جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2012 المجلد: 40 العدد: 1

Article
EFFECT OF PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL ON MILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION IN LOCAL MERIZ GOATS
تأثير كسبة فول الصويا المحمية على انتاج الحليب وتركيبه الكيميائي في ماعز المرعز

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الخلاصة

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected soybean meal (SBM) on total milk yield (TMY) and composition, milk energy and body weight (BW) in lactating Meriz does. Eighteen does (BW 33.13±0.41 Kg) were randomly divided into two equal groups, control (untreated soybean meal) (C) and the treated soybean meal chemically treated with formaldehyde (T). Results revealed that protected soybean meal significantly (P<0.001) increased TMY (44.20 vs 34.08 kg), milk fat % (4.14±0.13 vs 3.32±0.06), and yield (25.45±0.75 vs 16.08±0.41 gm/day) , milk protein % (4.86±0.05 vs 4.31±0.04), and yield (30.73±1.02 vs 20.99±0.52 gm/day), and milk energy (3.38±0.05 vs 3.03±0.02 MJ/kg) as compared to control. It can be concluded that protection process of soybean meal increased milk yield, fat and protein content.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES RECOMMENDED FOR VEGETABLE CULTIVATORS IN SHIRQAT DISTRICT IN THE FIELD OF RATIONAL USE OF IRRIGATION WATER AND ITS RELATION WITH THEIR TRAINING NEEDS
تحديد أهمية التقنيات الزراعية الموصى بها لمزارعي الخضر في قضاء الشرقاط بمجال ترشيد استخدام مياه الري وعلاقتها باحتياجاتهم التدريبية*

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الخلاصة

The objectives of this research were to determine the importance of Agricultural technologies recommended for vegetable cultivators in Shirqat District Sallah AL-Deen Province in the field of rational use of irrigation water then to determine their training needs, and to find out the relationship between the importance and training needs of the cultivators. The research sample included 86 respondents. The data were collected through an interview after testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The researcher used arithmetic mean, percentage and spearman rank correlation to analyze the data. It was found that 51.164% of the respondents stated that agricultural technologies were highly important for their agricultural work, and 43.023% of them perceive a high need for training. The item (knowledge of water requirement for each type of vegetables during each stages of growth stage) got the first rank order for its importance and training needs. It was also found that there is a significant correlation between the ranking of the research items. According to their importance in one hand, and that of the training needs in the other.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STABILITY OF RAPESEED (Brassica napus L. ) VARIETIES UNDER RAINFALL CONDITIONS IN NORTHEREN OF IRAQ
أستقرارية اصناف من السلجم (Brassica napus L.) تحت الظروف المطرية في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: Mohammed Y. Hammed محمد يوسف حميد
الصفحات: 2-10
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الخلاصة

Four rapeseed varieties, Paktol, Kebel, Forte and Karat were tested in five environments represented limited and semi-limited dryland area in northern of Iraq, Mosul province (Rashidia during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001, singar during 2000-2001 and Bashiqa site during 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 seasons) in order to determine stability of these varieties for plant height, heading,yield and its components.Significant varietal and environments differences were observed for the traits investigated except no. of seed per pod and 1000 seed weight.GXE interaction effect was highly significant for all traits except 1000 seed weight. Paktol were better adapted to favorite environments for plant height, no. of days to heading and no. of pods per plant and better adapted to a wide of environments and stable for seed yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Bio-Fertilizer on physiology of growth and development of maize ( Zea mays L.) in Sulaimani region
تاثير التسميد الحيوي في فسلجة النمو و التطور للذرة الصفراء في منطقة السليمانية

المؤلفون: Aram A. Mohammed ارام عباس محمد
الصفحات: 9-20
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الخلاصة

Effect of inoculation with Phosphorus biofertilizer and different dozes of nitrogen and P2O5 on the physiology of growth and development of maize were studied through conducting two different field-experiments at two different locations, Bakrajo ( 35˚ 34˝ 307´N, 765masl) and Kanipanka location (35˚ 22˝ 37´N, 545masl), in sulaimani region. The treatments included, T1(no biofertilizer, only recommended NP) , T2( 50% recommended NP+ Phosphorus biofertilizer), T3( Recommended N+ phosphorus biofertilizer), In addition to vegetative traits (such as plant height, LAI, No. of days to 50% silking, No. of days from 50% silking to physiological maturity(PM)), and reproductive traits (such as 500kernel weight, Biological Yield (BY), Yield, and Harvest Index(HI)), the root-shoot ratio(R/S) was studied in three different stages of growth pre-silking, at- silking and post-silking, results showed increasing in dry weight of root-shoot ratio and significant differences among studied traits, showing positive response of maize hybrid to phosphorus biofertilizer..

