جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2012 المجلد: 40 العدد: 2

Article
KNOWLEDGE LEVEL OF AGRICULTURAL OFFICIALS WORK IN RESEVOIR OF TRAD MMINISTRY IN SALAH AL- DEEN PROVINCE THE RELATION SHIP WITH SOME FACTORS AND RESEVOIR
مستوى معارف الموظفين الزراعيين العاملين في سايلوات وزارة التجارة في محافظة صلاح الدين وعلاقتها ببعض العوامل

المؤلفون: Mahmood, H, Jasim محمود حديس جاسم
الصفحات: 1-8
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الخلاصة

The main objective of this study was to identify the knowledge level of agricultural officials work in reservoir of trade ministry in Salah al-deen province in extent ( sample draw , grain test , and plagues striver ) . Data collected from ( 45 ) officials representing all officials work in the reservoir of trade ministry in Salah AL-deen province. The questionnaire was used as a tool to collect data using personal interview.The result sowed that level knowledge of agricultural officials work in the reservoir was medium. Appositive significant correlation at level of 0.01 between level knowledge and each of the variable studied included (Specialization, Education level, Jens), and there were relationships at level of 0.05 with desire in work, number of training),also found negative significant correlation with (Age, number of work years). It was recommended in this research to establish training to agricultural officials for Salah al-deen province and to conduct complementary research for the training needs of the officials for their jobs.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Mobile Phone on Male Fertility in Rats
تاثير استخدام الموبايل في خصوبة ذكور الجرذان

المؤلفون: Ali Saeed Hammodi علي سعيد حمودي
الصفحات: 1-8
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 900MHz radiofrequency – electromagnetic waves ( RF-EMW ) sent out from mobile phone on rats male fertility . 36 male wistar rats 12- week aged ( 300 -400 g) body weight were used , divided into three groups , control group , 1hday for 30 days and 2hday for 30 days exposure groups and then divided into A and B subgroups after end of experiment . A subgroups rats were used for semen analysis and sex organs weights were measured , also hormonal analysis were done . B subgroups rats were used for fertility test . The results show a significant decrease in testis weight in 1hday exposure group for 30 days , a significant decrease in prostate weight in 1hday , 2hday for 30 days exposure groups when compared with control group , an increase in seminal vesicle weight in 2hday group was significant as compared with control group and , A highly significant decrease in number of total sperm count in a both exposure groups verses control group . The percentage of live sperms was also affected as highly significant decrease of living sperms when compared to control groups in exposure groups during the experiment . There are a highly significant increase in percentage of abnormal sperms in both exposure groups as compared to control group . There are a significant increase in mixing days until parturition and a decrease in number of pups in both exposure groups as compared to control group . In conclusion the electromagnetic waves emitted from the mobile phone had a hazard effects on fertility of male rats .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
COMMUNICATION SKILLS AMONG AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PERSONAL AND VOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
مهارات الاتصال لدى العاملين بالإرشاد الزراعي في محافظة نينوى وعلاقتها ببعض الخصائص الشخصية والوظيفية

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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to recognize the communication skills extension workers in Nineveh governorate by limiting their communication skill level .arranging communication skills fields and limiting the relation between communication skills level of extension workers and these personal and vocational characteristics. (level of education. specialization. vocational service period. period of working in extension work. training during service specializing in extension work and attitude toward agricultural extension). The population consisted of all workers of Nineveh agriculture directorate and its divisions . which was 181 workers the sample included 124 workers. Data were collected by a questionnaire which had two parts .the first the contained data related with some personal and vocational characteristics . the second part contained a measurement have many items to limit the level of extension workers communication skills. the data were analyzed by using simple person correlation spearman rank correlation and multiple step- wise regression analysis. The main findings are as follows most of extension workers in Nineveh governorate have medium communication skills which tend to decreasing and also their are a significant relation between the level of communication skills of extension workers and these factors vocational service period .period of working in extension job. training during service. and attitude toward agricultural extension .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
USING ACTIVATED CARBON FOR NONENZYMATIC BROWNING COMPOUNDS ADSORPTION IN PEACH PULP
استخدام الفحم المنشط لادمصاص مركبات الاسمرار غير الانزيمي لعصير الخوخ اللبي

المؤلفون: Thamer A. Khalil ثامر عبد القادر خليل
الصفحات: 9-15
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الخلاصة

Adsorption of dark coloured compounds onto granular activated carbon (GAC) was evaluated at different concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.04 g GAC/g of peach pulp at a temperature range of 30-60 oC. The adsorption equilibrium was quantified by means of adsorption isotherms in the range from 30 to 60 oC. Absorbance data at 420nm were used to plot all the isotherms which were best described by Langmuir isotherm model as compared to Freundlich model. Also, the efficiency of the adsorption process was studied for different GAC concentrations at different temperatures, from which it was observed that there was a notable improvement in efficiency as the GAC concentrations and temperature increased.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF JONSONGRASS
الجهد الأليلوباثي للسفرندة Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers في مكافحة بعض أنواع الأدغال

المؤلفون: Iqbal Murad Thahir اقبال مراد ظاهر
الصفحات: 16-22
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الخلاصة

