Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2005 volume:46 issue:1

Article
تأثير الرقم الهيدروجيني لتداخلات الاليومين مع النيكوتين – امايد أدنين ثنائي النيوكليويد NAD بأستخدام البولاروكراف النبضي التفاضلي

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Abstract

This research aim to study albumin interaction with NAD+ .This was achieved by following the decreases in the diffusion currant (IP) with time of NAB+ reduction in the presence of 0.0052% albumin in phosphate buffer at different pH (ranged between 4-9.5). Upon the analysis of the results. It appeared that the interaction is a first order process consist of two stages (with different rate). The study also involved calculation of the rate constants K1 & K2 at different temperatures that ranged between 288-308 absolute temperature at pH 5.5 The activation energy E a# and the different thermodynamic parameters H#, S#, G# of this process was calculated and the nature of NAD+ albumin interaction was determined

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Article
Areview Flow Injection Analysis A tomic Absorption Spectrometry Hyphenated Systems(part1)

Authors: Fatima Ali --- Fadhil Jasim
Pages: 7-15
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Abstract

This paper present a general review for chemical literature concerning the hybradised (FIA -AAS) system scanned over the years late 1970s to late 1994 and including lots of technical innovation and developments of the this coupled system which typically utilisese the adequate precision, sensitivity and specificity (AAS) on one hand and simplicity high sample through put and economy of (FIA) on the other hand. It is worth mentioniny that a relatively large percent of present publication of the system were abstracted from INTERNET

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Article
Areview Flow Injection Analysis A tomic Absorption Spectrometry Hyphenated Systems(part11)

Authors: Fatima Ali --- Fadhil Jasim
Pages: 16-26
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This paper present a general review for chemical literature concerning the hybradised (FIA -AAS) system scanned over the years late 1995 to late 2002 and including lots of technical innovation and developments of the this coupled system which typically utilisese the adequate precision, sensitivity and specificity (AAS) on one hand and simplicity high sample through put and economy of (FIA) on the other hand. It is worth mentioniny that a relatively large percent of persent publication of the system were abstracted from INTERNET.

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Article
Carbon o- Electron Densities and C-H S tretching Vi bra tion Frequencies of Phenanthrene

Authors: Muthana Shanshal --- Raghida I.Alani --- Rehab Mubba
Pages: 27-39
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MINDO/3-FORCES calculations were carried out for the vibration frequencies and IR absorption intensities of phenanthrene radical ions. The obtained frequency values were compared with the experimental values when possible. It was found that the C-H stretching frequencies are directly related to the carbon ¤-electron densities of the relevant atoms.

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Article
Thermal Annealing Irradiated Ammonium and potassium Dichromate

Authors: A Th.numan --- M.A.AL-Abbasi --- Karm AA Abdul Khalik
Pages: 40-41
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A modified solvent extraction study was made to assess the validity of previously published claim that, in neutron irradiated ammonium dichromate heating leads to the generation of a reducing species that cause lowering of the value of retention. Simultaneous investigation of the behavior of both the ammonium and potassium salts showed this claim to be incorrect.

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Article
Study of the Variations Occuring in the Fundic stomach of the White mice (Mus Musclus)during Different Ages(Postnala,Adult and Old
دراسة التغيرات النسيجية لقاع المعدة Fundusفي الفأر الابيض خلال مراحل العمر المختلفة (مرحلة مابعد اللولادةPostnala مرحلة النضج الجنسي Adult مرحلة الهرم او الشيخوخة Old

Authors: سعاد رشيد كابان
Pages: 75-85
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Three groups of male Albino mice Mus musculus albinus of different ages (4 days, 10 weeks and 16 months) were used to study the variations in the histology of fundic stomach. The results obtained showed a great variation in the thickness and constituent elements of the layers: mucosa, sub mucosa and muscularis externa. The layers in the postnatal animals (4 days old) were poorly developed, lamina propria was filled with mesenchymal cells, the glands were few, small and their cells were undifferentiated yet pits unseen. Submucosa appeared as a network of thin fibers, and the smooth muscle fibers of the muscle layers showed a loose frame of small short cells. The changes in the layers of the aged animals were very interesting the glands showed different appearance. Some were atrophied others undergoing atrophy Leaving spaces in lamina propria filled with connectiv tissue elements.. Numbers of parietal and chief cells decreased in the glands. Pits became deeper than normal. Collagen fibers of Submucosa became loose incLude spaces in between. Changes include the muscle layer too. is muscle fibers undergo atrophy and loss. Connective tlSSUe elements invade the spaces left. At time of sexual maturation, layers of fundic stomach looked normal and well developed.

