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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Secondly- The annual subscription in the journal inside Iraq is ID250000) Iraqi dinar, and outside Iraq is (us $250) abroad.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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The responsibilities of the Engineering & Technology Journal can be defined as:
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Google Scholar Citations:
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Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:8

Article
Economic Energy Consumption Using Tromb Wall Without Openings By Solar Radiation
دراسة عملية ونظرية للتوزيع الحراري داخل غرفة معزولة حراريا مزودة بجدار ترومب بدون فتحات

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Abstract

The present study deals with the prediction and distribution of temperature of air that is contained in an enclosure (test room). The test room is equipped with a concrete thermo storage wall (Trombe wall). All walls of the room are thermally insulated except the one that is facing the sun light. The latter is composed of an external layer of glass followed by an air gap and the Trombe wall. Temperature readings were taken on 21st and 22nd of December 2009. The theoretical investigation of this study is done by solving continuity, momentum and energy equations using Finite Volume method. The solution includes the use of the algebraic expressions of turbulent viscosity and diffusion coefficient using (k - e) turbulent model. A FORTRAN computer program is built and used to obtain the temperature and its distribution inside the room and across the wall. The variation of the temperature with time during the two days, mentioned above, has marked a highest temperature of 40oC at one clock pm . The comparison between theoretical and experimental results indicated that the rate of rising of the mean room temperature observed experimentally is higher than that observed theoretically. However, the latter has faster rate of drop and the wall keeps the heat for longer time. The comparison is considered acceptable despite of the observed discrepancies


Article
The Use of Toluene to Improve the Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical Properties of Polymer Blend
استخدام التلوين في تحسين الخواص الميكانيكية والحرارية والكهربائية للخلائط البوليمرية

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Abstract

This study was performed to investigate the effect of addition the toluene solvent to prepare polymeric blends that are used in the tile manufacture. The first blend was prepared by adding the toluene solvent to epoxy resin at a weighted ratio 50%. While the second blend was prepared by adding a fixed weighted ratio of toluene solvent to varied weighted ratio of epoxy and polystyrene resins. The mechanical (hardness), thermal (thermal conductivity) and electrical (electrical isolation) properties were applied to find the optimum weighted ratios of prepared blends when compared with untreated samples of toluene solvent. The experimental results showed that the properties of hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical isolation for both of blends were improved by (0,2.5,5,10%), down each of the hardness (27,21,20,28%) and thermal conductivity (42,20,25,27%) and the dielectric constant (69,62,61,61%) on respectively compared with those properties of untreated samples. The improvement of mechanical, thermal and electrical properties for the second blend was predominant

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Article
Study The Environmental Effect on The Properties of (Epoxy / Rubber) Composite
دراسة تأثير الظروف الجوية على خصائص مادة متراكبة من الايبوكسي مع طور مطاطي

Authors: رنا مهدي صالح
Pages: 397-407
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Abstract

This study includes preparation of polymer blend consisting of epoxy resin with NBR (Natural Butadiene Rubber) with70:30 percentage respectively, and this blend is used as a matrix in a composite material together with short glass fiber Eglass and carbon fiber HST type as hybrid reinforcement. Composite material specimens were prepared with a volume fraction Vf =35 %. SiO2 with particle size 50-75 μm was added in a percentage 3% to improve mechanical properties, (Impact, tensile strength, hardness) and diffusion coefficient in water and basic solution. The effect of U.V. radiation was also studied for different intervals of exposure, for the previously mentioned properties The results showed that KOH solution had a noticeable effect on the properties and the radiation affects negatively on the properties more than the water .The composite material reinforced with carbon fibers had better properties when considering its resistance to radiation, water, and alkaline solution.

