحات: 169-176
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الخلاصة

The feeding of the ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. on the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scolopi which is treated directly and indirectly with three concentrations (2,4,8%) of royal jelly of the bee and the honeydew which excreted by the aphid Pterochlorus persicae (Chold.). The results of this study revealed that the direct treatment of the black bean aphid by the 8% of royal jelly exhibited a superior effects in comparison with honeydew on the means of the daily predation efficiency for the four larval instars which reached 6.33, 18.57, 28.55 and 29.47 aphid / larvae respectively as compared with 3.90, 12.42, 18.37 and 20.98 aphid/larvae for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th larval instars respectively for the control treatment and also on the mean percentage of predation efficiency which reached 63.33, 92.83, 95.17, and 98.25% for the larval instars respectively, and 39.00, 62.08, 61.11 and 69.92% for the four larval instars respectively in control, while the mean percentage of increase or decrease in daily predation efficiency reached 63.42, 49.95, 55.56 and 40.64% for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th larval instars respectively.

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Article
THE POPULATION DENSITY AND SEX RATIO OF THE SUNN PEST Eurygaster integriceps Put. IN DORMANCY LOCATIONS (GARA MOUNTAIN) IN DOHUK PROVINCE
الكثافة العددية والنسبة الجنسية لحشرة السونةPut. Eurygaster integriceps في مواقع السبات (جبل كاره) في محافطة دهوك

المؤلفون: Suaad I. Abdullah سعاد أرديني عبدالله
الصفحات: 177-183
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الخلاصة

The appeared results 0f the study showed that sunn pest E. integriceps was at three levels of Gara mountain (upper, middle and lower), the highest population of male and female whether they were alive or dead was in the upper level of the mountain, with an average of 123.69, 152.27, 58.53 and 77.33 insect/5m2, respectively, followed by the population in the middle with an average of 56.64, 76.91, 15.93 and 18.64 insect/5m2, respectively. The lowest population recorded were 35.87, 70.13, 16.31 and 18.80 insect/5m2, respectively in the lower level of the mountain, The females reached the highest percentage at the end of the hibernation period in March during both seasons 2005 and 2006, respectively. which the sex ratio was 1.00 male: 2.39 female and 1.00 male: 2.35 female, respectively.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME ENDOGENOUS COMPOUNDS EXTRACTED FROM SOME PEAR VARIETIES ON THE LACE PEAR BUGS Stephanitis pyri (F.) (Tingidae : Hemiptera)
تأثير بعض المركبات داخلية المنشأ المستخلصة من أوراق بعض أصناف الكمثرى في حساسيتها للاصابة بحشرة بق الكمثرى المطرز Stephanitis pyri (F.) (Tingidae: Hemiptera)

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الخلاصة

The results of the effect of phenols. alkaloids and terpens and water extraction extracted from pear leaves varieties. Zafarania. Othmani. LeConte and Calleryana in the lace pear bug have showed significant differences in the expelling and attracting rates according to the chemical compounds. pear variety and the concentration being used and the highest average value of the attracting rate reached 45.33% for the LeConte phenolates. Other extracts showed a difference in its general averages according to the varieties' and extractions. Phenolates. alkaloids and terpens extraction of Calleryana variety has no attracting effect on the lace pear bug. The extractions of Zafarania. Othmani and LeConte varieties have showed low expelling rates which were significantly indifferent with each other as compared to extractions of Calleryana variety which has showed an evident and significant superiority in the expelling rates whose averages reached 51.33. 44.66. 51.33. and 27.33 for phenolates. alkaloids. terpens and the water part of Calleryana values was in favor of the expelling effect on lace pear bug in the extracts of Calleryana as compared to the collation values in favor of the attracting effect in other varieties which explain the resistance of Calleryana against the infection by lace pear bug.