This study was designed to evaluate allelopathic substances extracted from shoot, rhizome and inflorescence of johnsongrass which obtained and evaluated for controlling seed germination and early seedling growth of four different weed species, namely, wild oat (Avena fatua L.), ryegrass (Lolium temulentum Gaud.), grass pea (Lathyrus sativa L.) and syrian cephalaria (Cephalaria syriaca (L.) Schard. The results indicated that the percent of seed germination and early seedling growth of all weed species were significantly lower under three extracted substances as compared to those control of treatment. However, rhizome extract exhibited the highest impact, mainly on the length and weight of radicals in comparison to the length and weight of plumule, which is exhibited radical growth of wild oat, ryegrass and syrian cephalaria 100%. This study demonstrates that under restricted conditions, the potential exists for inhabiting percent weed germination and early seed growth but indicates that weed origins need to be factored in modifying allelopathic responses may be used as a bioherbicide.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
TRAINING NEEDS FOR VEGETABLE CULTIVATORS IN
الاحتياجات التدريبية المعرفية لمزارعي الخضر في ناحية القيارة بمحافظة نينوى بمجال تقنيات زيادة الإنتاج وعلاقتها ببعض المتغيرات*

المؤلفون: Najmelddin A. Saleem نجم الدين عبدالله سليم
الصفحات: 18-25
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الخلاصة

The objectives of this research were to determine the training needs for vegetable cultivators in AL-Gyyara District in the field of techniques to increasing production and its relationship with some variables. The research sample included 62 respondents, data were collected through an interview after testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The researchers used Arthmeticmen, Kruskal-Wallis test and t-test to analyze the data. It was found that 53.226% of the respondents perceived high needs for training. The item (How to preserve the fertility of soil) get the first rank for its training needs. There were significant differences in the degree of training needs according to: type of family, type of land tenure, type of job, educational level, number of years of cultivating vegetables and social status, while no significant differences according to: previous training, and sources of information were revealed.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF UREA FERTILIZER AND WEED EXTRACTS SPRAY (JAMIX AND ALGERIAN ON VEGETATIVE,YIELD AND QUALITY OF PEAS (Pisum sativum L .
تأﺗﺄﺛﯾر اﻟﺗﺳﻣﯾد ﺑﺎﻟﯾورﯾﺎ واﻟرش ﺑﻣﺳﺗﺧﻠﺻﻲ اﻻﻋﺷﺎب اﻟﺑﺣرﯾﺔ ( اﻟﺟﺎﻣﻛس واﻻﻟﺟرﯾن) ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧﻣو اﻟﺧﺿري واﻟﺣﺎﺻل اﻟﻛﻠﻲ وﻧوﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﺑزاﻟﯾﺎ(.Pisum sativum L))

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الخلاصة

This experiment was carried out at the field of Horticulture and landscape Design Department , College of Agriculture and Forestry , University of Mosul , in a clay loam soil texture. during the growing season ( 2009/2010) to study the effect of five levels of fertilizer (Two levels of Nitrogen fertilizer and sea plant extracts of Jamix and Algerian). In the growth and yield of Peas(Little marvel). The following characters were studied: plant length(cm),number of branch / plant , dates of flowering and maturity/day , pod length(cm) , average pod weight (gm) , number of pods /plant , number of seeds/pod , 100seed weight (gm) , yield of green and dry pod weight, yield of dry seeds and biological yield(gm/plant).The results showed that there were significant differences between treatment means for all the studied characters , except for dates of flowering and maturity and pod weight (gm) , seed number/pod and 100 seed weight (gm).The results showed that the treatment of nitrogen fertilizer (kg/Donum) gave a high significant level compared with other treatments for the number of branch/plant , flowering date , and number seeds per pod, while the Algren treatment was the best for the characters plant height , pod maturity date and pod length. Aljamex treatment was superior for the characters number of pods/plant and 100 seed weight, total yield of green and dry pods and dry seed yield and biological yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF TUBER SOURCE AND VARIETIES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF FALL SEASON CULTIVATED POTATO IN
تأثير مصدر التقاوي و الأصناف في نمو و حاصل البطاطا المزروعة خريفياً في منطقة السليمانية

المؤلفون: Luqman G. Kareem لقمان غريب كريم
الصفحات: 35-43
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted at Kanipanka nursery,Directorate of Agriculture in Sulaimani,Iraq ,during the fall season in order to study the effect of two potato seed sources ; imported and locally produced , two cultivars ; Desiree A and Desiree E in addition to Margarita cultivar on vegetative growth and yield . Factorial experiment using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates was applied and the means were compared acoording to L.S.D. at 5%. The results showed the dominance of seeds produced in spring to those imported with regard to : percent of dry matter in vegetative growth , number of aerial stems per plant in ratios of 22.69% and 19.94% successively as well as 40.48%, 40.0 % and 44.92% for tuber wieght , yield per plant and total yield per dounm alternatively . On the other hand, imported potato seeds were dominant significantly to those produced in spring season with respect to height of plants , marketable yield per dounm and protein percent in tubers with ratios 41.59%, 43.78% and 7.23% respctively. As far as cultivars are concerned ; Desiree E was dominant to both Desiree A and Margarita with regard to plant height,number of stemes per plant , weight of tubers , yield per plant ,marketable yield and total yield in ratios : 22.9% , 21.65%, 34. 34%, 34.34%, 4.49%, 22.01%, 13.33% ,46.66%, 1.93%, 45.16% , 19.90% and 51.65% successively .However with regard to the effect of cultivars on some qualitative characteristics, Desiree A was superior to Desiree E and Margarita cultivar with regard to the following : percent of dry matter ,starch and protein in tubers in ratios : 3.0% , 6.74% , 2.39%, 5.37%, 4.12% and 7.65% respectively. Finally the study showed superiority of spring produced potato seeds for most characteristics compared to Desiree E and it is more convenient for fall cultivation in Sulaimani district.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
RESPONE OF SILVER KING PEACH TRANSPLANTS TO SULPHUR AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AT DEFERNT SIZES OF ROOTSTOCKS
استجابة شتلات الخوخ صنف Silver King للتسميد بالكبريت والفسفور بأقطار أصول مختلفة

