Table of content

Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
b- The researcher should fill a declaration form which states that he doesn't publish the research during the evaluation period. He must give his full address phone number and e-mail.

Firstly- The author should pay a fee of (ID55000) when he submits the research and a fee of (ID55000) when the research is accepted .These fees are obligatory for all. The sum cannot be reimbursed in any case.
Secondly- The annual subscription in the journal inside Iraq is ID250000) Iraqi dinar, and outside Iraq is (us $250) abroad.
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
Engineering and Technology Journal
Publication Ethics
The publication of science and technology include thorough, methodical and complete processes by publishers and editors which have to be handled efficiently and proficiently. To sustain high ethical values of publication, publishers attempt to work intimately at all times with editors, authors, and peer-reviewers. The ethics statement for the Engineering & Technology Journal is based on those issued by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Code of Conduct guidelines available at www.publicationethics.org. The basic publishing ethics involved in the publishing process can be summarized as follows:

Reviewers’ Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the reviewers can be identified as:
• To provide a detailed, effective, and unbiased evaluation in promptly on the scientific content of the work.
• To indicate whether the writing is relevant, brief and clear and evaluating the originality and scientific accuracy of the submitted paper.
• To maintain the confidentiality of the complete review process.
• To inform the journal editor about any financial or personal conflict of interest and reject to review the manuscript when a possibility of such a conflict exists.
• To inform the journal editor of any ethical concerns in their evaluation of submitted manuscripts; such as any violation of ethical treatment of animal or human subjects or any considerable similarity between the previously published article and any reviewed manuscript.

Authors’ Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the authors can be described as:
• To assure that all the work reported in the manuscript must be original and free from any plagiarism.
• To make confident that the submitted work should not have been published elsewhere or submitted to any other journal(s) at the same time.
• To explicitly acknowledge any potential conflict of interest.
• The author(s) must give proper acknowledgments to other work reported (individual/company/institution). Permission must be obtained from any content used from other sources.
• It is important to note that only those who have made any substantial contribution to the interpretation or composition of the submitted work should be listed as ‘Authors’. On the other hand, other contributors should be mentioned as ‘co-authors’.

Publishers’ Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the Engineering & Technology Journal can be defined as:
• Engineering & Technology Journal is committed to working with journal editors, defining clearly their relevant roles, in order to ensure appropriate decisions regarding publication procedures and maintaining the transparency of editorial decisions.
• Engineering & Technology Journal guarantees the integrity autonomy and originality of each published article concerning:
o publication and research funding
o publication ethics and integrity
o conflicts of interest
o confidentiality
o authorship
o article modifications
o timely release of content.
____________________________________________
____________________________________________

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT

The following assignment of copyright, executed and signed by the Author, is required with each manuscript submission. If the article is a “work made for hire”, the employer must sign it. The Author warrants that he/she has full power to make this agreement on behalf of himself and all his co-authors.
To the extent transferable, copyright in and of the undersigned, Author’s article titled:
************************************************************************by: *************************************************Reference ID: ******* submitted to the Engineering and Technology Journal is hereby assigned for publication.
In consideration of the acceptance of the Article for publication, the Author assigns to the Journal with full title guarantee, all copyrights, rights in the nature of copyright, and all other intellectual property rights in the Article throughout the world (present and future, and including all renewals, extensions, revivals, restorations and accrued rights of action).
The Author represents that he is the author and proprietor of this Article and that this Article has not heretofore been published in any form. The Author warrants that he has obtained written permission and paid all fees for use of any literary or illustration material for which rights are held by others. The Author agrees to hold the Editor(s)/Publisher harmless against any suit, demand, claim or recovery, finally sustained, by reason of any violation of proprietary right or copyright, or any unlawful matter contained in this article:



Signature: Date:
Name of Author:
Institution or Company:

Loading...
Contact info

جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
____________________________________________
Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
____________________________________________
Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

Google Scholar Citations:
________________________
https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=w1aCAoMAAAAJ&hl=en

Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:14

Article
The Optimal Selection of The Workers Number and Reduction The Time In Maintenance Lines of Production Machine Using Waiting lines Theory
الأختيار الامثل لعدد العمال وتقليل الزمن في خطوط الصيانة لمكائن الأنتاج باستخدام نظرية صفوف الانظار

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Aiming to reduce waiting time and to get optimum investment for material and human resource .The queuing lines principle is introduced, the mathematical models required are given, and its applications are discussed. The queuing lines procedure is applied in the general establishment for manufacturing of ready made clothes in Mousl , the data collection and statistical tests are used to choose the mathematical model suitable for a certain workshop . The results for such a model showed that there are better operation results with less time and more organized processing.


Article
The Effect of Addition of Carbon Fibers on Some Properties of Self Compacting Concrete
تأثير أضافة ألياف الكاربون على بعض خواص الخرسانة ذاتية الرص

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

To Study the possibility of producing self compacting concrete (SCC), 10% by weight of cement of metakaoline and silica fume were used and carbon fiber with two volume fraction (0.1%, 0.5%) and two fiber lengths (6mm, 12mm) were add . the effect of these variables on most properties of SCC containing fibers has been studied. Test results show that concrete mixes containing metakaoline and silica fume required higher superplastizer content to 9% and 10% by weight of cement compared with 8% by weight of cement for mixes without Pozzolanic materials to maintain the self compatibility of mixes . A significant improvement was observed in the mechanical properties of mixes including compressive and splitting tensile strength, Moduls of rupture, static Modulus of elastisity, and impact resistance. the improvment percentage at 28 days were (6.74% , 5.37% , 4.5% , 3.2% , 6.07%) respectively for SCC with silica fume mixes and (8.43% , 7.6% , 6.08% , 4.03% , 30.30%) respectively for SCC with High reactive metakaolin mixes. Test results indicate that the addition of carbon fibers led to reduce the workability of mixes and the reduction was increased with fiber length and fiber content. mixes reinforced with carbon fibers, the compressive and splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, static moduls of elastisity, and impact resistance at failure were higher than the reference mixes by not more than (25.75% , 66.18%, 38.26% , 14.14% and 1195%) respectively .


Article
Study To Improve Some Mechanical Properties of Iraqi Portland Cement By Adding The Industrial Waste
دراسة تحسين بعض الخواص الميكانيكية للسمنت البورتلاندي العراقي بأضافة مخلفات صناعية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Added different percentages of iron slag ,which can be considered solid waste plants as well as iron and bauxite clays to Iraq Portland cement to improve its properties. 3- 15 wt % of slag added to the cement and 2-10 wt % of bauxite added to the slag accumulating . The obtained results showed that ,the compressive and impact strength after 28 days from the date of preparation of samples has increased with the increase in the percentages of slag content until (9%) , and then decrease their by increasing Slag contents while in case , slag and bauxite were used to gother , we noted that , the compressive and impact strength were decreased by increasing slag and bauxite percentages .

Keywords


Article
Comparative Study of Swarm Intelligence Behavior to Solve Optimization Problems

Authors: Hasanen S. Abdullah
Pages: 2818-2840
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The optimization problems usually need specific techniques to solve, therefore many approaches and methods were proposed to solved such problems, but there are many difficulties (limitations) still faced the problem solvers such as how to reach the solution (or solutions) with high performance and efficiency or with more accuracy results or with suitable behavior. Thus the artificial intelligence tools are considered the best tools that can be used to solve the optimization problems, because the AI tools must decide two important aims: the problem reduction and the guarantee of solutions which lead to less the effect of the difficulties (limitations) and give more suitable criteria in performance, efficiency, and behavior. The swarm intelligent techniques are considered the most modern AI techniques which contains many approaches that are used to solve optimization problems with high performance and efficiency and suitable behavior In this paper a specific study is made to the behavior of the swarm intelligence techniques and evaluates its performance to solve various problems, then there is a presentation to a scientific comparative section in which many approaches is presented that used different swarm intelligence techniques such as Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Bees Algorithm (BA), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to solve various optimization problems and them make a comparison among them in term of behavior and performance. Finally we reach to scientific discussion and conclusions that distinguish among the presented approaches to prove that the swarm intelligence techniques success in solving practical, important, and applicable problems with high performance, efficiency, and special behavior.