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ECONOMIC REFORM POLICIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON CREDIT AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN SELECTED ARAB STATES
سياسات الإصلاح الاقتصادي وأثرها في الائتمان والناتج الزراعي في دول عربية مختارة

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الخلاصة

This research aims studying and measuring the impact of economic reform policies on credit and agricultural output in selected Arab states, adopted these policies (Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Sudan), in order to prove the hypothesis of the research that included distinctness that economic reform policies have economic impacts on agricultural credit size and agricultural output of the sample states. The research depends upon the descriptive approach and quantitative analysis using multi-Regression Analysis, and research contains a time series for ( 33 ) years (1975-2007) using an approach ( Before – After ) to comparing tow periods to evaluate these policies by using least squares method, to know the impact of independent economic changes for the policies of economic reform programs upon the dependent change ( the size of agricultural credit ). Then to measure the estimated agricultural credit size of the first example in agricultural output value by using two stage least squares method in order to get the most accurate consequences. One of the most important conclusions is that the economic reform policy has negative effects on farmers and agricultural financial establishments in short term. The positive results do not appear except on long term through improvement performance agricultural banks and the rise of agricultural produce value.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MEASUREMENT AND INTERPRETATION OF THE IMPACT OF SOME MACROECECONOMIC VARIABLES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
قياس وتفسير اثر بعض المتغيرات الاقتصادية في أداء القطاع الزراعي في بلدان نامية مختارة

المؤلفون: Alaa M. Abdullah آلاء محمد عبد الله
الصفحات: 27-37
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الخلاصة

Are macroeconomic variables one means by which measure the performance of economic sectors including the agricultural sector, because they are interested in studying how they are through to reach the level equilibrium of the sector, through the knowledge of the changes that you get the rates of growth and the problems faced over time, And that part of the cause of this is due to the difference in the performance of the agricultural policy makers in these economies to counter these influences that contribute to the effects of directly or indirectly in the performance of its agricultural sector, as well as the effects of different variables that contribute to the macroeconomic performance of the agricultural problem arose here, Came the importance of research in the economic development of developing countries in which the role of agriculture in large macroeconomic disrupted if agriculture is neglected and deprived of resources or subjected to prejudice because of the use of policies that negatively impact on producer incentives While research aimed at identifying and measuring the impact of macroeconomic variables on the performance of the agricultural sector in a number of developing countries during the period (1980-2007), depending on the hypothesis that macroeconomic variables have different impacts in the performance of the agricultural sector in a number of developing countries, according to the nature of the structures economic and efficiency of their policy in dealing with these variable, In order to prove this hypothesis has been selected number of developing countries that included Egypt, Morocco, Turkey, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Tunisia, which has been the use of model regression combination (Pooled Regression), which measures the effect of economic variables on growth rate of Vary from one country to another, and during the analysis was the conclusion that the independent variables, namely inflation and the exchange rate and the average per capita GDP and economic openness agricultural and government spending and programs of the International Monetary Fund and the interest rate) with different impacts (positive and negative) in the rate of the growth of agricultural output (variable-based) in each country of the sample as well as in meta-analysis of selected countries .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE REALITY OF PRODUCING CASH GRAINS CROPS IN SOME OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
واقع انتاج المحاصيل النقدية في البلدان النامية

المؤلفون: Kays Nadhim Ghazal قيس ناظم غزال
الصفحات: 38-54
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الخلاصة

Cash crops play a great role in economics of developing countries for it shares in external trade of these countries and in most of its local agricultural industries as well as its nutritional importance and the basic role in social and economic development. Although, producing cash crops had been paid a great attention in developing countries, but it still being one of the most sectors in backwardness because the real tendency to develop it were not based on right and scientific bases because of the multivariate restrictions facing the producers of these crops; in addition, to the lack incentives in both quality and quantity given to them. This study depends on a hypothesis which says that the producing cash crops in developing countries submit to so many restrictions and incentives which contribute in variant effects in producing the mentioned crops. In order to prove this hypothesis, a sample has been taken from some of developing countries such as Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia and Thailand depending on four types of cash crops: wheat, barley, rice and corn relying upon data of time series in estimating this phenomena for each country.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF CULTIVAR, NUMBER OF APPLICATION AND LEVELS OF SEAWEED (SEAFORCE1) ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERICTICS AND MINERAL CONTENT OF SQUASH PLANT Cucurbita pepo L.
تأثير الصنف وعدد ومستويات الرش بالمستخلص البحري Sea force 1 في الصفات النوعية والمحتوى المعدني لنبات قرع الكوسة Cucurbita pepo L. *

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the vegetable farm research , college of agriculture , duhok university. Three levels of seaweed extracts " Seaforce 1 " (i.e.zero,2,3 ml / liter ) as a folair application in two squash plant cultivars " Mullah ahmed and Zucchini " at spring and autumn growing seasons /2009. Plants were sprayed once at the begining of flowering and twice (first at the beginning of flowering and the second after 15 days from the first spraying). Results indicated that spraying with seaforce1 twice increased total Soluble solids, which reached 11.34, 11.27%, While fruit firmness decreased in the first and second season respectively. Results also indicated that nutrient concentrations, N , P, K, increased in the first and second season. We concluded that spraying with Sea force1 twice at 3 ml/ l gave the best results .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PROPAGATION MEDIA AND DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF IBA ON ROOTING OF Bougainvillea glabra C. CUTTINGS
تأثير أوساط الزراعة وتراكيز مختلفة من حامض الاندول بيوتيرك (IBA) في تجذير عقل نبات الجهنمية Bougainvillea glabra C.