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Article
Erosen In Architecture
التعرية في العمارة

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Abstract

The Architectural movements have adopted many strategies to create architectural outcomes reflecting their thoughts, goals, concepts, and their special trends. Among these strategies is Erosen which has been tackled by different fields of study (artistic and architectural) to describe the characteristics of their physical outcomes, but it has not received sufficient investigation and analysis in the different architectural trends and this has triggered the need to carry out the current research. The research problem discusses the issue that there is no sufficient theoretical knowledge concerning the strategy of Erosen, the mechanisms of embodying it, the degree of its realization in the architectural outcome of both the modern and postmodern trends, and the nature of variance between them in the way of achieving Erosen .Thus, the present research aims at investigating and explaining this variance in details. As to the methodology the research, it has been represented by a number of steps: First, the research tried to build up a theoretical framework for Erosen in architecture that clarifies its variables and detailed indicators, Second, built he research hypotheses have been stated and the samples have been selected for both the modern and post-modern trends for the purpose of application and finally the results have been analyzed and the final conclusion have identified. The research has reached the following conclusion that there is a variance between the modern and post-modern trends in the way of applying Erosen of their architectural outcomes despite their similarity shown in the adoption of Erosen as a strategy to generate the outcome ,but the variance clearly has been clearly shown in the method , style and the degree of achieving Erosen. While modernism has focused on the explicit Erosen and largely and excessively achieving it, postmodernism has focused on Erosen the content in a higher degree and achieving it in a moderate degree along with the adoption of both trends of certain mechanisms to embody the Erosen strategy within their outcomes and this is due to the variance between the two trends in the intellectual attitudes and objectives.

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Article
A Deactivation Correlation for Platinum Y-Zeolite in n-Hexane Isomerization

Authors: Haiyam Mohammed A. Al-Raheem
Pages: 1451-1462
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Abstract

The objective of the present work is to realize the kinetic modeling regarding deactivation of Pt-HY zeolite and monitor the isomerization reaction of n-hexane. The catalyst has been prepared with o.4% Pt and evaluated during the isomerization reaction of n-hexane. Based on the results of catalytic investigation, a kinetic model was proposed to deactivate the catalyst by coke formation. The present method provides information on apparent overall kinetics as well as deactivation parameters and would seem to provide a rapid method for screening of reaction/deactivation behavior. Accordingly the deactivation order was found to be 3.72. The obtained correlation of deactivation predicts the activity pattern under the applied reaction conditions, closely mimics those observed experimentally, and spans those obtained from empirical correlations.


Article
One Parameter Composite Semigroups of Linear Bounded Operators in Strong Operator Topology of Schatten Class Cp

Authors: Samir Kasim Hassan
Pages: 1463-1470
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Abstract

For semigroups of linear bounded operators on Hilbert spaces, the problem of being in Cp , 0

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Article
Manufacture of Light Weight Ceramic Bodies as Thermal Insulator From Local Material

Authors: Al-Taie M --- Al-Malki Anam --- Al-Attar Abeer
Pages: 1471-1481
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Abstract

The research work covers a study of the feasibility of producing lightweight ceramic thermal insulation bodies used for lining the furnaces by adding saw dust and AlF3 to the Dewechla clay (Kaolinite).AlF3 is a chemical waste materials in the Akashat–factories in Rutba to the Dewechla clay (kaolinite). Finely distributed Saw dust and ALF3 were added to clay with different weight percentages (0, 15, 25, 35 & 40) Wt%. Cylindrical shape samples (30mm diameter and 30 mm height) were prepared by using the semi–dry method, moulding pressure was (500Kg/cm²). After drying at (110C◦), the samples were burnt at (900, 950, 1000, 1050&1100) C◦. The fired samples were investigated to obtain their properties, bulk density, porosity ,compressive strength and thermal conductivity. It was possible to produce ligh-weight ceramic thermal insulators with bulk density between (700 and 1300) Kg/m³ compressive strength not less than (25) Kg/cm² and thermal conductivity between (0.2 and 0.4) Kcal/m.h.c.