Keywords


Article
Influence of the Butt Joint Design of TIG Welding on the Thermal Stresses

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of the single butt joint design of TIG welding on the thermal stresses for carbon steel type St-37. The butt welding was performed by V angles 30°,45°,60° and 90° and the thermal stresses analysis is based on the local moving heat flux. The numerical model developed by ANSYS12 software based on solving the three dimensional energy equation, considering moving heat source and temperature dependent material properties. Temperature and stresses distributions were obtained function of time. From the results, it is evident that the joint design has an important role in the welding process, when the edge angle of the welding region gets bigger, the faults get less due to increase of heat flux in the welding region. It can be concluded that the specimen with less than 6mm thickness can be welded without edge angle preparation, due to increase the thermal stresses when edge angle is evident and higher thermal stresses distribution was at edge angle 60° and lowest thermal stresses distribution was at 90°.


Article
Website Anti-Phishing Technique Using Randomized Dyadic Dilation DWT

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Website phishing is a growing threat on the internet and its effect is devastating when it comes to phishing financial web sites, such as eBay, official bank accounts or other critical sources. It is an easy way to fraud a web site source code and even a whole website can be totally downloaded using free software packages, clients do not know for sure if they talk to a genuine or fake websites by counting on what it looks like and its components. This paper is proposed to use randomized dyadic dilation wavelet to enhance the authenticate designated website to the visitor and in the same time authenticate the visitor to the website. This technique mainly designed to defeat Man-In-Middle attack which is the main threat source for website phishing due to the difficulties of getting the transformed image reconstructed easily.

Keywords


Article
Rotational Viscosity Prediction Models For Asphalt Cement

Authors: Alaa Saadi Abbas
Pages: 2869-2879
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

It is a great importance to know asphalt cement viscosity in order to perform handling, mixing, application processes and asphalt compaction in highway surfacing.This paper presents the results of rotational viscosity measurement for different asphalt cement sources, grades, and different test temperatures. statistical models were developed to predict the rotational viscosity for any asphalt cement grades that usually used in pavement work in Iraq and for different test temperatures. in this study six types of asphalt cement have been used. All the asphalt cement are locally available and widely employed for the pavement construction in the Iraq. These asphalt cement are: AC(40-50) from Daurah and Baiji refinery, (AC 60-70) from Daurah refinery, AC(50-60) from Daurah and Basrah refinery, AC(85-100) from Daurah refinery. Also, this paper shows that no change have been observed in rotational viscosity for asphalt cement blow 100 °C, and it is about 12613 mPa.s.


Article
Validation of Numerical Computations and Turbulence Models Combinations for Gas Turbine Cascade Blade Flow

Authors: Assim Yousif Hameed --- Hakem Tarteb
Pages: 2880-2899
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The accuracy of computer codes for turbo-machinery turbulent flow field calculations relies strongly on the type and behavior of the turbulence model used in the computations. Analysis of different Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes Equation (RANS) based turbulence models was applied to predict the flow field in the linear first stage gas turbine cascade blade. The experimental investigation is also introduced to validate the accuracy of turbulence models. This was done by using five linear cascade blades tested in an open jet type low-speed subsonic wind tunnel. The static pressure distribution was measured at the midspan of cascade middle blade by using static pressure taps. The numerical results obtained from different turbulence model simulations is individually reviewed for the correctness of its predictions and compared with the experimental data in terms of integrated flow parameters, such as static pressure coefficient distribution on both blade sides. The results show that RNG k-e turbulence model gave the best prediction of pressure distribution when compared with the experimental data. Prediction of standard k-ε and k-ω turbulence models fail to predict accurately the flow field parameters in cascade passage. Prediction of (k-ε) turbulence model overestimate the turbulence kinetic energy values, especially in the regions of high velocity at blade suction side, also not accurately predict the flow separation on the blade suction side.