المؤلفون: Sulaiman M. Kako سليمان محمد ككو الزيباري
الصفحات: 44-54
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted on peach transplants (Prunus persica Batsch) in the Nursery of Technical Institute / Mosul /Iraq, during 2007 growing seasons ,to investigate the effect of sulphur and phosphorus on Silver King Peach transplants, which was budded on Peach seedling rootstocks at different sizes on available soil concentrations of N,P , and K in the soil and this effect on leaves minerals content of Silver King Peach transplants, , agriculture sulphur and phosphorus. Three levels of sulphur (0 , 3.5 and 7grSˉ¹transplant) , three levels of Phosphorus (0, 1 and 2 grPˉ¹transplant) and three rootstocks ( 8,7, 6 mm ) respectively was used. The results indicated that the Sulphur , Phosphorus and the interaction between sulphur and phosphorus caused a significant increase in available concentration of N,P and K in the soil. The interaction between Sulphur and Phosphorus significantly affected the concentration of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil ,also the results indicated that the diameter rootstock , Sulphur , and Phosphorus and their interaction between them caused a significant increase in the concentration of N,K in the leaves .The interaction treatment of medium diameter+ 7 gm S transplantˉ¹ +2gm Pˉ¹ transplantˉ¹ was the best treatment as compared with the other treatments which gave the highest means of available concentrations of N,P ,K in the soil and their concentrations in the leaves .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
PERFORMANCE , CORRELATION AND EXPECTED GENETIC ADVANCE FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN FABA BEAN
تقويم الأداء والارتباط والتحسين الوراثي المتوقع للحاصل ومكوناته في الباقلاء (Vicia faba L.)

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الخلاصة

The experiment was included evaluation of nine faba bean varieties: French (Aguadulce) , Syrian (Shami) , Turkish , Kobrisi , Tacka 357 , Tuweithe , Babylon , Spain and Holland and to determine genetic , phenotype variations , heritability , expected genetic advance and phenotypic correlation for yield and its components was carried out in the Field Dept. of Hort. & Landscape Design, College of Agric. & Forestry , Mosul University , during two growing season 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 by using Randomized Complete Block Design R.C.B.D. with three replications. Combined analysis results exhibited significant differences that the varieties between the two growing seasons for all the studied characters. A significant varieties x year interaction effect was found for pod length at 5%. The results showed that the varieties were differed significantly for all the studied characters. French variety was highly superior for green pods yield and biological yield and Syrian variety for seed yield. There was a high genetic variation for plant height , average pod weight , 100 seed weight , green pods , seed and biological yield. High heritability for plant height , no. of branches per plant , 100 seed weight and biological yield , which means that most of the variation between varieties was due to genetic variations. High expected genetic advance for plant height , no. of branches per plant , green pods and biological yield. There was a high positive and significant correlation coefficient between green pods yield and no. of branches per plant and seed yield. The higher phenotypic correlations was found between seed yield and no. of branches per plant.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SPRAY BY ALGERIN ANDPLASTIC MULCH ON GROWTH
تأثيرا لرش بالا لجرين والتغطية بالبلاستك في نمو وحاصل البزاليا (pisum sativum L.).

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted in the field of agricultural research through the College of Agriculture and Forestry University of Mosul through the spring growing season in 2010 . This experiment included two factor , algerin by tree levels viz, zero, 1.5, 3 cm 3 / liter and mulching viz no mulch, transparent polyethylene and black polyethylene. The results showed superiority especially below the level of spraying 3 cm 3 / liter in some the qualities of vegetable and yield adjectives, and excelled treatment coverage of the polyethylene transparent and black moral and most of the vegetable and yield qualities when compared with agriculture without cover the soil factors and showed interaction between the black polyethylene and the level of spraying 3 cm3 / liter for all traits and was significantly compared with agriculture without soil cover and without fertilization.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DIALLEL CROSS AND COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMBONENTS IN FABA BEAN (Vicia faba L.)
التهجين التبادلي وتحليل قدرة الائتلاف للحاصل ومكوناته في الباقلاء (Vicia faba L.)