Article
Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloy 7020-T6 in Sea Water

Authors: Mustafa Khaleel Ismael
Pages: 1482-1490
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Abstract

The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of heat treatment on corrosion resistance of Al-alloy 7020-T6 in sea water, the specimens which manufactured by (1.5*1.5*0.2) cm, according to ASTM (G31-72) [1] The heat treatment was carried out at 480°C and water quench after that artificial aging are implemented at temperature 150°C for (1, 4) hours. Microstructure and phase properties after heat treatment and corrosion test were investigated by optical microscope; X-ray diffraction and computer potentiodynamic polarization technique have been used to study corrosion behavior in 3.5% NaCl. The results of corrosion resistance 7020-T6 decrease by solution heat treatment and, increase the holding time from 1- 4 hour would increase the corrosion rate, Intermetallics compounds containing zinc represent as the sacrificial anode and control pitting corrosion in 7020-T6 alloy also, the artificial ageing time increase the precipitation of zinc and decrease pitting corrosion at 1 hour.


Article
A New Approach for Finding The Coefficients and Roots of The Ehrhart Polynomial of A Cyclic Polytope With Some Properties

Authors: Fatema Ahmed Sadeq
Pages: 1491-1496
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Abstract

The aim of this work is to give a simple description of a cyclic polytope and a new approach for finding the coefficient of its Ehrhart polynomials using Pascal triangles. Theorem for concluding that the roots of a cyclic polytopes are negative is also given.


Article
Solvability of Semilinear Initial Value Perturbed Control Problems with Unbounded Control Operators

Authors: Radhi A .Zboon --- Jehad R.Kider --- Samir K .Hassan
Pages: 1497-1508
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Abstract

In this paper the local existence and uniqueness of the mild solution to some operator semi-linear initial value control problem were studied and developed by using the theory of perturbation, composite, admissibility and "Banach contraction principle", in arbitrary Hilbert space H via perturbation composite semigroup approach.

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Article
Fatigue of Cu 65400 Alloy under Laser treatment

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Abstract

Fatigue tests were done to determine the S-N curves for Cu 65400 alloy specimens .The effect of laser shotting on the fatigue properties were investigated with stress ratio R=-1 at room temperature. Laser shotting of this alloy increases the life, endurance limits and compressive residual stresses. The largest increase in compressive residual stresses were observed at stress level 350 MPa.


Article
Behavior of Plain and High Performance Polypropylene Fiber Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Luma Abdul Ghani Zghair
Pages: 1517-1535
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Abstract

The aim of this work is to determine the residual compressive strength and splitting tensile strength after exposure to an elevated temperature (between100 to 500 C ◌ْ ) of plain and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PPFRC) in comparison with specimens exposed to ordinary temperature 25C ◌ْ . High – performance concrete mixes were produced by using high rang reducing agent superplasticizer (SP) and 10% high reactivity metakaoline (HRM) as a partial replacement by weight of cement (350)Kg/m3 . A single concrete mix with HRM, SP and four PPF contents of (0.25, o.5, o.75 and 1%) by volume were adopted. The workability of the concrete was kept constant ( slump 100 ± 5mm ).Each group of specimens ( plain and PPFRC ) was heated to a specified temperature and kept at the temperature for one hour before being gradually cooled to room temperature and then they were tested . The results show at ordinary temperatures 25 C ◌ْ, the addition of fiber volume fraction (VF%) of (0.25%) increases the compressive ( 20.6% ) comparable to HPC without fiber . While the addition of ( 0.5 , 0.75 and 1% ) of polymer fibers , the compressive strength decreased (12.6 , 19 and 33%) respectively comparable to HPC without fiber . On the other hand the addition of (VF%) of (0.25) increased splitting tensile strength ( 15%) comparable to HPC without fiber . while the addition of fiber volume fraction (VF%) of (0.5 ) increased splitting tensile strength by a percentage which is lower than that in specimens with VF% of 0.25 , the increase in splitting tensile strength was ( 6%) comparable to HPC without fiber at ordinary temperatures The results also shows that , when (1% ) fibers was used , the splitting tensile strength decreased ( 10.8%) in comparable to HPC without fiber At elevated temperature the results show an appreciable decrease in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength after exposure to temperature higher than 300 C ◌ْ of both plain and PPFRC Specimens containing PPF ( 0.25 , 0.5 , and 0.75 %) the percentage of reduction in splitting tensile strength is lower than that in HPC specimens ( without fibers ) after exposure to a temperature ( 500 ,300 and 100 C ◌ْ ) comparable to normal temperature 25C ◌ْ .While specimen containing PPF ( 1% ) the percentage of reduction in splitting tensile strength was higher than specimen without PPF after exposure to a similar temperature .On the other hand , specimens containing PPF ( 0.25 , 0.5 , 0.75 and 1 %) the percentage of reduction in compressive strength is higher than that in HPC specimens ( without fibers ) after exposure to a temperature (500 ,300 and 100 C ◌ْ). comparable to normal temperature 25C ◌ْ


