Table of content

Adab AL Rafidayn

اداب الرافدين

ISSN: 03782867
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Arts
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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approved scientific periodical issued by college of arts /university of mosul . the research offered to periodical then will send expert to inspect it.

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EMAIL: adabarafidayn@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2008 volume: issue:49

Article
Abstract Iraqi Pottery Industry from Early Times until the End of Ancient History
صناعة الفخار العراقي من أقدم العصور حتى نهاية التاريخ القديم

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Abstract

The Ancient Mesopotamian civilization was characterized by its originality which stemmed from the land of Iraq and then grew, evolved and spread to distant areas. It went to a high degree of sophistication as a result of the rapid response that has taken place between the Iraqi people and the environment that had lived there. The Iraqi environment makes available the essentials of life in the form of water and clay for the construction of temples, palaces, houses, walls, ziggurat, cemeteries, statues and clay tablet. The aim of this paper is to show that the pottery industry was one of the most important industries in ancient Iraq which had been known by Iraqi people since the second half of the Neolithic Period. It continued to evolve through the ancient and Islamic times as well as the present. The technical level reached by the Iraqi potters could be linked and driven by time and place. In terms of time it was determined by examining forms and types of pottery, decoration, and painting or by thermoluminess and magnetic methods. In terms of location it can be determined through the study of pottery material (clay). Using the modern scientific methods proved that the people of Mesopotamia had a high-tech pottery industry that had evolved over time.


Article
The Assyrian Life – Tree Inscription
عنصر زخرفة شجرة الحياة الآشورية

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The current paper presents an introduction to the Assyrian Life–tree inscription and its significance in the Iraqi arts. This ornamentation is one of the masterpieces designed by the Iraqi artist. The main source for this paper is the uncovered evidence during the excavation. Many paintings, reliefs and cylinder seals are found in many sites in Iraq. These samples are to be investigated in this study, analysing their artistic properties and the methods whereby the artist designed them. This decorative element sheds light on very important aspect of inscription in the ancient Iraq. It is regarded as the spring point for inscription in the subsequent ages. This study aims at knowing the Iraqi aquaintance with Life tree up to the end of the Neo–Assyrian age. This kind of inscription was well–known in ancient Iraq. Therefore, we can easily deduce many reasons behind such spreading in the first place, the religions motive. Similarly we deduce the natural beauty that attracts human beings consequently employing this beauty in ornamenting the sculptures, wallpapers and cylinder seals. Finally the technical aspect was among the motives behinds such kind of inscription. The excavation was done at the University of Mosul expedition to rescue the remained Tell Slal and Tell Dhuwayyich near the old twon of Zimmar. The excavations lasted three successive seasons.


Article
The Po1itical Stance of Iraqi Educated A Field Study at the University of Mosul
الموقف السياسي للمثقف العراقي دراسة ميدانية في جامعة الموصل

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This study aims at studying the nature of political stance of Iraqi educated person and the factors effect this stance the study covers 130 subjects of educated people at the university of Mosul. most of them are lecturers and empbyees. the study usas the random sample method .it distributed adbac questionnaire cantaining 17 questions. utlizing perce ntage average, arithmetic average and the standard achievements in order to describe and analyse the collected information ,through analysing the questionnaire ,the resultes of the study showed that the highest percentage of subjects were of the male who have ph.d.and master degrees constituting 55 people of the total number of the male with 22.5%. the study also showed that 56 people of the male estimated at 70% against 31 people of the female omounted at 62%do participate in demonstraions and protests whereas 24 people of the male estimated at 30% against 19 people of the female estimated 38% do not participate .it Iso showed that 52 people estimated at 65% against 19 people estimated at 38% do participate in writing in newly published news papers and magzines that areappeared after 2003, whereas 28 people of the male with 35% against 31 people of the male with 62% do not doing so.