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الخلاصة

The experiment was carried out in the Field Dept. of Hort. & Landscape Design, College of Agric. & Forestry , Mosul University , during growing seasons 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 , using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications , to evaluate the performance of Full-Diallel hybrids and their four varieties in faba bean viz, 1- French (Aguadulce) 2- Syrian (Shami) 3- Spain and 4-Holland to determine the best parental combinations through estimating the effects of general and specific combining abilities of the used genotypes according to (Griffing, 1956) first method and fixed model. The results indicated that general combining ability was significant for all studied characters and that specific combining ability was significant for most studied characters. The reciprocal effects was significant for all studied characters except for no. of pods per plant. The results showed that general combining ability components was higher than that of specific combining ability for: plant height , no. of branches per plant , no. of days to flowering , pod length and 100 seed weight , which indicated the presence of additive gene action for these characters. French and Syrian varieties showed high general combining ability for most of the studied characters , and therefore contains the desired gene. The hybrids varied for their specific combining abilities effects and this due to the wide genetic diversity between their parents.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
KINETIC OF SODIUM ADSORPTION REACTION IN SOME CALCIORTHID SOILS OF NORTHERN IRAQ
حركيات تفاعلات امتزاز الصوديوم في بعض الترب الكلسية من شمال العراق

المؤلفون: M.A. Al-Obaidi محمد علي جمال ألعبيدي
الصفحات: 88-97
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الخلاصة

A kinetic approach was applied for sodium adsorption reactions using miscible displacement technique. Chloride salt concentration (50, 100, 500) mmolcl-1 of calcium, magnesium and sodium were allowed to pass quietly through glass columns (30cm in length and 10cm diameter) containing five calcareous soil samples collected from Nineveh Province classified as Calciorthid . Each level of concentration consists of five different solutions with different Na/Ca+Mg ratios comparison five SAR values (1.05, 2.38, 7.08, 12.77 and 28.48mmol.l ­½ for the 50mmol-1 TEC, 1.49, 5.07, 10.0, 18.10 and 40. 3648mmol.l ­½ for the second salt solution and 3.33, 11.34, 22.36, 40.41 and 90.0048mmol.l ­½ for the 500mmolcl-1 TEC). Solutions passed through the columns were collected after 30 up to 300 minutes. Sodium adsorption reactions were described with the following kinetic equations: Zero order, first order, diffusion equation, Elovich and power function equations. The results indicated the applicability of these equations for describing sodium absorption of calcareous soils and were classified accordingly to: First order > diffusion > power function > zero order > Elovich Coefficient rates of adsorption reaction according to first order kinetic equation ranged between (2-7)10-4, (3-13)10-4 and (3-24)10-4 min-1 for the salt concentration 50.100 and 500mmolcl-1 respectively. The coefficient rates were significantly correlated with the added salt level (R2 = 0.9**).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDYING SOME NON-GENETIC FACTORS ON MILK PRODUCTION IN FRIESIAN
دراسة بعض العوامل اللاوراثية المؤثرة على إنتاج الحليب في أبقار الفريزيان

المؤلفون: Salim Omar Raoof سالم عمر رؤوف
الصفحات: 98-103
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الخلاصة

The research was conducted on 71 Friesian cows reared in one of the cattle in the area of civil Qushtapa / Erbil for the years 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of Non genetic factors (year of calving, age at first birth, the sequence of birth, season of birth, and sex) in the daily milk production, in addition to study the effect of number of vaccination requested for fertilization calving interval and dry period in the milk production. The overall average of daily milk production was (19.958) kg. The results showed that for the year of calving, the sequence of birth and season of birth have a significant (p <0.01) in the daily milk production . Also found that efficiency fertilizing substances in cattle herds civil high as the number of cows which had been vaccinated with fertilizing vaccine in the first and second time in 55 cows from the whole cattle (71 cows) with 77.46%.It was also noted that the length of the period between calving within the period 361-390 days, where production was high, amounting to 21.788 kg / day was also evident that the ideal length of dry period in this study was from 46-60 days.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING NIGELLA SATIVA MEAL TO AWASSI LAMBS GROWING RATIONS ON PRODUCTION AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS
تأثير إضافة كسبة الحبة السوداء إلى علائق الحملان العواسية النامية على صفاتها الإنتاجية وصفات الذبيحة

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الخلاصة

Sixteen male Awassi lambs 4-5 months old and 25.4Kg live body weight were used in this study, the lambs distributed into four groups. The first group fed a control ration containg 13.1% C.P. and 2.71 M.cal. as M.E., while the 2nd , 3rd and 4th ration, contained 2,4 and 6%.Nigella sativa meal respectively. The wheat straw added 1% of B.W. for all the groups. Feeding period was (90 days).The results showed that the control group was significantly (P<0.01) better in daily gain 157, 122, 107, 101gm/ day and total body gain 14.1, 11.00, 9.6, 9.1kg than the others which fed the Nigella sativa meal. The four group Lambs showed 8.39, 9.99, 10.5 and 10.54kg D.M/1kg body weight gain as average feed conversion rate respectively. Average hot carcass weight was found significantly (P<0.05) in control group (19.4 kg) compared with the 4th group (16.7kg). The statistical analysis did not show any significant differences in dressing percentage and carcass grade. However the groups that fed Nigella sativa meal showed a significant (P<0.05) effect on fat thickness at the 12th rib (3.9, 3.8 and 3.9mm) as compared with the control group (2.8mm). The chemical analysis of meat indicated a significant (P<0.05) Versions between the four groups when the higher C.P. was found 17.1% for the control group and E.E was the higher (26.8%) for the 4th group meat.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF REFRIGERATION PROCESSING ON THERAPEUTIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA USED IN THERAPEUTIC YOGHURT PRODUCTION BY USING SOME STABILIZERS
تأثير عملية التبريد على بكتريا حامض اللاكتيك العلاجية المستخدمة في أنتاج اللبن العلاجي باستخدام بعض المثبتات