المؤلفون: Yousif A. Abdulrahman يوسف علي عبدالرحمن
الصفحات: 64-74
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الخلاصة

This investigation was conducated in the green-house of Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Dohuk Univ., and During 27 February to 4 June 2000. The cuttings of Bougainvillea glabra C. (Viollet cultivar) were treated with of IBA (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm). The treated cuttings were planted in three different medium (Sand, peatmoss, sand + peatmoss). The results of the study showed that planting of cuttings in the sand or the mixture entering the sand in their composition to make a significant increase in rooting percentage and average number of roots as compared with peatmoss alone and otherwise were obtained the highest values for (length and dry weight of roots) and vegetative growth characteristics when planting in peat moss. The use of IBA at (2000 ppm) caused significant increase for vegetative growth specifications and root system as compared to the rest conc. Result of interaction showed that when planting of cutting treatment with IBA (2000 ppm) in the peat moss was to get the best significant values of shoot and root characteristics was got.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF NUMBER OF APLLICATION AND LEVELS OF SEAWEED (SEA FORCE 1) ON THE FLOWERING AND FRUITY GROWTH OF TWO SQUASH CULTIVARS Cucurbita pepo L.
تأثير عدد ومستويات الرش بالمستخلص البحري Sea Force1 في النمو الزهري والثمري لصنفين من قرع الكوسة Cucurbita pepo L. *

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الخلاصة

This study was Conducted in the vegetable farm research , College of agriculture , Duhok university Three levels of Seaweed extract : Sea Force 1 (i،e zero, 2, 3ml /L) as a foliar application in two squash Cultivars: “Mullah Ahmed “ and “ Zucchini “ at Spring and autumn growing season / 2009 had been used. Plants were sprayed once ، at the beginning of flowering and twice (at the beginning of flowering and the second after, 15 days from the first spraying). Results indicated that Sea Force 1 twice caused a significant increase in the number of pistillite flower which reached 13.36 , 13.33 at the two seasons respectively, while no significant effects on the number of staminate flowers at the two growing season. We concluded that spraying with Sea Force1 twice at 3ml/L gave the best results .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS , GENE ACTION AND GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC CORRELATION IN FABA BEAN (Vicia faba L.)
تقدير قوة الهجين والفعل الجيني والارتباط الوراثي والمظهري في الباقلاء (Vicia faba L.)

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الخلاصة

Four varieties of faba bean viz, (1-French (aguadulce) , 2-Syrian (shami) , 3-Spain and 4-Holland) were used in a Complete Diallel Crosses , during growing season 2008/2009. Genotypes (parents and F1s hybrids) were sowing in the Field Dept. of Hort. & Landscape Design , College of Agric. & Forestry , Mosul University , during growing season 2009/2010 , by using Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications , aimed to evaluate performance of hybrids and their parents for identify promising hybrids and estimate heterosis , gene action , heritability , genetic advance , phenotypic and genotypic correlation for studied characters. Results showed that parents and F1s were significantly different for all studied characters , the parent French was significantly higher in green pods , seed and biological yield. Whereas the hybrid 1x3 was characterized by the highest for green pods yield and biological yield , and the hybrid 1x2 for the seed yield. The hybrids showed significant superiority over parents means for all the studied characters , the hybrid 3x2 was significantly higher than other for heterosis in green pods yield and biological yield , and the hybrid 1x2 for the seed yield. Significant additive variance were found for all studied characters. Narrow sense heritability was higher for: plant height , 100 seed weight , green pods yield and biological yield which indicated additive gene action for these characters. Over dominance were found for all studied characters except: plant height , no. of branches per plant and 100 seed weight. The higher phenotypic and genotypic correlations was found between average pod weight and green pods yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SOME PESTICIDES ON SOIL MICROORGANISMS IN KIRKUK PROVINCE
تأثير بعض المبيدات الكيميائية المستخدمة لمكافحة الافات الزراعية في اعداد احياء مجهرية التربة في محافظة كركوك

المؤلفون: Dalshad R. Azeez دلشاد رسول عزيز
الصفحات: 100-106
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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of some pesticides on soil microorganisms numbers including bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The land was chosen , prepared ,leveled and divided into plots 1x1.5m. Each experimental unit was replicated four times, five seed potato (HZPC from Holland) were placed in a hole at the depth of 6-10 cm , with 25 cm spacing between holes. After planting, potato plants were sprayed with pesticide as recommended by manufacturals source including insecticide (Fatec), herbicide (Grastop) and fungicide (Phostrol). Results showed that the effect of pesticides on soil microbial communities was varied with pesticides types and microbes which had different response to the used pesticides. The toxicity effect of Fatec on soil bacteria was more at third and eighth day after spraying and had a significant difference in comparison with control with about 0.7x106, but the maximum effect on fungi occurred at the third day differing from control with about 0.5x104 ,but its effect on actinomycetes was less with about 0.2x103 from control at the first day only. The effect of Grastop was less which caused reduction of the number of soil bacteria at the first, third and eighth day ,but its effect on soil fungus and actinomycetes occurred on( first & third) and eighth day respectively. Phostrol was more effective on soil actinomycetes which caused reduction of these microbes on eighth day after spraying followed by fungus and then bacteria which affected by this fungicide at first and third day with the difference with control by 0.3x106 and 0.7x106 respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
COMPARING OF SOIL REFLECTANCE VALUES BY USING DIFFERENT PROGRAMS
مقارنة قيم انعكاسية التربة باستخدام برامجيات مختلفة