Article
Social reflections of housing complexes in factories A field study in Ninavah factory
الانعكاسات الاجتماعية للمجمعات السكنية التابعة للمصانع دراسة ميدانيه في شركة أدوية نينوى /أنموذجا

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Abstract

The research aims at knowing the role and importance of the housing complexes which are settled by the workers through the sample of Enova's drugs factory workers and employees and those who live outside these block. Likewise it aims at knowing the social relations and the available services in the blocks and their reflex ions concerning the workers as well as the role of transportation in decreasing the absence and the availability of social security in the blocks. The research’s sample consists of 50 individuals chosen randomly among the settlers in the blocks of Enova's factory of drug and compared them with 50 individuals who settle outside the same factory. The research tool consists of a questionnaire containing two parts. The first part represents the general data whereas the second one represents the questionnaire answered by subjects. In finding out the research’s results, the researcher has used statistical means such as repetition, percentages, arithmetic means, standard deviation, and percentage weights to measure the repetitions of research axes. The results showed that the inhabitant workers lived in block enjoy social security more than those lived out these blocks in general. Concerning the hypothesis, it showed that inhabitant workers have strong social ties more than those who live out these blocks. It is also showed that there is a relation between workers who live in and out the blocks. Finally, it has shown that the workers live in blocks are more save and comfortable than those live out of the blocks. In the light of the results, the researcher recommends to take care of workers in the industrial institutions by increasing the establishing of blocks nearby the facto

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Article
Non-Governmental Institutions and their Role in Changing Women's Attitude -A field study in Mosul-
مؤسسات المجتمع المدني ودورها في تغيير اتجاهات المرأة - دراسة ميدانية في مدينة الموصل –

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Abstract

The present paper is of a great significant since we shall shed light on the nature of the Non-Governmental Institutions. These institutions have swept the Iraqi society since 2003. They practice their activities with the various forms of the society including women and they seek earnestly to change the attitude of the various parts of the society. The current study aims at investigating the work of the afore mentioned institutions and their aims in the society. Similarly, it tries to knowing the relations between their work and changing the individuals' attitudes especially women. The study has selected its samples from Muslim Women Association and Iraqi Women Center relying on the sociological survey. Similarly we have availed from


Article
The Effective of Presidential Resolution in AL- Rrashidi Period 11 A.D ./ 40 A.H.
فاعلية القرار القيادي في العصر الراشدي (11هـ - 40هـ)

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The paper studies the effectiveness of the leadership resolution of AL-Rashedoon caliphs through leadership of the State. This is represented by the obedience showed by the subjects towards their caliph. It was found that the resolutions issued on outdoor adults, and the decisions in some significant issued were effective. The study does not focus on the narrating, but all decisions on made by other companions or some influential personalities. It includes, decisions. 1- The era of the two caliphs (Abu Bakr, Omar may Allah pleased with them), all their resolutions were active, despite the objections had been raised against them at the outset, but once the mass feel that it is by the caliph that the others implemented it without objection. 2- The Penod of the caliph Othman. This penod included many effective resolutions like replacing Abu Musa. This was one manifestation of sedition, which occurred atthe same time. On the other hand, Othman during the crisis and his lecture had issued orders not implemented. 3- The Caliphate of Imam Ali has witnessed grave breaches disrupted its effectiveness in the struggle with his rival Mu'awiyah. All this because pro Ali group were claiming that Ali the only one has the right of caliphate directly after the Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him) Ali successor Previously Othman.


Article
The Political Role of Haran in the Abbaside Period (749-993 A.D./132/380 A. H.)
الدور السياسي لمدينة حران في العصر العباسي (132 – 380هـ / 749 – 993م)

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The city "Haran" is considered one of the well-known cities in the ancient times .It was a wellborn city , deep-rooted in the pre-Islamic ages that is to say in the ancient empires ages. Hence , it emerges the importance of the city "Haran". Its history was affected by empires' cultures that made the city to be within the prime of history. The city "Haran" was conquered by the Muslim Arabs in 19 A.H. 'In age of caliph Omar Ibn AL-Khatab. The city "Haran" is an important trade ceter for its geographical position. It is situated at the upper coast of the river Euphrates. In the cuneiform patterns, the city "Haran" was called "Haranu" means "the trading way". The city "Haran" was a place for political movements such as AL-Amawyeen proponents resistance, and the dissident of AL-Abbaside caliphate such as Ahal Haran revolution against the earlier said caliphate / similarly Abdullah Ibn Ali's revolution, and resistance of rebels in the city "Haran". Many dynasties ruled the city "Haran" such as AL-Tolonyeen and AL-Hamdanyeen, so that city had political struggles and disputes among those dynasties that governed the city. For many struggles and wars especially in AL-Hamdanyeen period, the city was suffering from heavy taxes and living situations.