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Article
DAMAGE OF SUNN PEST Eurygaster integriceps Put. ON INFESTED LEAVES, NON BEARING SPIKE TILLERS AND HARVEST INDEX FOR FOUR WHEAT VARIETIES IN DOHUK PROVINCE
ضرر حشرة السونة Eurygaster integriceps Put. في ألأوراق والتفرعات غير الحاملة ودليل الحصاد لأربعة أصناف من الحنطة في محافظة دهوك

المؤلفون: Suaad I. Abdullah سعاد ارديني عبدالله
الصفحات: 191-199
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الخلاصة

The field study, to estimate the damage of the nymphs and adults of Sunn Pest Eurygaster integriceps Put. for four wheat varieties (Aras,Tamuz-2, Atra,S and Crezo) in Dohuk province, during both seasons 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, showed that an increase in the adult Sunn Pest from one pair to five pairs/m2 and from five nymph to ten nymphs/m2, cause increasing in the levels of number of infested leaves/m2, percentage of non bearing spike tillers/m2, whereas it decreased harvest index (%) for wheat varieties Aras, Tamuz-2, Atra,S and Crezo. The above studied characteristics have influenced greatly in the case of bread wheat in comparison with to the durum wheat. The late ripened bread wheat variety (Tamuz-2) has been influenced more than the others as compared to the early ripened durum wheat variety (Atra,S) which had been influenced less, especially when added adult Sunn Pest with an average of (15.33 & 116.00) , (9.67 & 87.33) and (14.00 & 131.33) , (14.00 & 94.00) infested leaves/m2, when added one pair of adults to five pairs /m2 for two varieties, (Tamuz-2) and (Atra,S), in the first and second season, respectively. And (5.93 & 35.80) , (5.03 & 18.77) and (4.77 & 34.07) , (3.50 & 15.27) percentage of non bearing spike tillers/m2, when added one pair of adults to five pairs /m2 for two varieties, (Tamuz-2) and (Atra,S), in the first and second season, respectively. And (36.37 & 31.40) , (27.37 & 24.63) and (37.47 & 32.53) , (28.20 & 25.17) harvest index (%) for two wheat varieties (Tamuz-2) and (Atra,S), in the first and second season, respectively.

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Article
*EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND COLONY STRENGTH ON HONEY BEES FORAGING Apis mellifera L. (Apidae–Hymenoptera)
تأثير درجة الحرارة وقوة الطائفة على سروح نحل العسل

المؤلفون: Mahdi Mohammed Salih Saeed مهدي محمد صالح سعيد
الصفحات: 200-205
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الخلاصة

Results of studying honey bees foraging (number of foraging bees) showed that temperature has an effect on number of foraging bees. and that the highest foraging of honey bees was at 45°C with a mean of 190.96 bees/hive.While the lowest foraging was at 15°C with a mean of 4.67 bees/hive. The effect of temperature on number of bees collecting nectar and water showed that the highest number was at 36°C with a mean of 21.70 bees/hive and the lowest number was at 15°C with a mean of 0.20 bees/hive As for the strength of colony on the mean number of foraging bees the study showed that the strong colonies gave the highest number with a mean of 95.39 bees/hive while the weak colonies gave the lowest number with a mean of 40.69 bees/hive . Concerning the strength of colony effect on number of bees collecting water and nectar, the strong colonies gave the highest number with a mean of 82.06 bees/hive while the weakest colonies gave the lowest number with a mean of 35.41 bees/hive . The strong colonies also gave the highest number of bees collecting nectar with a mean of 13.68 bees/hive while the weak colonies gave the lowest number with a mean of 6.03 bees/hive .

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Article
A STUDY OF BIOFUNGUS Metarihizum anisopliae IN SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SAW TOO THE GRAIN BELT Oryzaephilitis suriuamensis L. ON RICE
دراسة تأثير الفطر الاحيائي Metarihizum anisopliae Sorokin في بعض الاوجه الحياتية لخنفساء الصدر المنشاري Oryzaephilus suriuamensis L.