Article
Optimizing the Process of Arc-Spraying To Improve Wear Resistance of Crank Shaft

Authors: Asmaa Ali Hussein --- Abdullah F. Hauier
Pages: 2900-2911
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research studies the factors effecting on coating produced by electrical arcspraying. The studied variables are applied voltage, wire feed rate and spraying distance.In this investigation used wires made from martinsitic stainless steel to coat the bearing of spherical graphite cast iron. range. The mechanical properties of coating such as hardness are used.Limited optimal environments by electric arc spraying to improve wear rate resistance of crank shaft.In the first stage all samples and metallizing wires were prepared and chemically analyzed. The coating operation was carried in the second stage. Each group of samples was coated in different way with variable spraying factor being considered. In the third stage all samples were tested using pin on ring wear testing machine. The investigation performed in this work showed that the process variable have a considerable effect on coating quality ,and spraying distance range emerges as the most significant process variables. The final results showed that the best voltage in this application is between 28-30V, wire feed rate is 100 mm/s, and best spraying distance is about 12-15cm to get a good coating with maximum wear resistance.


Article
Particle Swarm Optimization for Adapting Fuzzy Logic Controller of SPWM Inverter Fed 3-Phase I.M.

Authors: Fadhil A. Hassan --- Lina J. Rashad
Pages: 2912-2925
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

According to the high performance demand of speed control of an induction motor, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) gives superior behavior over wide range of speed variation. Fuzzy logic is a robust controller for linear and non-linear system, even if good mathematical representation of the system is not available. But, adapting fuzzy controller parameters is very complex and depends on operator experience. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper as an optimization technique for adapting centers and width of triangle inputs membership functions. The ordinary adapting method of FLC is represented too. Meanwhile, based on the concept of optimization, ways of defining the fitness function of the PSO including different performance criteria are also illustrated. The complete mathematical model and simulation of an induction motor and inverter are represented in this paper. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSOFL speed controller realizes a good dynamic behavior of the I.M with very good speed tracking.


Article
Studying the Effect of Chemical Solutions on Bending Behavior of Epoxy Reinforced With CDs Waste

Authors: Nervana A. Abd Alameer
Pages: 2926-2932
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this study is the effect of salt, acid and base solutions on bending behavior of CDs reinforced epoxy. Epoxy resin matrix is reinforced with weight fraction 15, 30&45 % chopped chips CDs waste. The experimental results indicate that the composites materials have higher flexural stiffness than the matrix material where the young modulus of epoxy is improved from 2.6GPa for matrix to 3.936 GPa reinforced with 45% CDs that is 60% increasing, due to CDs were more contact which have high flexural stiffness. The test solutions chosen were 10 % NaCl, NaOH & H2SO4. The results indicate that the 45% CDs reinforced epoxy chosen is good chemical resistant to NaCl and NaOH whereas flexural stiffness changes are relatively for each examination time, while the maximum flexural stiffness occurred in H2SO4 solution was approximately -10% for 8 week due to epoxy is less resistant to sulfuric acid.


Article
Non-Destructive Test of Concrete Structures Using: FERROSCAN

Authors: Aseel A.Salman
Pages: 2933-2941
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The non-destructive testing (NDT) industry is reviewed, the major techniques being described and current development directions and challenges identified. One of the most common techniques (ferroscan) is explained briefly below. Ferroscan is a non-destructive measuring method based on the generation and detection of electromagnetic fields in conductive materials. In concrete structures, the strength of this induced field depends on the diameter and the cover of the reinforcement. The techniques has been shown to find location and orientation of reinforcement bars, stirrup, or other metal pipe, in the concrete, measure thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement bar, and to determine the bar diameter. In this paper Ferroscan FS 10, a portable detection, was used for measuring and mapping system which provides an immediate liquid crystal image of the reinforcement within a survey area which include reinforcement concrete beam (1000*200*120)mm. The great advantage of measurements with ferroscan, compared to existing detection systems, is that the measurements can be carried out far quicker and more accurately, accurate mapping out of reinforcement and verification of reinforcement in old building.