Article
Effect of Thickness to the Structure Properties of CdO Thin Films

Authors: Hadia Kadhim J.Al-Ogili
Pages: 1536-1544
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Abstract

In this paper CdO thin films were prepared by using chemical bath deposition method. Three different thicknesses of CdO films (84.1nm, 165.1nm, 194.23nm) were used .x-ray diffraction technique has confirmed the formation of cadmium oxide, where reveals the changes in films structure with thickness increase. Many structural properties and constants have been studied and calculated by using the formation from XRD patterns and ASTM chart such as grain size, FWHM, integral breadth, shape factor, texture coefficient, and number of layers .These structural constants were plotted as a function of the films thicknesses. The results indicate that the high grain size (21.557nm) which was calculated for crystalline plane (111) was corresponding to the high film thickness (194.23nm), while larger number of layer obtained for the film thickness 165.2nm.


Article
Effectiveness of Naphthalene in Grain Refinement of Commercially Pure Aluminum and Zinc Ingot Castings

Authors: Assifa M. Mohamad
Pages: 1545-1553
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Abstract

It is well established that the properties of cast metals are greatly improved by refinement of their grain size. The method employed in this study for the refinement of grain size of commercially pure aluminum and zinc castings is inoculation of naphthalene in powder form to the mould prior to pouring the molten metal. The results show that the addition of naphthalene remarkably suppresses the formation of columnar grains and refines the structure. Increasing the amount of naphthalene addition also minimizes and may eliminate the formation of the shrinkage cavity. Furthermore, the ability of castings for mechanical working increases as the naphthalene addition increases


Article
Effect of Normalizing Process on Mechanical Properties of Submerged-arc Weldment

Authors: Abbas Sheyaa Alwan
Pages: 1554-1562
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Abstract

Submerged arc welding is carried out and efficient metal- joining process widely used in great importance in many industrial applications, structures of ships, storage tanks and agriculture equipments. Low alloy steel used under welding conditions which are, (560 Amp) welding current, (42cm/min) welding speed, (3.25mm) wire diameter, direct current straight polarity (DCSP) with the joint geometry of single -Vbutt joint and weld one pass are used for plate of thickness 16mm. After welding, the components have be submitted to a normalization heat treatment in order to recover the original mechanical properties of the welds. In this work two different filer metals both in the as welded condition and after normalizing heat treatment have been studied. Optical microscopy was used to observe the weld microstructure. Tensile and Charpy V toughness testing and microhardness measurements were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of joint. Results show that normalizing reduces the original columnar structure in the as welded condition to an equiaxial structure. It was observed a high decrease in the tensile properties specially the yield strength after normalizing. In respect of toughness, the normalizing heat treatment was observed to increase the Charpy V energy.


Article
Evaluation of Aerodynamic Coefficients of High Temperature Gas Turbine Cascade of Cooled Blade

Authors: Haider L. Aneed --- Assim H Yousif
Pages: 1563-1579
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Abstract

The aerodynamic force coefficients of five linear cascade of existing film cooling turbine blades are evaluated numerically. The blade is geometrically identical to the first rotor blades of the high pressure (HP) turbine of the F-100-PW-220 military turbofan. Cascade turbine blade test rig has been designed, constructed, and calibrated to introduce experimental work for the same flow conditions of the numerical solution to validate correctness of the numerical results. The numerical simulation shows acceptable agreement with experimental. Also it was found experimentally that both lift and drag coefficients are increased slightly with add of film cooling. The local Mach number distributions outside the boundary layer on both blade sides of the cascade blade are evaluated numerically and compared with the results of well known CFD code (Fine/Turbo) for existing gas turbine rotor stage of identical blade. The computational results obtained for both cases show that the Mach number distributions trend along both blade sides for rotor stage and cascade are approximately the same, and the values of Mach number of rotor stage are higher than that for the corresponded cascade. Also it was found that the Mach number distributions on both blade sides are reduced in values by the addition of air cooling, and the local Mach numbers for the cascade case is reduced in values among the rotor stage for the two cases with and without film cooling on both blade sides.