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Article
Study on Acute Leukemia in Iraqi Population

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Many children under 15 years of age and many adults more then 15 Years of age with acute leukemia registered and treated in Oncology Department attached to the AL-Yarmuk Teaching Hospital, Child Central Hospital and air force Hospital in Baghdad were enrolled in this study,as regards to their general characteristics and the type of acute leukemia. For comparison purposes, one year was chosen (2000), it was showed that the incidense with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children was 72.5 % , while the incidence with acute myelocytic leukemia in adults was 27.5% . During this year, 2000, male predominance was evident. The fraction of patiets living in urban areas was more than those of rural regions. The symptoms of leukemia patients were headache , vomiting,anemia and fever (38- 38.5 °C) for more than 2 weeks; fever pallor, spleen or liver were moderatley enlarged or hepatosplenomegaly; in addition to throat and mouth lesions

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Article
Effect of Temperatuer and PHon Saureus Adherence to Metallic,Polymeric and Glass Surfaces
تأثير درجات الحرارة PH في التصاق جرثومة Staphylococcus aureus على الأسطح المعدنية والبوليميرية والزجاجية

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Capsulated, slimed strain and unencapsulated unslimed strain of S. aureus isolated from hospital were studied for their adherence to four nonbiological surfaces at different values of temperature and pH. At 40°C both strains were unable to adhere to glass surfaces, moreover capsulated and slimed strain not adhere to polytetrafluorethylene surface, while uncapsulated unslimed strain did not adhere to polyurethane surface. At 40°C temperature capsulated slimed strain did not adhere to glass surface, whereas uncapsulated unslimed did not adhere to any of the four surfaces, 25°C was optimum temperature for two strains to adhere all four surfaces but in different levels. Different values of pH (5, 6, 7) acted differently on bacterial adherence to surfaces and some of these values prevented completely adherence to surfaces.

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Article
Cholesterol and Glucose Lowering Effect by Some Mushrooms

Authors: Mahmoud .A.R --- A.A.Hassan
Pages: 95-98
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Article
عزل بكتريا Klebsiella planticola من اصابات سريرية في العراق

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Out of 400 different clinical samples, fifty SiX (14%) isolates of Klebsiella were identified. of it, 19 isolates (33. 93%) were from wound and burn infections, 17 isolates (30.36%) were from urinary tract infections, 11 isolates (19.64%) were from respiratory tract infections an 9 isolates (16.07%) were from bacteremia cases. Fifty isolates (89.28 %) were found to be K. pneumoniae (49 isolates were K. pneumoniae pneumoniae and one isolare was K.pneumoniae ozaenae), 5 isolates (8.93%) were K.oxytoca, and one isolate ( 1.79 %) was K. planticola which isolate as first time in Iraq. The result showed that K. planticola had the ability to express similar virulence factor (capsule. fimbriae type I, type III and siderophore production) as the other species of Klebsiella. Sensitivity test against 25 antibiotics was done for all the isolates. It was found that the most effective antibiotics against Klebsiella were amikacin (94.67%), norfloxacin (91.07%), ciprofloxacin (85.71%) and amoxiclave (71.4%). The percentages of sensitivity for the extended - spectrum cephalosporines were 57.14%, 53.57%, 50%, and 48.2% for cefotaxime, cefixime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone respectively. Nevertheless, none of the isolates revealed any sensitivity (0 %) to ampicillin, ampiclox, amoxicillin, carbenicillin and rifampicin .K.planticola reveled resistante to nine antibiotics (ampicillin, ampiclox, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothen, cephalexen, streptomycin, co-trimoxazol and rifampicin).

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Article
Frequency and Illumination Effects on AIKIICdTe Junction

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Article
The effect of annealing on the energy gap of Polyimide(PI) and Polyethlene terephthalate (PET) Polymers

Authors: Z. R. AL- Shamri --- H. I. Jaffer --- A.K. Abdullah
Pages: 141-144
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The effect of annealing on the energy gap of PET and PI has been investigated. The annealing temperature were set at (75, 150, 200 and 240) oC which are less than the Tm of both polymers. The energy gap are decreasing for PET and PI at different temperatures, the experimental results showed that the thermal energy and oxidation are the major factors responsible for the change in the energy gap of PET and PI.

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Article
The effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Optical Constants of (HDPE-PP)Blends

Authors: S.M.Hasan --- Ahmad A.H. --- B.A.Hasan
Pages: 145-153
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Article
Plasma Protein and Aggregation Changes Diabetic Patients

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Objective: Using a modified laser light scattering technique to study the red blood cells aggregation and sedimentation kinetics in normal and diabetic patients. Method: Clinical records of (40) normal volunteers and diabetic patients from Educational Kadhimya Hospital were included in this study. Results: In this method, the results of aggregation is presented in a time based graph, from which the slope (rate of aggregation can be calculated). Diabetic sample showed a shorter time of different aggregation and sedimentation stages. Samples from diabetic patients showed a lot of variability in regard with different stages of aggregation. These changes were correlated well with the abnormality in their proteins. Conclusion: In diabetes mellitus a lot of rheological abnormalities could occur, like hyperglycemia, changes in lipid profiles and serum proteins and their sequel on the viscosity of blood on one hand and the structural and functional abnormalities of erythrocyte on the other hand. These modifications in the cellular properties and medium composition of blood in diabetic patients will affect the aggregation kinetics of erythrocytes, which may playa role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication.