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الخلاصة

The Hatra area in Nineveh governorate / Iraq has been chosen for this research because it sits on in arid and semi arid area and because of the availability of its previous study with grounded digital imags, aerial photo and satellite images. We used a specialized tool in Photo Shop program by selecting a huge number may reach to thousands of pixels , and using the histogram window of the selecting area to know the average of RGB value, then calculating its reflections in mathematical formula, and comparing it with results of last studying used the same digital images but in few pixels. This study found that there is necessary to select a large number of pixels to digital image of rough surface of soil to read the reflectance because the clear difference with the previous study, but there is no clear different with lab preparing soft surface of soil.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
USING THE RATIO IMAGING IN DISTINGUISHING SOIL SURFACE STATUS AND LAND COVER
استخدام المرئيات التناسبية في تمييز حالات سطح التربة والغطاء الأرضي

المؤلفون: Namik A . Daood نامق عبد المنعم داؤد
الصفحات: 115-121
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الخلاصة

A study area that has various topography natural which in fact affect in different soil geneses had been selected and studying the area primarily to know the types the found soils , then using rationing images and studying the ability of its benefits in recognize the different soils of the study area . Using the rationing images in identifying lands that have good natural soils then others that suffer from affected troubles on production factors as increment of gypsum and copious water and which represents the troubles where study area suffer from though it is in very narrow limited which gives a lot of significance to this study . This study refers to recognize three types of soils in the study area ; the first is good natural soils , the second is soils that suffer from gypsum sedimentation on the two sides of valley , and the third is copious soils .

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Article
FOOD PREFERENCE OF Microcerotermes diversus Silv. (ISOPTERA, TERMITIDAE) TO THE WOODS OF SOME FOREST TREES*
التفضيل الغذائي لحشرة الأرضة لأخشاب بعض أنواع أشجار الغابات

المؤلفون: Nazar M. Al-Mallah نزار مصطفى الملاح
الصفحات: 122-129
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الخلاصة

The result of feeding preference study of the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silv to the different species of wood tested ( Platanus orientals , Populus nigra , Cupresses sempervirens , Salix acmophylla ,, Pinus brutia and Eccalyptus camaledulensis ). Under both artificial and natural infection conditions. The insect preferred the wood of Platanus, Salix and Populus trees; the general mean of weight loss for wood during the period of experiment were: 65.95, 55.77, 26.35 and 37.85, 23.16, 37.74 gr. respectively, on the other hands Pinus and Cupressus wood showed loss preferred by the termite and gave 2.42, 2.89 gr. For natural infection and 4.95, 6.11 gr. for artificial infection respectively. The results obtained from study for wood preference and the free choice method emphasized the previous results.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of the Subsurface Drainage in Improving
تأثير البزل تحت السطحي (الخندقي والدهليزي) في تحسين بعض الخواص الفيزيائية لتربة طينية ثقيلة في سهل الغاب - سوريا

المؤلفون: Mohamed A.Tert محمد علي تـرت
الصفحات: 122-127
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الخلاصة

Applying technicality of the subsurface drainage on the heavy clay soil in Al-Ghab plain expose to seasonal water logging phenomenon. The results showed that the improvement in the each of bulk density, porosity, and the hydraulic conductivity was about 0.12 gram /cm3, 5 % and (0,42 m / day) respectively, and the depth of water table was reduced under field capacity level after 4 months from application as the difference with the control to the depths: 0 – 25 and 25 - 45 and 45 - 65 cm.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY OF QUANTITY - INTENSITY OF POTASSIUM IN SOME CALCAEOUS SOILS IN NINEVEH PROVINCE
دراسة مقاييس الشدة والسعة لعنصر البوتاسيوم في بعض الترب الكلسية / محافظة نينوى

المؤلفون: Mohammed Tahir Said Khalil محمد طاهر سعيد خليل
الصفحات: 128-134
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الخلاصة

Potassium supplying power by using Beckett approach to evaluate some criteria of potassium thermodynamics and its uses an indicators to evaluate soil fertility in some arid soils sampled from six locations of Nineveh Province in northern of Iraq. The results showed that soils were dominated with semictite and illite clay minerals. Regarding to Q/I ratio suggested by Beckett, the activity ratios values ranged from 119.48 - 300.69×10-3 mole.L-½, the labile pool of potassium values ranged from 38.82 - 104.61 c.mole.kg-1 ,where potassium potential buffering capacity values ranged from 0.15 - 0.80 c.mole.(kg.mole-1)-½. On the other hand Gibbs free energy -rG values were negatively spontaneous reaction were ranged from - 52.17 to - 29.51 cal..mole-1 and Gapon selectivity values fluctuated from the range 0.008 - 0.030 L.mole-1.

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Article
THE ROLE OF YELLOW STICKING TRAPS FOR ESTIMATION OF LEAF HOPPER Empoasca decedens POALI ON DIFFERENT STRAINS OF POPLAR TREES IN MOSUL
دور المصائد اللاصقة الصفراء في تقدير الكثافة العددية لحشرة قفاز الأوراقEmpoasca decedens P. على عدد من سلالات أشجار الحور الأمريكي في منطقة الموصل

المؤلفون: M.A.Mohammed محمد عبد الكريم محمد
الصفحات: 130-135
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted in the plantation of poplar research station of horticulture & forestry in Rashidia – Mosul in 2002 , it was noticed that the presence of leaf hopper on poplar trees from the beginning of May up to the end of December .The results showed that the population density of the insect which attracted to yellow sticky trip reached maximum number in October on the strains under study, the strain populus deltoides 618 was more sensitive than other s P.d. 470,P.d. 479 & R-110 and its general means were 279.56, 255.02 , 205.6 & 144.28 insects respectfully . The statistical analysis showed significant differences between strains, date of sampling and monthly populations , in addition there were non significant positive correlation between insects numbers of strain with the weekly temperature (-0.06112) , and also non significant negative correlation with the weekly relative humidity (-0.25398) .For the monthly numbers ,the correlation was negative and non significant with temperature (-0.08191) ,but it was positive and significant with the relative humidity(0.57001)