Article
Study the Effect of Transmission Cable Resistance on Tv – Satellite Image Quality

Authors: Salema Sultan Salman
Pages: 1580-1596
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Abstract

The noise of satellite broadcasting images was statistically analyzed as a function of values of resistant put in video signal transmission cable in images adopted in the study. This was made by using a new method includes mathematically separating of the two noisy effects (additive and multiplicative) by adopting the mathematical models of noise. We have made an algorithm that includes effects separation process and finding the site statistical distribution of them for each band in the used images. In this study the contrast and edges points of the satellite images were calculated. We can note the increase resistant which put in video signal transmission cable leads to decrease in contrast and rates of edge and increase in noise.

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Article
GUI Simulation for Movement of Human Arm Driven by EMG Signal

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Abstract

This work presents a simulation methodology applied to a human arm. It is aimed to allow the human-assisting manipulators to perform complex movement based on electromyography (EMG) signal for patient person in Virtual Reality (VR). This work achieves better classification with multiple parameters based KNearest Neighbor for different movements of a prosthetic arm. A K- Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) rule is one of the simplest and the most important methods in pattern recognition. The method implements in the 3D space and uses the MATLAB Ver.2009a approach. This methodology can be used with different robots to test the behavior of system and the different motion


Article
Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on Mechanical Properties of CK45 Steel

Authors: Sabah N. mahmood --- Khansaa Dawood Selman
Pages: 1610-1618
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The research aims to study the effect of laser surface treatment on mechanical properties of CK45 steel which is widely used in Bolts, Axles Various,Connecting Rods and Hydraulic clamps. Trails of laser hardening were carried out by using CW Nd: YAG laser with different powers 2.7, 3.3, and 4.3 Watt. Mechanical tests were done for the specimens who were used in the research before and after treated by laser such as: Tensile test, Micro hardness. Also grain size measurement and microstructural evaluation were done by using computerized optical microscope. The results show that improvement in mechanical properties at laser power 4.3 watt obviously when compared with other laser powers. From tensile test we show that increasing in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength Poisson's ratio and plasticity constant (k). Also decreasing in Young modulus, Rigidity of modulus and strain hardening coefficient (n). While microhardness results show that the highest value was obtained at laser with 4.3 watt power and decreased far from the surface. Metallographic of the specimen show that refining in grains size after the treatment with laser.


Article
Studying the Behavior of Axially Loaded Single Pile in Clayey Soil with Cavities

Authors: Shaymaa Tareq Kadhim
Pages: 1619-1630
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This paper deals with the interaction between cavities and adjacent axially loaded pile in clayey soil using the three dimensional finite element program (ANSYS 11.0).Three dimensional SOLID45 and SOLID65 elements were used to model the soil and the reinforced concrete pile respectively. Druger- Prager model is chosen to simulate the non-linear elastic-plastic clayey soil, concrete model is used to simulate the nonlinear behavior of concrete pile, the steel bars are assumed to be embedded in concrete section. A comparison of the behavior of load-settlement curve, shear stress on pile (τxy) and lateral soil stress on pile (σx) is made for cases of the variation in the cavity positions in the vertical direction (Z-direction) with case of no cavity. It has been found that the effect of the cavity on the shear stress along pile length (τxy) and on the lateral soil stress on pile (σx) is ignored to the depth greater than (20%) of the pile length from the ground level. Furthermore, the load-settlement curves are quite difference if compared with reference case of no cavity due to the cavity position near the face of pile.

Table of content: volume:29 issue:8