Article
Bahraini Karamathian Movement and It Effect on Pligrimage
أثر حركة قرامطة البحرين على الحج

Authors: Saady Mohammad سعدي محمد علي
Pages: 255-278
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This research deals with Karamathians activity and their appearance in Iraq when one of their leader in AI-Ahwaz City named Abdulla Bin AL-Karah continued in spreading Karamathian activity till he died. His son. Ahmad replaced him and became the chief of Karamathian movement and made extensive efforts in spreading and expanding the movement. The movements became a base that contains twelve heads. Karamathians' thought is similar to Ismaeelias. Karamathians activity is claimed to be apart of Al-Ismaeelia. The activity moved to Bahrain which became the center of the activity. This activity became the most dangerous activitiy that outlawed Abbaside caliphate because of its threats to cities and regions specially to pilgrim caravans heading for holy Makah. When Abu Said Al-Janabi control Bahrain he began to attack pligrim caravans till the year (317A.H/913A.D.) afterward his son Abu Tahir Al-Janabee took the leading of the activity, he followed the suit of his ancestor to opposing the Abbaside Caliphate. Similarly he continued attacking and supplying military expeditions against pilgrims caravans. In the year (317A.H./929A.D.) sacred Makah was attacked by Karamathian and many pilgrims were killed Abu Tahir AL-Janabee also stole the black stone. He died in (334A.H./ 942A.D.). What followed shows to us how Karamathians were able to delay and prevent Muslims from performing pilgrimage duty and it is one of Muslims religion obligations. The reason behind that was probably religion, political and economic motives.


Article
Narration and Rhyme Tone Omar Bn Abi Rabī'a as An Example
السرد وإيقاع القافية في شعر عمر بن ابي ربيعة

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Rhyme has a great influence on the hearers . There is no doubt that rhyme and the poetic meter distinguish poetry from other genres. It is either restricted or non-restricted . The non-restricted one is more appealing than the restricted . It is certain that rhyme influences narration no matter whether it is quick or slow . This paper deals with the relation between rhythm and narration in the poetry of an Ommiad poet.


Article
Abdullah's Poem (Al-Badiya) Al-Mosuli (Died after 1231A.H./ 1817A.D.)
بديعية الشاعر عبدالله بن محمد أمين المفتي الموصلي (ت 1231هـ/ 1817م)

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Al-Badiya which is a poem composed by Abdullah, the son of Mohammad. In this poem the poet tries to show his ability concerning poetic creativity in praising the greatest personality, that is the Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon him) in addition to the ability concerning the writing and composition of rhetorical arts during centuries in which the men of letters were interested in different rhetorical aspects which influenced the literary, critical and rhetorical studies. Our poet, Al-Mufti, is one who were interested in writing the poems entitled "Al-Badiyats". This poet was famous for his patience and education in this respect.

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بديعية ;


Article
Poetic Image Pre-Islamic Poetry as an Example
الصُّورَةُ الشِّعرِيَّةُ (المَتْنُ الشعري الجَاهِلِيُّ نموذجا)

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This study deals with an applied methodological-practical view which intermixing between semantic and theoretical elements, interpretive approaches and esthetic norms. The study is based on presentation of the penetrating idea in the text which analytically change into a series of reading incidents. The linguistic occurrences embodied in the structure closely associated with movements and dreams. The poetic images are presented according to the formulated iconics leading the reader in experience and memory to their depths, whose surface does not reflect its content. Their depths are hidden behind a set of structure curved and convex seeking the muted which is rooted in the image as a realm of visions and thoughts, exceeding the substantial and the insubstantial mixing the mental with the real. The Pre-Islamic poetic text was a practical field where the epistemological and critical systems roaming with the esthetic evaluation as a text renewing with life. Similarly the objective realm revolves stimulated by imagination incarnated by memory announced by the language distant from austere conventions and cruel boundaries reaching up to boundaries of freedom and beauty.