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Article
EFFECT OF FORMALDEHYDE TREATED AND UNTREATED SUNFLOWER SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND SOME RUMEN AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN AWASSI SHEEP
تأثير إضافة بذور زهرة الشمس المعاملة وغير المعاملة بالفورمالدهايد في معامل الهضم وبعض صفات الكرش والدم في الأغنام العواسية

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الخلاصة

Nine Awassi rams were used in this study. The rams were divided into three groups. The first group (control) was fed on ration consisted mainly of barley, wheat bran and soybean meal, while the second and third group fed on ration contained 10% of sunflower untreated or treated with formaldehyde respectively. All the rams were fed for 15days, the first 10days considered as preperiod, then 5days for feces collection. Samples of rumen liquor and blood was taken in last day. Results indicated that addition of sunflower seeds untreated and formaldehyde treated had no significant effect on the coefficient of nutrient digestibility (dry and organic matter , Protein , Fat extraction and fiber). Result of statistical analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between treatments in the pH of rumen liguor for the second treatment (6.58) vs. (6.25 and 6.28) for the first and third treatments. It was noted that the pH value was decreased after feeding in all groups. Concentration of ammonia in rumen liquor before feeding was 2.17, 2.60 and 3.06 mg/100ml respectively. While a significant increases (P<0.05) was noted in ammonia concentration after feeding for the first and second group as compared with third group, the values were 8.82, 7.62 and 4.04 mg/100ml respectively. Results also indicated that the treatments had no significant effect on the concentration of blood triglyceride, urea, glucose, protein and albomine, while their was significant (P<0.05) differences between the second and third groups on glubulin, their values were 2.83, 3.16 and 2.33 mgl/100ml respectively.

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Article
PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF LOCAL MALE RABBITS FATTENING ON DIFFERENT
الكفاءة الإنتاجية لذكور الأرانب المحلية المسمنة على أنواع مختلفة من الكسب

المؤلفون: Q.Z.Shamsal-dain قصي زكي شمس الدين
الصفحات: 142-148
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الخلاصة

Twenty-four weaner male rabbits of 6-8 weeks aged and average 530±50 g in weight were divided into four groups of six (6) rabbits per group and used in a 8 weeks feeding trial for production efficiency. The rabbits were fed four rations contain same crude protein and metabolizable energy ,but different in sources of meals (control(no meal),sun flower meal,seasame meal and soybean meal ).Feed consumption & body weight were recorded weekely.At the end of feeding ,all rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were studied. The results indicated that a significant effect (p≤o.o5) of sources of meal on most studied traits. Total gain, final weight, feed conversion rate, hot and cold weight carcass and dressing percentage were increased significantly (p≤o.o5), while feed consumption was decreased (p≤o.o5) significantly for rabbits consumed rations containing different sources of mea l. No significant effect was found on percentages of internal and external offal's and different cuts of carcass.

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Article
EFFECT OF USING VITAMIN A AND FOLIC ACID IN SOME
تأثير استخدام فيتامين A وحامض الفوليك في بعض الصفات الإنتاجية والتناسلية وبعض الهرمونات للفطائم

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at Animal Resourse Department College of Agriculture and Forestry at Mosul University for a period from 9/6/2009 to 6/10/2009, to study the effect of vit. A , Folic acid and the Co- effect for both of them on some physiological and reproductive traits for local Awassi ewe lambs 36 ewe lambs 4 month old were used in this study randomly divided into 4 treatments with average weights 22.22 , 22.88 , 23.27 and 22.00 kg respectively. The first treatment fed on the control ration , the second drunk with vit A 5000 I.U head twice a week , the third drunk with folic acid 25 mg head twice a week , and the fourth treatment was drunk with vit A 5000 I.U with 25 mg head twice a week all the experiment period . The result revealed significant difference (P< 0.05) between the treatments in the average daily and total gain for the behalf of the control treatment , and there were no significant difference in final weight between the treatments , but there was a progress on improvement in fertility percentage for the third treatment reached 66.66% at 8th month of ewe lambs age. At 10th month of age the third and forth treatment were highly significantly superior (P>0.01)then the first and second treatment and reached 77.77% . There was no significant difference in F.S.H hormone level at 7 , 9 , 10 month of age. There was significant difference(P> 0.05) for the 3rd treatment at 7 months of age , the level of F.S.H reached 0.3170 nonogram ml with comparison with 1st and 2nd treatments . Also there were significant differences(P>0.05) in L.H hormone level between the treatments within the 7th month for the behalf of 3rd treatment and 8th month for the behalf of 2nd and 3rd treatments. The treatments with Vit. A and folic acid led to a significant increase (P>0.05) level of Progesterone hormone at 10th month of age for the 3rd and 4th treatments compared with 1st and 2nd over.