المؤلفون: H.S.Mohammed حامد صالح محمد
الصفحات: 111-124
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الخلاصة

This study included the implementation of refrigerating processing to preserve the probiotic yoghurt produced by using (ABT) starters through four weeks using five types of stabilizers (starch. CMC. gelatin. dextrin and inulin) which then compared with control sample (i.e. nostabilizer added).Yoghurt analysis was carried out at zero time and one week intervals. They were chemical: total acidity percentage pH curd drainage and microbiological: (total count. lactic acid bacteria (LAB) percentage of resistant LAB) and sensory evaluation: (flavour. consistency. appearance and acidity taste).Processing of 7% dextrin and 4% inulin surpassed in bacteria total count. Lab and percentage of resistant LAB. In addition. processing of 0.01% CMC was out standing in highest total acidity percentage. i.e. lowest pH. On the other hand processing of 7% dextrin gave the lowest amount of whey drainage. Concerning the sensory evaluations. the processing of 2.5% dextrin surpassed charactenistic and the processing of 7% dextrin surpassed in consistency charactenistic.However. for the appearance and acidity evaluation. the processing of 6% inulin was over whilmed.Throughout sensory charactenistics studied the processing of 4% inulin recorded the highest values (91.76%) in comperison with the control (81.56%).

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Article
PRODUCTION OF PROBIOTIC YOGHURT (BIFILACT) BY USING SOME SPECIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
تصنيع منتوج لبني صحي Bifilact باستخدام بعض أنواع بكتريا حامض اللاكتيك المدعم

المؤلفون: M.Y. Ali محمود يونس علي
الصفحات: 125-130
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الخلاصة

Probiotic lactic acid bacteria was used in manufacturing yoghurt from fortified whole milk. The product was stored under refrigeration for one week. The results showed that yoghurt manufacturing by using single or mixed strain bacteria was acceptable concerning acidity percent as it was 0.52 , 0.92 and 1.20 % using L.acidophilus , B.lactis and mixed culture , respectively for the fresh yoghurt. Total solid percentages of the fresh yoghurt were 16.47 , 16.48 and 15.93% for the three mentioned culture , respectively. Counts of Bifidobacteria in single strain starter and in mixed starter were higher followed by L.acidophilus in mixed starter, while counts were lowest in L.acidophilusin in single strain starter one week after storage counting were 81× 107 , 81× 107 , 36× 107 and 11× 107 c.f.u/ml. respectively, and these counts were within the acceptable ones of WHO and FAO values. Sensory evaluation showed that the product was acceptable for at least one week storage without any microbial or sensory changes which indicated that it can be used as a therapeutic product. Physical properties of the freeze dryed product were also studied and the results showed the ability for reconstruction and using it in capsule formulation.

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Article
PRODUCTION OF MONO AND DIGLYCERIEDES FROM FREE FATTY ACIDS OF OLIVE OIL AND COW'S MILK FAT BY CHIMICAL ESTEREFICATION REACTION
إنتاج الكلسريدات الأحادية والثنائية من الأحماض الدهنية الحرة لزيت الزيتون ودهن الحليب البقري بتفاعل الأسترة الكيميائية(*)

المؤلفون: T. M. Taqi طه محمد تقي
الصفحات: 131-145
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الخلاصة

Mono and di glycerids were prepared by chemical esterification between laboratory prepared free fatty acids from olive oil and cows' milk fat with glycerol. The ratios were 14:70 and 14:55 in 190c and 215c using sulfuric acid as a catalyst, the reaction hold for five hours. Samples were carrying out each one hour. Acid value mono, di, and tri glycerids ratios were calculated and melting point refractive index saponification number iodine number and infrared absorption spectrum FTIR were calculated for basic fat and oils ,free fatty acids and final product. Results show that the physical and chemical properties and FTIR absorption spectrum were changed between oil , fat , their free fatty acids and final products. The ratio of acid value mono, di and tri glycerids showed that the esterification reactions were influenced by glycerol ratio more than temperature, the acid value decreased with time accompaniment by increasing mono, di, and tri glycerids ratio, the mono glycerids ratio started increasing from the first hour, the di glycerids ratio started increasing from the second hour will tri glycerids start increasing from the third hour.

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Article
EFFECT OF OLIVE OIL , BLACK SEEDS , FLAX SEEDS AND BUTTER ON BLOOD LIPID PROFILE IN HEALTHY PERSONS
تأثير زيت الزيتون والحبة السوداء(Nigella sativa L.) وبذور الكتان

المؤلفون: Feryal .F. Huseein فريال فاروق حسين
الصفحات: 146-152
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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to know the effect of consumption virgin olive oil, normal olive oil, black seed (Nigella staiva), flax seed (linumusitatiss ml)and butter on lipid profile. Forty eight voulenteers pants were used from male 35 and female 13 aged 25-35years and body mass index 22±2kgm2 randomly distributed to six groups with (8) subjects , Five groups were daily feeding with 20g of treated foods for 28 days and the sixth group consedared as a control The lipid profile were tested for total cholesterol(TC), triglyycerides(TC),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 1st and 2nd at hevoge levels. The results revaled the active significant decrease (p<0.05) in TC ,TG,LDL-C valueand significant increase in HDL-C value. The black seed and flax seed also caused significant decreased in TC,TG,HDL-C. valuebut had no effect on HDL-C. valueon The other hand the butter had not good effect on blood lipid by increased the TC,TG,LDL-C and decrease HDL-C . This study showed that the food played an important roleing on lipid profile.