Article
'Asa in Arabic: A study on the syntactic disagreement
((عسى)) في العربية - دراسة في الخلاف النحوي -

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This study investigates the function of the article عسى ('Asa) in Arabic by reviewing the grammarians' viewpoints. Most grammarians regard 'Asa as defective perfect verb, therefore they attach some suffixes of the perfect verb to 'Asa like the quiescent ta of feminization and the subjective inseparable pronoun. Some other grammarians assimilate 'Asa to the article لعل (la'ala), which refers to taraji (anticipation). 'Asa, according to the second school, is a subjunctive particle for the pronouns after it. The present study shows both usages substantiated by standard Arabic classical examples. It also shows the parsing of 'Asa relying on its counterpart as it is mentioned in a given context whether transitive or intransitive. Similarly, it reviews this counterpart whether it is a verb or a particle. Moreover, the study explains the thorny function of 'Asa between its linguistic function that indicates anticipation and wishing and its Quranic usage as it is attributed to Allah. It is proved that taraji is addresses' specific device of speech.


Article
Active Participle as Operative or Inoperative in the Quranic Recitations
اسم الفاعل بين الإعمال والإهمال في القراءات القرآنية

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The present paper deals with the active participle in the Quranic recitations. The study begins with an introduction defining the active participle. It falls into two main parts, namely, the active participle between verb acting as verb or as a noun and the active participle in Quran from syntactic perspective. Moreover, we shall introduce a table containing the recitations that are in the form of the active participle. It is worth mention that this table came after counting that we conducted on the lexicography of the Quranic recitations. We have reviewed and analyzed four of the recitations mentioned in our table. The study has come up with that the active participle is not related to tense if it is singular and decontextualized word, however, it may acquire the tense element from the contextual clues or from actual ones or both together. It is to be noted that nunation and annexation are not suitable clue to determining the tense of the A.P. To add, we say that the tense is not the philosophical or the morphological tense but rather it is the syntactic one. Essentially the A.P. should be nunated, however, this nunation sometimes may be deleted for its clashing with annexation. It is merely a phonological matter. Finally this paper recommends for effective role of the A.P. in all its contexts without any condition or restriction.

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Article
Symbol in the Poem "Banat Su'ād (Su'ad appeared): A Reading in the Z
الرمز في قصيدة (بانت سعاد) قراءة في الدلالة النفسية

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The Poem "Banat Su'ad" by the poet Ka'ab bin Zuhair is considered to be one of the poems which attracts the attention of critics in die past and present time. It is very significant poem in the history of Arab literature. The Symbolism regarded as effective an fundamental element in any literary work. The poet supports his poem construction through three symbols. The principal representation is "woman, a she-camel, and lion". The symbol in the literary work is linking feeling experience and reading. It attempts to connect between peotic symbols and resulting spintual referene. Similarly it reveals the poet's personality. A woman mentioned in the poem as a symbol of life, she-camel as a symbol of himself, i.e. the "poet", while the lion is the symbol of his paganism.

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Article
Khalil Bin Aibak AL-Safadi and Sihah AL-Jawhari
خليلُ بنُ أيبك الصَّفَديّ وصحاح الْجَوْهَريّ

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The present research sheds light on four books of linguistics by Salah AL-Deen Khalil Bin Aibak AL-Safadi(764 A.H.) on the sihah (authentic) books of AL-Jawhari. Are these books a study of his evidence? Are they a summary of it? Are they interpretations of its ambiguities or a criticism of it? These books are: 1. Hiljul Nawahi ala ma fi AL-Sihah min shawahid (evidence on AL-Sihah) 2. Najdul falah fi mukhtasar AL-Sihah (summary of AL-Sihah) 3. Ghawamidh AL-Sihah (ambiguities of AL-Sihah) 4. Nufood AL-Sahim fi ma waqa a lljawhari min wahm (illusions of AL-Jawhari) The nature of the research demanded that it falls into a preface and two parts. The preface introduces the four books, and since the first and second book are not available, the research dealt with Ghawamidh AL-Sihah in the first part and Nufood AL-Sahim in the second part. The books were presented, introduced, studied and analysed. Finally, I hope that I was successful in this work.