Article
Lipes Tracking Using Active Contour Method

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Speech recognition based on visual information such as the lip shape and its movement is referred to as lip reading. The visual features are derived according to the frame rate of the video sequence. The proposed work adopted in this paper based upon the lower part of human face to extract the speaker sound relevant features accurately and robustly from the inner edge of lips, using biometric to verify a person's identity by drawing their relevant physiological or behavioral characteristics curves. Lips contain a large volume of unique features. The results are promising and offer a good reaction (even with reducing the number of tested frames). The recognition rate with only audio: 86% - 100%, with only visual: 73% - 100%, and with both (audio - visual) recognition rate is: 92% - 100%.


Article
Alpha Amylase Production by Aspergillus Oryzae Using Solid State Fermentation

Authors: Suhad Adnan Ahmed
Pages: 2954-2960
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae was used for the production of alpha amylase by solid state fermentation from agro-industrial waste. Enzyme production was growth associated and maximum activity (8.23 U/ml) were obtained after 120h when incubated at 30°C on wheat bran with initial moisture content 60%; initial medium pH = 5 . Enzyme activity increased when the solid medium was supplemented with additional nitrogen source (sodium Nitrate).


Article
Experimental Investigations in Circular Tube to Enhance Turbulent Heat Transfer Using Various Types of Twisted Tape Insert

Authors: Akeel Abdullah Mohammed --- Ameer A. Jadoaa
Pages: 2961-2972
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of twisted tape inserts. Six types of twisted types used with total length of 1200mm and diameter of 50mm are considered for experimentation as follows: normal twisted tape regularly spaced twisted tape, triangular-cut twisted tape, rectangular-cut twisted tape, semicircular-cut twisted tape, and drilled twisted tape. The range of Reynolds number extends from 4500 to 23500. Correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor, and enhancement efficiency are developed for each type of twisted tape inserts from the obtained results. It is observed that the enhancement of heat transfer increases as the type of twisted tape changes from one to six, respectively.

Keywords


Article
Parameters Influence Pedestrian Traffic Safety at Urban Unsignalized Intersections

Authors: Sahar Saffaa Hadi
Pages: 2973-2985
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper reports on diagnostic parameters for pedestrian traffic safety problems using the Traffic Conflict Analysis Technique (TCT), particularly for pedestrian crossings at urban unsignalized intersections. The method of study is based on the U.S. FHWA-Federal Highway Administration guides for vehicular and pedestrian conflicts, applied using data collected from pedestrian crossings of several types observed in 4 critical unsignalized intersections in Baghdad city all of them located on the CBD area and experiencing high vehicular and high pedestrians volumes. Regression analyses is performed to relate hourly pedestrian conflict to (hourly traffic conflict, hourly pedestrian volume, average pedestrian walking speed) as well as hourly pedestrian conflict/ approach to (average spot speed, average pedestrian delay and approach width). HCM 2000 manual are adopt to determine the average pedestrian delay. Specific categories of countermeasures in geometric characteristics are suggested to improve pedestrian safety. A developed model shows that, an extra increase of hourly pedestrian conflict can be represented by positive exponential model trend in relation with hourly pedestrian volume, hourly traffic volume, average spot speed and average pedestrian delay with coefficient of correlation range between 0.824–0.949, as well as a developed model shows that, an extra decrease of pedestrian conflict can be represented by negative exponential model trend in relation with average pedestrian walking speed with coefficient of correlation 0.921, on the other hand, it is found that, an increase of pedestrian conflict can be represented by positive linear model trend in relation with approach width with coefficient of correlation 0.837.In addition it is found that the higher coefficient of correlation 0.943 well get it when pedestrian conflict related with the hourly pedestrian volume and average pedestrian delay convened from all studied parameters (average spot speed, approach width, hourly traffic volume, average walking speed, average pedestrian delay and exit stop line).