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Article
EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON ASCORBIC ACID KINETICDEGRADATION IN DRINKS SIMULATED TO ORANGE JUICE
تأثير ثنائي أوكسيد الكبريتيت في حركية هدم حامض الأسكوربيك في مشابه محاكي لعصير البرتقال الطبيعي

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الخلاصة

Synthetic model systems of local orange juice were prepared in concentration 13% with different concentrations of sulfur dioxide ( (SO2) 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 ppm). Samples were stored at 20,30 and 405C for 4 months. Results showed that increasing the temperature and period storage caused decreasing in ascorbic acid content. Results of kinetic parameters of ascorbic acid degradation showed that the reaction order was first order and the values of reaction constant (K) decreased with increasing the SO2 but increased with increasing the temperatures. The activation energy (Ea) increased with increasing concentration of SO2 . The temperature coefficient (Q10) increased with increasing storage temperature. The shelf life of model systems increased with increasing the SO2 concentration and decreased with increasing the temperature. It was indicated that increasing the SO2 and decreasing the temperature caused to decreasing the degradation of ascorbic acid and increasing the shelf life of these juices.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME VARIBLES ON SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS OF ADHESIVE LINE USED IN WOOD STRUCTURE
دراسة تأثير بعض العوامل في عملية تصلب الخط الصمغي الداخل في التراكيب الخشبية

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to test the strength of glue line in wood structures by using some mechanical tests ( Dry and wet tensile tests, shear strength test). Two kinds of adhesives (Urea-formaldehyde (UF) and poly-vinyl acetate (PVA) and three types of wood surfaces (Pure Pine, Pure Sycamore and substrate of Pine with Sycamore) and two methods of adhesive curing (Electrical and microwave domestic ovens) were used. Analysis of variance results showed significant differences of (wood type, adhesive type, grain direction, curing methods and adhesive quantity) on dry and wet tensile strength after immersion in water for thirty and sixty minutes. Wood type showed that pine wood have the greatest dry and wet tensile strength followed by pine with sycamore wood and the lowest tensile strength was shown in sycamore wood. Urea-formaldehyde adhesive showed the highest value in all the studied characters as compared with poly-vinyl acetate adhesive which gave the lowest tensile strength. The parallel grain direction gave the best value as compared to vertical grain direction for both dry and wet tensile strength. Electrical oven curing method gave the best dry and wet tensile strength as compared to microwave oven. Two gram adhesive quantity gave the highest results as compared with 1.5 and 1 gm for all the studied characters, but, there were no significant differences between 2 and 1.5 gm quantity. Concerning shear strength of the adhesive line, the results showed that there were significant effects for wood type, adhesive type, curing methods and adhesive quantity on the studied shear strength. pine wood showed the best shear strength followed by pine with sycamore wood, also Urea-formaldehyde adhesive gave higher value for this character. Electrical oven curing method gave the highest shear strength value when compared with microwave oven. The study also showed that 1.5 gm quantity of adhesive gave better results shear strength followed by 1.25 and 1 gm.

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Article
INDUCTION OF CHROMOSOMAL POLYPLOIDY AND EARLY EVALUATION OF Ceratonia siliqua L.
استحداث التضاعـف الكروموسـومي والتقييم المبكر لشتـلات الخروب Ceratonia siliqua L

المؤلفون: N. Th. Saieed ناظم ذنون سعيد
الصفحات: 176-191
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at Forestry Department for the period 1st February until the end of November 2007 . to achieve chromosomal polyploidy in Ceratonia siliqua L. by soacking their seeds in different Colchicine solution concentration Zero . 500 . 1000 . 2000 ml / l . and different periods 6 . 12 . 18 . 24 hr . The treated seeds with different colchicine concentration mentioned above were Sown in plastic bag polly ethelen containing Sandy loam soil . Other seed lots treated with colchicine were placed in incubator after sowing them in Petri – dishes to count seed germination percentages followed by chromosome counts in root apices as following : Colchicine concentration effect :The results showe a tetraploidy level 4n = 48 chromosome when seeds soacks in 2000 mlg / l concentration of colchicine solution pre – sowing with Ratio of 44.96 % . but for 1000 mlg / l conc. of colchicine the mean ratio of tetraploidy level was 20.21 % . while tetraploidy was not noticed for other treatments which was diploid 2n=24 . traits studied the 2000 mlg / l caused a significant increases 13.7 % for germination ratio . 40.96 % for Shoot length . 37.00 % for Shoot diameter . and 51.85 % for Stomata length . On the other hand this colchicine concentration causes significant decreases in the following traits value percentages 28.49 % for leaf shape factor. and 46.53 % for Stomata numbers in 1mm2 in comparisons with soacking seed in water only without colchicine . Soacking periods effects :The Soacking period of 24 hr. was significantly increased for all traits studied except leaf shape factor . and numbers of Stomata 15.66 and 13.30 % in comparison with shortest soacking period 6 hr. . Interaction effect of colchicine concentration & soacking Periods : Results Show that soacking seeds in colchicine solution 2000 mlg/l for 24 hr. was highly significant and caused reduction in values of the following traits . Leaf Shape factor 39.08 % and numbers of stomata / mm2 55.00 % . at the same time this interaction gave significant effect in the following traits : germination ratio . shoot hight . shoot diameter . stomata length and stomata width which they recorded values of 20.55 . 55.82 . 49.52 . 62.22 and 61.84 % respectively when compared with values of those seeds soaked in water only .