Article
"The significance of Colours in the Narrative Genre of Omar Al Talib"
دلالة الألوان في الفن القصصي عند عمر الطالب

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This research deals with the significance of the colours in the short stories and novels by Omar Al Talib. He is one of the best novelists in Mosul who used colours and their significance in his works in such away that each colour (e.g. Red, blue, white, black,...) symbolizes love, hatered, virginity, honour, sadness,... We found, according to the statistics, that the, dominated colour in the "Man of the new time" and "The Distance of love" for example is the black followed by white. The red colour, on the other hand, dominates "The wounded Gardens" and "Postponed hopes".


Article
Supra-Coordinators in Mosuli Arabic
الروابط الكبرى في اللهجة الموصلية العربية

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تعرف الروابط الكبرى على أنها تلك الروابط (الكلمات) التي تستخدم لربط أجزاء الخطاب مع بعضها البعض لبناء نص خطابي موحد متماسك يستخدم الجزأين المرتبطين بوساطة إحدى هذه الروابط متحدثين مختلفين أو متحدث واحد. ويشير وجود هذه العلامات أو الروابط إلى وجود موضوع مشترك كلياً أو جزئياً في الجزأين المرتبطين من الحديث. وقد يغير استعمال رابطة مختلفة على العلاقة الموجودة بين الأجزاء المرتبطة مؤثراً بدوره على تماسك الخطاب منطقياً. وقد وجد تأثير أكثر من عامل واحد على استخدام رابط معين دون سواه.تشمل تلك العوامل: الرسمية، التأدب، الجنس، الدين، الحالة الاجتماعية، العمر، التنغيم، التشديد، وبعض العوامل اللغوية البراغماطيقية مثل: التعابير الوجهية، الإيماءات وحركات الرأس. وعلى العموم فالبحث يسعى إلى إثبات الادعاء الذي يقول بأن الروابط الكبرى هي كلمات ذات صلة وثيقة بسياق النص.


Article
The Information Structuring Of The Arabic Written Text: The Qur'anic Suras As a Case Study
البناء المعلوماتي للنص العربي المكتوب : النص القرآني كحالة للدراسة

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Article
Tense-Aspect Selection In Biochemistry Texts A Semantic-Grammatical Study
آلية انتقاء الصيغ الزمنية في البحوث العلمية (الكيمياء الحياتية) دراسة التراكيب القواعدية ومعانيها

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أخذت الدراسة بنظر الاعتبار كلاً من تراكيب ومعاني العبارات الفعلية في الكتابات العلمية الخاصة ببحوث الكيمياء الحياتية، تطلب ذلك دراسة تراكيب ومعاني العبارات الفعلية (ما هو مفهومنا للتوافق بين شكل الفعل ودلالته الزمنية). من أجل ذلك تم اختيار عدة بحوث من مجلات علمية رصينة ذات طابع أكاديمي وبحوث أجريت من قبل باحثين عراقيين في جامعتنا وباحثين عرب والتي يمكن أن تطور من مفهومنا للتراكيب القواعدية المذكورة والإلمام بمعانيها وماهية دورها في التحليلات الخاصة بكل حقل. بصورة عامة,تتميز أكثر الكتابات العلمية باستخدام صيغة معينة إلا وهي صيغة المضارع البسيط. برغم ذلك فأن هناك بعض الملامح أو الضوابط التي يجب إتباعها لتوضيح المعاني المختلفة التي يهدف إليها البحث العلمي. أظهرت نتائج البحث أن هناك عدة ملامح تتعلق بعملية انتقاء الصيغة الفعلية الملائمة ودلالتها الزمنية قد لا تستخدم بصورة صحيحة من قبل الباحثين مسببة بذلك بعض الغموض في تمييز كل نوع على حدة. وجد أيضاً أن آلية الانتقاء هذه, هي أحد الأمور المهمة التي تتطلب من الباحث استيعاباً تاماً للموضوع وهنا تبرز الحاجة الملحة إلى مناهج لتطوير استخدام الباحثين للغة العلمية في كتابة بحوثهم.