المؤلفون: H. A. Mohammed حسام الدين عبدالله محمد
الصفحات: 206-211
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in Biology Dept., College of Science for women , Baghdad University in year 2010 to identify the effect of Biofungus Metarihizum anisopliae in some different stages of saw toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilitis suriuamensis . The eggs in age of 24 and 72 hours, Larvae in second fourth instar and pupae in age 24 and 72 were treated with fungal dilution 4.8×10 -6 , 4.8×10 -4 and 4.8×10 -2 . Results of the study showed the following : Non – hatching eggs at the age at 24 hours with fungal suspension 4.8 x 10-2, while 100% the highest mortality rate for egg , but lowest rate mortality was 23.3% of dilution 4.8 x 10-4. The highest mortality of four larvae stage 66.6% indilution 4.8 x 10-4. The highest mortality of pupa 73.3% in 72 hours.

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Article
FIRST RECORD OF SIX SPECIES OF Agriotes spp (Coleoptera: Elateridae) IN THE Middle OF IRAQ.*
اول تسجيل لستة انواع من الديدان السلكية Agriotes spp (Coleoptera : Elatridae) في وسط العراق*

المؤلفون: Redha S. Al-Jorany رضا صكب الجوراني
الصفحات: 212-221
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الخلاصة

This study were carried in 3 different fields in the middle of Iraq to detect and determine the seasonal occurrence of Agriotes spp. Nine sex pheromones of Agriotes spp. and three pheromone traps (YATLOR F) were used for each of these species which baited with the specific pheromone from 1/9/2008 – 1/9/2009 in the College of Agriculture – Abu – Ghraib/ provenance of Baghdad and Al- Nile / provenance of Babylon, while in Al- Radhwania/ Baghdad were used through May – June. Pheromone dispensers were replaced every 6 weeks, Six Agriotes species: A. proximus (Schwarz)، A. lineatus (Linnaeus)، A. brevis (Candeze)، A. obscurus (Linnaeus)، A. sputatur (Linnaeus) ، A. ustulatus (Schaller) and A. litigious (Rossi) were caught by sex pheromone traps. This is the first record of these species in the middle of Iraq. The seasonal occurrence of these species lasted from the second half of March to the first half of August and the most abundant species were A. proximus and A. sputator.

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Article
EVALUATION OF SOME NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC INERT DUSTS AGAINST KHAPRA BEETLE Trogoderma granarium EVERTS REARED ON TREATED WHEATS GRAINS
تقييم بعض المساحيق الخاملة الطبيعية والمصنعة ضد خنفساء خابرة الحبوب Everts Trogoderma granarium المرباة على حبوب الحنطة

المؤلفون: Riyad Ahmed Al-Iraqi رياض احمد العراقي
الصفحات: 222-229
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to evaluate a group of inert dusts against khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts by the determination of population density of the insect and the loss of weight caused by it when reared on wheat treated with dusts for 3 and 7 months storage periods.The results showed that the population density of the insect and the weight loss of grains due to feeding of insects varied according to dust type, concentration, and storage period as well. The lowest number of all stages from two pairs of insects reared on treated grains was 24.0 individuals on carborandom after 3 months of storage with a total average of 134.44 individual against 3.349/100 g grains weight loss, whereas the lowest number at 7 months of storage was 9.6 individual on silica gel dust with a total average of 498.12 individual for all dusts opposed 6.74 g/100g grains weight loss.

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Article
EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE AND HERBICIDE APPLICATION ON ALFALFA GROWTH Medicago sativa AND ITS ASSOCIATED WEEDS
تأثير كمية البذار ومبيدات الادغال في نمو الجت Medicago sativa L. والادغال المرافقة له.

المؤلفون: Salim .H.Anter سالم حمادي عنتر
الصفحات: 230-236
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الخلاصة

The experiment was carried out in autumn agricultural season (2008) and spring (2009) in Valley church, Mosul city. Two factors were used in this experiment, seeding rate at (24,36 kg/h) and four herbicides ( Treflan 1152 g/h a.i befor planting mixed with soil , Fusilade 250 g/h a.i which applied one month after planting , Haloxyfop 162 g/h a.i and 2,4-DB 250 g/h a.i which applied 21 day after planting , As well as a had pulling treatment was selected as a control treatment . The experiment was laid out as a Randomize Complete Block design with three replicates. The low seeding rates gave a high number of narrow and broad leaf weeds, number of branches / plant. At a high seeding rate the dry weight of forage yield were significantly higher at the two season .The seeding rates did not show any significant differences in all parameters studied . The hand pulling treatment showes a dramatic decreased in the fresh and dry weights of dodder weed in autumn season (2008) , while only the fresh weight significant decreased in spring season (2009) .2,4-DB herbicide gave a significant decreased in the No . of broad leaves and its dry weight in the two season . On the other hand, the hand pulling treatment had a higher dry weight of forage yield at different seeding rates .