Article
A study of Free Convection in A solar Chimney Model

Authors: Sabah Tarik Ahmed --- Miqdam Tariq Chaichan
Pages: 2986-2997
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A solar chimney is a hot air channel attached to a circular translucent roof opens at the periphery. The roof and the ground below it form an air collector. It enhances natural ventilation by employing air temperature difference between channal inlet and outlet. An experimental work was carried out for a designed and fabricated prototype solar chimney, in Baghdad-Iraq’s autumn weather 2009. The chimney’s tower hight was 4 m and the solar collector diameter was 6 m. A maximum air temperature differance attained was 22ºC at mid day through the solar chimney. The study shows that Iraqi weathers are suitable for this system. Maximum heat transfer coeffecient (h) was 31.83 W/m2K, maximum air volume flow rate achieved was 0.065 m3/s, and maximum air velocity at the chimney outlet acquired was 2.309 m/s. Empirical equation that relates Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers was obtained.


Article
The performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Charge Coupled Devices

Authors: Saad Al-Sabbagh
Pages: 2998-3005
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

From gas phase and by glow-discharge method Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Charged Coupled devices have been deposited. A detailed practical study has been carried out. The most important parameter , the transfer efficiency , was found to depend strongly upon the device gate number and the clock frequency. The best efficiency achieved was 97.7% and that was at frequency of 250 Hz.


Article
Surface Treatment of Aluminum Alloys Using Nd:YAG Laser

Authors: Majid Hammed Ismaiei --- Mohamed Abdul Wahhab
Pages: 3006-3018
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this research, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with wavelength (1064nm ) and (532 nm) and pulse duration (100 ns) for different energies [250 mJ,500 mJ,750 mJ,1000 mJ ] and spot size (1.5mm) was used. Laser surface treatment is the most important way in industrial application because of its ability to improve the surface properties of metal and alloys. The alloys used were [Al-Cu-Si], [Al-Si-Mg] and [AL-Zn-Mg].The essential aim for this work includes study the effect of laser parameters on aluminum alloys. In laser surface engineering the mirohardness and wear tests will be studied after laser treatment. The effect of laser parameters includes: 1- The effect of the pulsed Nd: YAG laser energy. 2- The effect of the number of shots (pulse).


Article
Removal of SO2 in Dry Fluidized and Fixed Bed Reactors using Granular Activated Carbon

Authors: Neran K. Ibrahim --- Omar A. Jabbar
Pages: 3019-3037
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Flue gas desulfurization process has been studied using granular activated carbon in bubbling fluidized bed reactor. For the sake of comparison, fixed bed configuration has been also studied at the same operating conditions. The effect of temperature 30 . T . 80 oC, inlet SO2 concentration 500 . Co . 2000 ppm, and flue gas flow rate 2.5 . Q . 30 ./min were investigated. The results showed that the SO2 removal efficiency increases with increasing reaction temperature up to 80 oC. Also, it was noted that the removal efficiency decreases with increasing the inlet SO2 concentration within the range of temperatures studied. The effect of flue gas flow rate on the desulfurization activity was in two ways; an increase in the removal efficiency with increasing gas flow rate was observed below flow rate = 7.5 ./min, while a decrease in the efficiency was observed upon any increment in the gas flow rate beyond the 7.5 ./min. The results of fluidized bed reactor were used to obtain an empirical correlation and the experimental results were well correlated with the proposed form with a correlation coefficient, (R) =0.989. A reaction rate equation was proposed for the oxidative desulfurization and the activation energy was obtained using differential analysis of integral reactor technique. The resulted value of apparent activation energy was 2.981 kJ/mol.

Table of content: volume:29 issue:14