Article
A Discoursal Study of Mobile Phone Messages
دراسة خطابية لرسائل الهواتف المحمولة

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تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحليل رسائل الهاتف المحمول الآنية بين الأصدقاء في قسمي اللغة الانكليزية والترجمة في جامعة الموصل لتوضيح الخصائص التفاعلية وكيف يستخدم الأشخاص الخطاب المكتوب ويغيرون خطاب النص في رسائل الهاتف المحمول ليوافق حاجاتهم. وسيكون هناك تركيز أيضا على القواعد الخطابية المتبعة وفيما إذا كان هناك فهم كامل لهذه الرسائل (وفيما إذا كان يستطيع المرسلون ان يفهموا هذه الرسائل ). تفترض الدراسة ان الرسائل تتضمن استخدام اللغة غير الرسمية لذلك فان المرسلين نوعا ما سوف لن يتبعوا أي تقاليد لغويه. وعلى أية حال، فان المرسلين سيبقوا على القواعد الخطابية المستخدمة بصورة عامة بين الناس. لذلك سيظهر، وحسب المعلومات المعطاة، أنواع من اخذ الأدوار والتي تحتوي على بداية واستمرارية ونهاية. توصلت الدراسة إلى عدد من النتائج المؤكدة للفرضيات المذكورة. فقد ظهر ان الرسائل معقدة وشخصية وان المرسلين يبتكرون نوعا جديدا من الكتابة له بنيته الخاصة به أثناء اتصالهم مع بعضهم البعض. وان المرسلين نوعا ما قد استخدموا اللغة غير الرسمية. وقد وجد كذلك انه بالرغم من ان خطاب رسائل الهاتف المحمول هامشي ومختصر لكنه كان ينطوي على قواعد خطابية متبعة. فقد كان كل المرسلين يفهمون الرسائل وكان بمقدورهم إرسال واستلام الرسائل على الفور إلى الحد الذي أدى إلى ظهور أنواع مختلفة من اخذ الأدوار وتحديدا التحية والمعلوماتية والاستفهامية والمغلقة.


Article
La Prose Poétique Et Les Types De Phrases Utilisés Par Baudelaire
النثر الشعري وأنواع الجمل المستخدمة من قبل الشاعر بودلير

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Abstract

يسلط هذا البحث الضوء على دراسة النثر الشعري وانواع الجمل المستخدمة من قبل الشاعر الفرنسي (بودلير). لذا يعتبر هذا الشاعر هو أحد رواد النثر الشعري في القرن التاسع عشر، اذ شهد النصف الثاني من هذا القرن دخول الحركة الرومانسية في مرحلة ثانية الذي يمكن أن نسميها بالمرحلة التجديدية، بنفس الوقت، سجلت هذه الحركة توجه جديد في ميدان الشعر النثري الذي تناول الصورة الفلسفية لما وراء الطبيعة تحت تأثير بعض الشعراء العظام من هذا القرن. فيمكن القول بأن القصيدة المكتوبة بالنثر هي شكل من اشكال الشعر الحديث والطموحات الفلسفية لما وراء الطبيعة. فكان حلم بودلير هو بتطابق أو بتكيف نثره الشعري مع الحركات الغنائية للروح، وتموجات الهواجس والاوهام او حلم اليقظة، والقفزة الفجائية للوعي. فمن هذا المنطلق نجح بودلير في إنشاء نثر شعري وايقاعي وذلك باقرانه بحركات التكوين الداخلي محافظاً بنفس الوقت على المؤثر الشعري والقوة الايحائية للبيت الشعري. واخيراً، استنتجنا ايضا من خلال هذا البحث ثلاثة انواع رئيسية من الجمل المستخدمة في النثر الشعري البودليري: الجملة المتنافرة، والجملة المموجة، والجملة الغنائية.