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Article
THE INFLUENCE OF SOME FACTORS ON MILK CONTENTS OF SOMATIC CELLS IN HOLSTEIN COWS
تاثير بعض العوامل في محتوى الحليب من الخلايا الجسمية

المؤلفون: Shana S. A. Jaaf شنه صلاح الجاف
الصفحات: 159-169
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الخلاصة

70 Holstein cows were randomly chosen from the herd at the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station, United Company for Animal Resources Ltd ., Al-Soueira ( 50 Km south of Baghdad ) and over period from December, 2003. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of some factors on somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. The overall mean of the SCC in milk was (1584.314 x 103 cell/ml). Cows which produced milk less than 3000 kg/season, showed higher level of SCC (2047.461 x103) cell/ml. Also the infected cows had higher SCC compared with healthy cows and the difference was not significant in this study. The regression coefficient of SCC on age at first calving (A.F.C.) was significant (P <0.01) (9x103 cell / month). The correlation coefficient between lactation period, milk production and SCC were negative P < 0.01 and were (-0.16, -0.09) respectively.

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Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF PACKAGING MATERIALS AND STORAGE PERIOD ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FLOUR
دراسة تأثير مواد التعبئة ومدة الخزن في الخواص الريولوجية للطحين

المؤلفون: S.H.AL-Jbory صبيحة حسين الجبوري
الصفحات: 170-175
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الخلاصة

The effect of packaging materials and storage period on rheological properties of wheat flour was studied. wheat flour was packed in polypropylene and paper sacks and stored at30Cº for 30, 60, 90 days. Results of amylograbh show that there were no significant (P<0.05) differences between initial temperature of gelatinization of flour suspension in all storage conditions. Results of farinograph show that a significant (P<0.05) increase in the amount of absorption water by flour stored in polypropylene, whereas there was a significant increase in the same parameter for flour stored in paper sacks for 90 days. Results also show that there were significant (p<0.05) differences between dough time for control flour and other samples stored in all storage conditions. The dough time was decreased and dough ripping time increased with increasing storage period, whereas dough stability time was increased with increasing storage period and critical dough coefficient was decreased with increasing storage period. The results of extensograph show that decreasing the elasticity values and increasing the elasticity resistance of flour packed in both containers with increasing storage period. This was resulted in increasing the ratio of elasticity resistance/elasticity value and increased the energy for 90 days storage period in both containers. Generally, changes in the rheological properties of the flour stored in paper sacks were less than that of stored in polypropylene sacks and there was no indication for insects infection in the flour.

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Article
Evaluation of Mutagenic ability of Volatile oils from Mentha longifolia in the Fungus Aspergillus amstelodami
تقييم القابلية التطفيرية للزيوت الطيارة من نبات النعناع Mentha longifolia في

المؤلفون: Fadeya M. Al-Hyaly فادية موفق الحيالي
الصفحات: 176-183
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الخلاصة

This research involved testing the mutagenic ability of the volatile oil of Mentha longifolia on the conidia of fungus Aspergillus amstelodami .the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of volatile oil of Mentha were investigated so the percentage of inhibition were 20.89%-65.5% of concentrations(0.008-0.1) ml/ml. The mutagenicity of four sublethal concentrations (0.03 , 0.04 , 0.05 and 0.06 ml/ml) were tested by using three methods namly pretreatment, growth mediated and plate incorporation method, Non of the concentrations tested of volatile oil of M. longifolia were showed any mutagenic effect on conidia of fungus A. amstelodami ,so we can consider the volatile oil of M. longifolia is genetically safe .

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Article
EFFECT OF SUGARS &LYSINE OF BROAD BEAN FLOUR ADDING TO WHEAT FLOUR (COMPOSITE ) ON BROWN INDEX & FERMENTATION PRESSURE GAS
تأثير السكريات و حامض اللايسين لطحين الباقلاء المضاف إلى طحين الحنطة( المركب) على صفتي دليل الاسمرار وضغط غاز التخمر

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to determine reducing & non reducing sugars and lysine content of three species ( Sham , ILB and Aquadulce ) of Broad bean seed flour ( Vicia faba ) which obtained from ICARDA Ninevah / Iraq and were compared with those of wheat flour. Different types of composite flour were prepared by partial substation of wheat flour with10, 20 and 30 % of Broad bean flour, also to study the effect of their content of reducing sugars and lysine on Brown index and Fermentation pressure gas. The content of wheat flour from non reducing and reducing sugars was 1.31 and 0.17% respectively, their content in sham broad bean flour was 4.13and 0.37% respectively, and for ILB specie was 4.21and 0.31% respectively , and for Aquadulce specie was 4.20and 0.39 % respectively, lysine content of wheat flour was 1.85mg /100gm and their content in sham , ILB and Aquadulce flour was402, 416 and 420 mg / 100 gm respectively. Result of study showed that the fermentation pressure gas values of composite dough increased with increasing substation ratio of all species of broad bean used in this study. Adding broad bean flour of three species to wheat flour caused increasing in brown index of composite flour comparing with wheat flour and caused color darkening of baked products from composite flour ( lab loaf ، cake and biscuit ).