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Article
VIABILITY OF WEED SEED BANK UNDER DIFFERENT EFFECTS OF WEED CONTROL IN LENTIL
حيوية خزين بذور الادغال تحت تأثير معاملات مختلفة من المكافحة لمحصول العدس

المؤلفون: A. M. Sultan احمد محمد سلطان
الصفحات: 237-243
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الخلاصة

Weed seeds bank experiment was carried out to determine the viable numbers of weed after different weed control methods in lentil in Talkief and Namrood locations in Naniva provancy during winter season 2008-2009. Soil samples had been taken after lentil harvesting. Three factors used in this experiment tillage system (Zero tillage (Z.T.) + Gramaxon (Gr) , Zero tillage (Z.T.) + Glyphosate (Gl) , Zero tillage (Z.T.) , Conventional tillage (C.T.). Different seeding rate (S.R.) of lentil used (100, 120, 140 kg/ha). Also different irrigation systems (rainfall and supplementary irrigation (S.I.) of lentil had been used. Date were subjected in R.C.B.D. as split- split plots with four replications. The result indicated that weed seed population was significantly reduced under rainfall when compared to (S.I.) in Talkief and Namrood location which gave 14.9% , 88.5% for grasses weed seed (G.W.S.) and 13.2% , 64.4% for broad leaves weed seeds (B.W.S.) in two locations respectively. Under (C.T.) system had a significant lower number of (G.W.S.), in two locations while the lower numbers of (B.W.S.) had seen at (Z.T. + Gr.) in this two locations. On other hand , lowest (G.W.S.) was in 120 kg/ha of (S.R.) in two locations while (B.W.S.) was different in that two locations, which lower number had recorded in (140 and 100 kg/ha) in talkief and Namrood, respectively. The highest number of (G.W.S.) were recorded at (Z.T. + Gl.) under (S.I.) with 140 kg/ha (S.R.) in Talkief and under the same condition but with (Z.T.) at Namrood location.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
IDENTIFICATION OF THE CAUSAL AGENTS OF ALFALFA WILT DISEASE IN THE MIDDLE ZONE OF IRAQ
تشخيص مسببات أمراض ذبول ألجت في المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

المؤلفون: Emad M. Al-Maaroof عماد محمود المعروف
الصفحات: 244-248
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الخلاصة

A Systematic survey was conducted in alfalfa fields in the middle zones of Iraq during June to November, 2001 and 2002, to detect the occurrence and distribution of alfalfa wilt disease and identification the causal agents in each field. Results revealed that the disease symptoms were very clear in most of alfalfa fields in the area. High disease incidence 37.5 and 23.3% were detected in Baghdad and Wasit respectively. Some soil borne pathogens were isolated and purified from alfalfa root samples. Fusarium solani , Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium alboatrum were the most frequent among the isolated fungi,Mean while Pythium sp and Pencillium sp . were with low frequency. Furthermore, three Corynebacterium isolates were isolated from the infected alfalfa plants with high frequency and purified. Results revealed that Verticilium alboatrum and Corynebacterium 1 caused 49% and 45% pre-emergency damping off alfalfa seedlings respectively and also killed 100% and 95% of alfalfa plants after one month respectively when compared with the control, followed by isolate 3 of Corynebacterium and F. oxysporum 1 which killed 44 and 34% of the seedlings pre –emergency and 30 , 45% post-emergency respectively. According to these results we can consider that Verticillium alboatrum, F. oxysporum and Corynebacterium isolates are the principle causes of alfalfa wilt disease separately or in combination in alfalfa fields in the middle zone of Iraq.

الكلمات الدلالية

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