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Article
Criteria for evaluation the sustainable management and policy of Zawita forest in Duhok Governorate North of Iraq
معايير تقييم سياسة وادارة الانتاج الدائم المستمر لغابة زاويتا في محافظة دهوك شمال العراق

المؤلفون: Zeki M. Akrawee زكي متي عقراوي
الصفحات: 192-201
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الخلاصة

Ground and space data were used to estimate the values of the criteria which had been developed by international organizations to assess the state of forests which showed, that Zawita are primarily afforest of a tourist, a non-productive forest as it is the duty and the ratio of protective forest area of 15% of the total area of the region, also the wooden stock was calculated of this forest, which is estimated 44 thousand cubic meters to give the study included assessments of most of the indicators developed in this context has been placed in a special table, and through this policy has been developed can be applied to these forests is socialism and politics combined with forest policy and multi-access forests Zawita to achieve production Permanent continuing trends in productivity, tourism, preventive and timber production in the future to be optimal. The complete results of application the criteria of evaluation were putted in special table in the results part.

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Article
EFFECT OF PRETREATMENTS IN GERMINATION SEEDS Pistacia Khinjuk . (STOCK) AND SEEDLING GROWTH.
تأثير المعاملات المسبقة في إنبات بذور حبة الخضراء Pistacia khinjuk stock

المؤلفون: Jyad.A.ALAshoo جياد عبد محمود العشو
الصفحات: 202-211
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الخلاصة

This study was occurred in the Forestry Department to investigate the storage scarification and pre-chilling in germinating seeds and seedling growth . The results revealed superior seedling grouth from unstorage seeds . And giving highest average of in all character studied . Also the scarification seeds superiority in all character except the stem length and giving hightest germination percentage 25.74 % . Number of leaves 15.16 and dry weight of the stem and leaves 0.92 gm . 1.46 gm . The periods of the chilling . The chilling 48 hour was superior in all characters and gave highest germination percentage 32.18 % . stem length12.98 cm . number of leaves 17.41 and dry weight of stem and leaves 0.67 gm . 1.72 gm . The interaction between unstorage and scarification . the interaction between storage and chilling . interaction between unstorage and chilling 48 hour and storage chilling 48 hour . The interaction scarification and chilling 48 hour were the best in all characters .

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Article
ALLELOPATHICPOTENTIAL OF WATEREXTRACTOF PARTS FOR TWO APPLE FRUIT VARIETIESONGERMINATIONAND GROWTH SOME ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
الجهد الأليلوباثي للمستخلصات المائية لأجزاء ثمار

المؤلفون: Salah M. Saied صلاح محمد سعيد
الصفحات: 212-223
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الخلاصة

This research was conducted in green house of Department of Biology/ College of Science/ Mosul University to study the effect of water extracts for green and red apples for their three parts (peal 4%. pith 8% and fruit 12%) to soil in germination and some growth characteristics for the three kinds of ornamental plants which grow in this soil.The results showed that there is a decrease in most of the characteristics of Viola wittrockiana andCalendula officinalis plants except the concentration of the elements potassium and phosphorous where they led to an increase in most of the elements concentration in their leaves. Otherwise. we noticed that there is a differencebetween inhibition and stimulation in some growth characteristics for Mathiolaincana with other plants and control treatment. While concerning the effect of the kinds.the red apple was more inhibitive than green apple. In respect of the other parts. the pith was much effective in most characteristics and the least effect was in the fruit. It was shown also thatViola wittrockiana and Calendula officinalis plants were more sensitive when treating with extracts. while Mathiolaincana gave better growth.

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Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND ROW SPACING ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD PRODUCTION OF FLAX IN NORTH IRAQ
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من السماد النتروجيني ومسافات الزراعة في نمو وحاصل الكتان في شمال العراق

المؤلفون: Ayad. T-Shaker أياد طلعت شاكر
الصفحات: 224-237
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted out during the years of 2007 -2008 and 2008 -2009 at the college farm of Basic Education - Mosul University. The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of four nitrogen fertilizer levels ( 0 , 30 , 60 and 90 kg N .ha-1) and three row spacing ( 15 , 25 and 35 cm between rows) on yield and yield components of flax. Randomized complete block design ( R.C.B.D ) with three replication was used. The result showed a clear evidence increase in the following characteristics: no. of siligua / plant , no. of seeds / siliqua , wt .of 1000 seeds , Seed and oil yield by using nitrogen fertilizer at the levels 60 kg N .ha-1, whereas no. of fruiting branches / plant and no.of siliqua / plant increased significantly when nitrogen fertilizer added at the level 90 kg N .ha-1.The wt .of 1000 seeds , seed and oil yield were highly increased when flax plants sown at row spacing of 15 cm , but no. of fruiting branches / plant, no. of siligua / plant and no. of seeds / siliqua were increased at row spacing of 35 cm. seeds and oil yield increased significantly when the plant growing at 15 and 25 cm row spacing with 60 kg N .ha-1. The interaction season (2008 -2009) ×row spacing( 15 cm ) × nitrogen fertilizer( 60 kg N .ha-1) gave a highly significant increased in seed yield (1590 kg .ha-1). While oil yield gave a higher ( 612 kg .ha-1) at interaction season( 2007 -2008 ) ×row spacing( 15 cm ) × nitrogen fertilizer( 60 kg N .ha-1) The estimated correlation coefficients (r) were positively and significant correlated between no. of seed capsule with each of seed and oil yield.