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Article
ESTIMATING OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS IN BREAD WHEAT BY USING FACTORIAL MATING DESIGN
تقدير بعض المعالم الوراثية في حنطة الخبز باستخدام تصميم التزاوج العاملي

المؤلفون: Ismail Hussain Ali اسماعيل حسين علي
الصفحات: 192-204
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to estimate some genetic parameters in bread wheat, Six cultivars of bread wheat (male parents) ATTLA (1), MILAN (2), Acsad 8 (3), Acsad 17 (4), Noor (5) and Cross bred-6 were crossed during the season of 2008-2009 with three cultivars (female parents) by using factorial mating design. The eighteenth crosses were grown with their parents during the season of 2009-2010 in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected for plant height (cm), spike length (cm), spikes number/plant, grains number/spike, biomass yield/plant (g), grain yield/plant (g) and harvest index (%). The results showed significant differences among genotypes for all the traits studied, Positive general combiners for many traits were obtained with the best parents like 4, 2 and 1 which be used as important parents in hybridization program because of their ability to transmit their characteristics to their progenies. Many positive specific combiners having positive mid parent heterosis and derived from positive general combiners, were obtained such as 1×8, 1×9 and 3×7 which are important crosses for selection in segregation generations. The results showed also that dominance gene action controlled all traits except plant height and the character with mid narrow-sense heritability had positive relationship with grain yield.

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Article
Evaluation of new barley genotypes under Nienavah governorate environment
تقييم تراكيب وراثية جديدة من الشعير تحت ظروف محافظة نينوى

المؤلفون: Ahmed Abdul-jawad Ahmed احمد عبد الجواد احمد
الصفحات: 205-211
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الخلاصة

Twenty four new barley entries in addition of the local variety (Rihane-03) were studied in RCBD with two replications under the rainfed conditions of northern region of Iraq. Number of days to 50% anthesis, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2, biological yield, grain yield, harvest index and 1000-grain weight. Entry Assala-04 Superior was in three characters: plant height, number of spikes/m2 and grain yield. phenotypic and variances were highly significant for all the characters. genetic variances were significant for all the characters except for biological yield and 1000-grain weight. Broad–sense heritability value was high for number of grains/spike.

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Article
EFFECT OF INTERPLANTS SPACING AND METHODS OF NITROGEN APPLICATION ON GROWTH OF THREE SYNTHETIC CORN VARIETIES (Zea mays L.)
تأثير مسافات الزراعة بين النباتات وطريقة إضافة السماد النتروجيني في نمو ثلاثة أصناف تركيبية من الذرة الصفراء (Zea mays L.)

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الخلاصة

Two Field experiments were conducted during the growing season 2007 in Mosul and Tikrit to determine the influence of application method of nitrogen fertilizer (Broadcasting or band fertilization 10 cm in row far from seed) and different spaces between plants (15, 25, 35 cm) in growth of three varieties (Buhooth 106, Rabi, Safa) . Data were subjected to the conventional analysis of Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications .Result of Mosul location apperared that the variety Buhooth 106 was superior to gave less ear flowering period and gave more height in plant length. moreover the distance (15 , 35)cm were significant increase in plant length. Fertilizer application method did not show any significant differences in field growth characters except the leaf area which showed superiority in the method of adding fertilizer by spray in Tikret location. while in Mosul location the band fertilization method was the beast for leaf area, the distance 35cm appeared superiority in these two locations. The interaction between varieties and inter plants spacing Buhooth 106 and Safa with 15cm appeared superiority in their early ear flowering period in Tikret location ,while in Mosul location the variety Safa with 15cm showed an early female flowering period . Buhooth 106 gave high plant height for the two distance (15,35) cm .the variety Rabee with distance (35) cm showed higher leaf area .where as in Tikret location the Buhooth 106 and Rabee with 35 cm gave larger leaf area per plant.Buhooth 106 in its interaction with (15,35) cm gave higher leaf area index .As for the interaction between the distance and the method of adding fertilizes ,the distance (35) cm with adding fertilizers in band fertilization method was superiority in leaf area for individual plant , Adding fertilizer in broadcasting way showed superiority in leaf area index in the two studied locations.The tri-interaction in Mosul location ,Buhooth 106 for 15 cm distance with broadcasting method for fertilization showed superiority in plant height , again the same variety with 35 cm distance with adding fertilizer in row gave high avarge of leaf area character an individual plant . Safa variety with 15 cm distance by adding fertilizers in broadcasting way gave superiority in leaf area index , as for Buhooth 106 with 15 cm distance to adding fertilizers in row way , it gave higher significant for the same previous character.

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Article
USING OF DIFFERENT NOZZLES (SINGLE AND DOUBLE )UNDER TWO PRESSURES TO SHOW THERE EFFECT ON COEFFICIENT OF UNIFORMITY AND DISTRIBUTION UNIFORMITY OF WATER DISTRIBUTION UNDER STATIONARY SPRINGULAR IRRIGATION
استخدام مباثق مختلفة المقاطع ( أحادية وثنائية ) تحت ضغطين لبيان تأثيرهما على معامل انتظام وتناسق توزيع الماء تحت نظام الرش الثابت

المؤلفون: Essam A. Taha عصام عبد القادر طه
الصفحات: 225-229
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the fields of Agriculture and forestry collage in February 2010 to investigate the effect of pressure 1.5 and 3 bar and type of nozzle single ( square , hexagon , circular ) and double ( square × circular , hexagon × circular , circular × circular ) on the uniformity coefficient of water distribution ( UC ) and distribution uniformity ( DU ) . The randomized block design and Duncan's multiple range test for comparison between the means were used . Results showed that there were significant differences among the two factor , the presser 3 bar gave the highest coefficient of water distribution uniformity and distribution uniformity the circular single nozzle gave the highest coefficient and distribution uniformity at pressure 1.5 , 3 bar comparing with the other nozzle , The double nozzle (circular × circular ) gave the highest coefficient and distribution uniformity at pressure 3 bar .