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Article
L'Internet au service de l'enseignement de la langue française
الانترنيت في خدمة تعليم اللغة الفرنسية

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Abstract

إن عصر المعلوماتية الذي نعيش فيه أتاح المجال لبروز العديد من الانجازات التي عكست مدى التقدم المتسارع الحاصل في شتى الميادين منها: العلمية، الطبية، الإنسانية ... الخ ونود الإشارة هنا بصورة خاصة إلى الشبكة العنكبوتية أو ما يعرف بالانترنيت. الانترنيت من ناحية واقعية عبارة عن شبكه تتكون من آلاف الشبكات الصغيرة المنتشرة, وهو اكبر شبكه كمبيوتر في العالم. إن مستخدمي الإنترنيت يستطيعون تبادل البريد إلكترونياً وبتكلفه وسرعة أفضل بكثير من البريد التقليدي، كما أنهم يتشاركون في مجموعات تتناقش فيما بينها وتعرف باسم مجموعات الأخبار ويتبادلون الأحاديث ويطالعون المعلومات التي يرسلها البعض أو المؤسسات المختلفة وهي معلومات متنوعة تنوع البشر واهتماماتهم …كما وانه يمكننا أن نقرأ الصحف والمجلات ونطالع المحاضرات ونتصفح خرائط ونعرف أخبار الطقس والرياضة أو نشتري بضاعة أو نستمع للموسيقى أو نرى فيلما أو أي شيء يخطر على البال أو لا يخطر. فيما يخص اللغة والأدب الفرنسي فان هناك العديد من المواقع الجيدة على الشبكة العنكبوتية التي يمكن الاستعانة بها لغرض اكتساب لغة جديدة. فمن خلال هذه المواقع يستطيع المتعلم أن يأخذ دروسا من الألف إلى الياء في مجال الصوت، القواعد، الأدب ... الخ حيث انه مثلما هناك مواقع للمبتدئين توجد أيضا مواقع للمتقدمين كي يغنوا معارفهم. تجدر الإشارة إلى إن اغلب المواقع مزودة بخدمة الاتصال حتى يتمكن المتصفح من الكتابة وطرح المسائل التي تحتاج التوضيح وإرسالها إلى الموقع حتى يتم بعد ذلك استلام الجواب. إن التقدم الذي آلت إليه الاتصالات سواء" الاشتراك المباشر ضمن منظومة الانترنيت للشركات والمكاتب الموجودة في اغلب الأماكن، أو عن طريق الهاتف الأرضي من خلال استخدام البطاقات المدفوعة الثمن مسبقا أو ارتياد مقاهي الانترنيت المنتشرة في اغلب الأحياء، فقد فكرنا وبدأنا محاولة الاستفادة من هذه الإمكانيات لتسهيل عملية التعلم وإنشاء موقع خاص بنا لخدمة أبناء مدينتنا (بصورة خاصة) جراء زيادة أعداد الطلبة الذين يدرسون هذه اللغة في المدارس المتوسطة والإعدادية إضافة إلى الجامعة. مع الأخذ بنظر الاعتبار حرص أولياء الأمور على متابعة المستوى العلمي والدراسي لأبنائهم.


Article
Freedom and the Inevitable Sin in William Golding's Free Fall
الحرية والخطيئة المتأصلة في رواية ويلم كولدن السقوط الحر

Authors: Nahla Younis نهـلــة يونس
Pages: 635-656
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Abstract

يعتقد الكاتب الانكليزي William Golding (1911-1993) أن الشر متأصل في النفس البشرية وهذا يؤثر على اختيارات الإنسان في الحياة فالإنسان حر في أن يختار ما هو خير أو شر لكنه عاجلاً أم آجلاً سيقع في الاختيار الخاطئ وهذا يكلفه حريته. هذه الدراسة هي محاولة لإلقاء الضوء على حرية الاختيار ومسؤولية الفرد والتي قد تؤدي إلى الوقوع في الخطيئة (The Fall) وكما جسدها Golding في رواية "Free Fall" فبطل الرواية Sammy Mounjoy فنان مشهور وقع في الخطيئة بسبب اختياراته وبعد القبض عليه من قبل الألمان أثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية يدخل في مواجهة مع نفسه ليتعرف على الأسباب التي أوصلته إلى ما هو عليه. وبسبب تأنيب الضمير والإحساس بالذنب يحدث تحول في حياته فيفهم نفسه ويتوصل إلى استنتاجات مهمة عن طبيعة النفس البشرية.

Table of content: volume: issue:49