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Article
EVALUATION CHARACTERS NEW VARIETIES OF BARLEY UNDER
تقويم صفات أصناف جديدة من الشعير تحت الظروف الديمية

المؤلفون: Ahmed A. Jawad Ahmed احمد عبد الجواد احمد
الصفحات: 238-246
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at two locations, The first was at University of Mosul, college of Agriculture Forestry the second was at Salah al Din governorate during the 2009-2010 season using new twenty four naked barley entries introduced from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) in addition to the locally grown variety Rihane-3 under rain fed conditions in IRAQ. The characters studied were number of days to 50 % flowering, maturity date, plant height, spike length, number of grains / spike, number of spikes/ m2 , grain yield (kg/ha), biological yield (kg/ha), harvest index, 1000-grain weight. Entries were significantly different for all the characters. Phenotypic and genetic variances were highly significant for all the characters and therefore selection can be used for superior entry. Broad-sense heritability estimates were high for all the characters while there estimated were medium for harvest index character Mosul location and number of days to 50 % flowering character at Salah al Din location. The expected genetic advance values were high for number of grains / spike and harvest index for both locations.

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Article
EFFECT OF DISC ANGLE AND SOIL STATE ON PERFORMANCE OF TANDEM DISC HARROW AT DIFFERENT GROUND SPEEDS
تأثير زاوية القرص وحالة التربة على أداء المشط القرصي المزدوج الفعل عند سرعات أرضية مختلفة.

المؤلفون: Husain A. Hamood حسين عبد حمود
الصفحات: 247-255
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الخلاصة

This research included studying two disc angles for front gangs of tandem disc harrow 15 and 22 degrees with three ground speeds 8.166 , 10.378 and 16.354 kmhr in tilth soil and 9.587, 12.473 and 16.000 kmhr in untilled soil , disc angle of rear gangs was fixed at 22 degree , and effect of these factors on fuel consumption, slippage percentage, number of soil aggregates larger than 5 cm/m2, cutting depth, cutting width, coefficient of cutting width, line width lifting behind rear gangs and effective field capacity. Soil state had significant effects on number of soil aggregates larger than 5 cm/m2, cutting depth and line width lifting behind rear gangs, Ground speed and disc angle had significant effects on slippage percentage, cutting depth and effective field capacity. The effect of interaction between soil state and disc angle was significant in slippage percentage and effective field capacity. The effect of interaction between soil state, disc angle and ground speed was significant in effective field capacity, while ground speed treatment with disc angle and soil state had no significantly effect in studied characteristics.

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Article
BIOLOGY AND PREFERENCE OF
حياتية وتفضيل خنفساء اللوبيا الجنوبية

المؤلفون: Mohammed Shahow M محمد شاهو ميرزا غفور
الصفحات: 256-263
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الخلاصة

The southern cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F) Bruchidae. Coleoptera. is regarded as an important pest on pulses or grain legumes in different parts of the world. The results obtained from current studies indicate that the average number of eggs laid by females decreases significantly as the age increases. The highest average was in the first days of their lives. subsequently the average decreased as they became older. It has been found that the average number of eggs laid by one female is 73.43 egg at 27±3ºC.& 70±10%R.H. It has been observed that the larvae which hatched on kidney beans failed to develop and all died within a short period after hatching. The highest average of adults that emerged. were of those larvae which reared on cowpea while the lowest average were of those reared on grind chick-pea. The feeding of weevil larvae on different pulses has a significant effect on their biology and their development period. The shortest period was on green gram and longest period on lentil seeds. It has been observed that the different diet of larvae has an impact on the longevities of adults that emerged from them. The longest period of adults was 8.5 for males and 9.3 days for females that emerged from larvae which fed on green gram. In comparison this period shortened to 5.3 days for females and 4.3 days for males that emerged from larvae which fed on lentil seed. In all cases the longevities of females were longer than males. Finally it has been found that C. maculatus have six generation under laboratory conditions.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOME ENERGIESERS PROTEINS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTARISTIC OF LADYBEETLE Coccinella septempunctata L.
تأثير بعض المنشطات البروتينية للرياضيين في بعض الصفات الحياتية للدعسوقة ذات السبع نقاط

المؤلفون: Nazar M. AL-Mallah نزار مصطفى الملاح
الصفحات: 264-273
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to determine the effect of rearing the Lady beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. on black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scolopi which was treated directly and indirectly with three concentration (2,4,8 %)of some proteins such as Universal amino Tech., Anabolic amino, Dronabol, Whey protein and Creatine , on some biological characteristics of the Ladybeetles. The results of this study showed insignificant effects of the used energiesers proteins on the mean of larval development period and mean of the pupal stage period, but they reduced the period of development insignificantly. While the adult coccinellids fed on black bean aphid treated directly with creatine of 8% conc. showed significant effects on the mean period of the pre–oviposition and oviposition period which was 5.80, 26.00 day respectively, as compared with 6.60, 24.00day respectively for control

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