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Article
EFFECT OF RICE VARIETIES AND STORAGE PERIOD AND LEVEL INFESTSTION ON SAW TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE (Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. , Coleoptera : Silvanidae )
تأثير أصناف الرز و فترة الخزن و مستويات الإصابة على حشرة خنفساء الحبوب المنشارية

المؤلفون: M .A .Mohammed محمد عبد الكريم محمد
الصفحات: 230-237
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الخلاصة

The present study included the effect of local rice varieties Anbar , Aqqrawi , Baziani and imported varieties American , Vietnami , Thailandi and the effect of storage period 2 ,4 Months with the effect of levels infestation 10 ,20 ,30 insect on the population density and growth rate of saw toothed grian beetle and loss weight in seeds . the results showed that the average of population density increased with increasing storage period from 48.96 to 73.29 insects , Aqrawi variety had a high population 110.55 insect and American variety had a low population 33.80 insect . The average of population density increased too with increasing level infestation from 47.97 to 62.70 to 72.72 insect , respectively , and the general average of growth rate reached 1.36 and 1.08 for storage periods , respectively , and 1.66 ,1.09 and 0.84 for level infestation , respectively . According to loss weight , the general rate 0.29 and 0.38 gm.for storage poriod , respectively ,and 0.22 ,0.34 and 0.45gm.for level infestation , respectively

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Article
THE EFFECT OF THERMAL AND CHILLING SEQUENCY ON THE MORTALITY OF TRIBOLIUM CONFUSUM (DUVAL) AND
تأثير تعاقب درجات الحرارة المرتفعة والمنخفضة في نسب قتل حشرتي خنفساء الطحين المتشابهة Tribolium confusum (Duval) وثاقبة الحبوب الصغرى Rhizopertha dominica (F.)

المؤلفون: Nazar M. Al-Mallah نزار مصطفى الملاح
الصفحات: 238-248
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الخلاصة

The result of studying the effect of two insects species Tribolium confusum ( Duval) and Rhizopertha dominica (F.) on responding to successive exposure periods of high and low temperature showed that the high temperature 45 , 50 and 55 0 C successive with -5 0 C reveled a significant effect on mean mortality percentage which reached 66.94 , 93.33 and 64.17 % respectively for T. confusum and 88.06 , 73.33 and 81.94 % respectively for R. dominica . The results also appear that the mean mortality percentage of the two insect species were increased as the exposer periods to successive temperatures increased and reached 5.93 , 16.67 , 34,34 and 35,56 % respectively for T. confusum at 45 0 C and 27.04 , 38.15 , 44.44 and 66.67 % respectively at 50 0 C and 11.11 , 47.41 , 74.82 and 100 % respectively at 55 0 C , while for R. dominica reached 28.15 , 39.26 ,43.33 and 45.15 % respectively at 45 0 C and 12.96 , 39.26 , 54.82 and 55.56 % respectively at 50 0 C and 22.96 , 44.44 , 55.56 and 100 % respectively at 55 0 C .

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Article
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF COWPEA DAMPING OFF AND ROOT ROT
المكافحة الكيميائية لمرض موت بادرات وتعفن جذور اللوبيا Vigns sinensis

المؤلفون: Alaa H. Al-Khafagi علاء حميد الخفاجي
الصفحات: 249-257
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الخلاصة

Isolation result showed the presence of Fusarium solani ,Rhizoctonia solani ,Microphomina phasseolina and that fungicide Beltanol inhibited the growth ray of the three isolated fungi with different percentages , Somy-8 fully inhibited the growth ray of Microphomina phasseolina fall 100٪ and Benomyl inhibited the growth ray of F.solani with 82.64% . In green house experiment chemical control with Benomyl, Somy-8 and Beltanol caused significant decrease in diseases incidence , Somy-8 recorded 6.67 while Beltanol and Benomyl recorded 40%for both of them The fungicides lower disease severity for F.solani 0.29 ,0.25 and 0.24 respectively in addition to that there was improvement in growth parameters ,treatment with Benomyl caused significant increase in shoot length 21.63 cm while significant and Somy-8 caused significant increae in root length 17.53 and 17.87 cm respectively . Beltanol caused significant increasing in plant dry weight 1.79 g in addition to S/R ratio 10:49 which did not differ significantly with Benomyl and Somy-8

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Article
EFFECT OF COPPER AND SALICYLIC ACID IN THE SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE ACQIRED OF BEANS AGAINST Rhizoctonia solani
تأثير النحاس وحامض السالسيلك في اكتساب المقاومة الجهازية في نباتات الفاصوليا لوقايتها من الفطر Rhizoctonia solani

المؤلفون: S. Y. Muhammed سعاد يحيى محمد
الصفحات: 258-266
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الخلاصة

The study conducted to evaluate the systemic resistance of bean seedlings infected with root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani using nutritional element of copper and Saliycili acid showed that copper is effective in the reduction of the mycelial growth of the fungus that inhibited by (10.5%) when used at 4 mg/ltr. The results also provide the effectiveness of Salicylic acid in the reduction of growth rate of the fungus since inhibited by 56.7% when used in the at 400 mg/l However copper and salicylic acid led to the reduction of infection severity with Rhizoctonial root rot which reached 0.54 and 0.51, respectively .

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