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Article
Study for Gamma Ray Spectra of Cascading Decay

Authors: Fatima Abd-Alamir Jassim
Pages: 160-162
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Relative intensity to the single peaks and true sum peaks to the elements of cascading decay of gamma-rays as 60Co and 88Y have been measured for different point source-detector distances by using 3"x3" Nal(TI) detector into two different methods. These methods give a good information to distinguish between single and true sum peaks especially in analysis a complex pulse height spectrum; where the relative intensity for true sum peak varies with source - detector distance while it is independent for single peak. The results of two the methods are in fair agreement.

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Article
Structure and Depth Study of a Reflector Appears on 52-Seimic Sections in Um-Al-Anz Area, Western Desert, Iraq.

Authors: Bakhtiar Kader Aziz
Pages: 163-169
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A reflector was picked on (52) seismic sections, (2960 km length), in Um-AI-Anz area, western desert. It has two way time ranges between (2940-3700) msec. The reflector was identified throught correlating and tying the seismic sections of the surrounding area. The reflector represent the reflection from near top of the basement and most probably it was from a limestone bed (Cambrian age) which is covered the crysralline basement. Seismic maps, (lsochron, Velocity, and Depth), have been constructed for the reflector. The depth map shows that the reflector depths range between (6040-7600) m with respect to sea level. The general dip is toward west and southeastern. In structural point of view the present study denote to the existence of a very huge anticline in the western desert trending N40W. It has length and width range between (130 x 75) km. The depth map also shows the appearance of several anticlines have different dimension and closures. They have great importance in possibility of petroleum existence. Finally P3rtS of the two major faults. Abu-jeer and Umage-Samara-Halabja, have been detected and plotted on the isochron and depth maps.

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Article
تاثير المعالجة بسماد NPK على تركيز البوتاسيوم و توزيعه في عينات من التراب العراقية

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The effect of potassium addition, as NPK fertilizer, on the potassium concentration was studied in 25 Iraqi soil samples, as well as its distribution as structurally fixed or exchangeable ion in the mineral constituents of the soil and to assess the influence of soil type, physiographic, type of clay minerals and other specifications on the potassium behavior. NPK solution was added to the soil samples in various concentrations (0.017%, 0.035%, 0.069% and 0.1% K by wt.}. The samples were washed after treatment and the total and exchangeable K were determined and compared to pretreatment values The results showed an average increase of about 54% in the total K after treatment with NPK. Samples from Mousl and Hader areas showed the highest increase (70- 80%), Baiji, Baghdad and Was it samples showed medium values (about 65%), whereas western Desert and Basra samples showed the lowest increase (13-25%). The K enrichment took place after the first addition of NPK (lowest concentration). It was noticed that the content and type of clay minerals are the main factors influencing K uptake in the treated samples. Total K values were highest in the illiteracy samples, especially in slightly acidic (PH<7.0) and less saline soils (TDS < 1000 ppm). Exchangeable K increased in 16% of the samples after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd addition of NPK, but increased to 5.5% after the 4th addition (highest K concentration). It was noticed that the main increase in exchangeable. K took place in samples from Northern Iraq and the lowest in those from the south (Basra) and Western Desert. Exchangeable K, after treatment reached an average of about 6% of total K, which is lower than that before treatment this could be due to the high rate of K fixation in the structure of clay minerals after treatment with NPK depending on the nature and origin of these minerals The results also show that the factors influencing concentration of exchangeable K, after NPK treatment, are the content and type of clay minerals, salts content and pH of the soil. Higher K (ex) values were noticed in clay - rich soils, where montmorillonite and illite are dominant, salt content is low (<1000 ppm TDS) and weakly alkaline or neutral soils (pH2:7 0). The highest ratio of K(ex) I K(t) was noticed in the montmorillonite - rich soils of the Western Desert which suffered minimum K fixation after treatment due to the: nature of parent rocks of these soils in this area. This study has shown that most of potassium added as fertilizer to the soils fixed in the soil components and hence its use as a plant nutrient is limited to the time of addition, which requires adding the fertilizer in rations to ensure better results

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Article
The Dimensionless Analysis of Groundwater Pumping Activity from Hypothtical Shallow Ponds in SAFWAN-ZUBAIR Area, South of IRAQ ق
التحليل الابعدي لفعالية ضخ االمياه الجوفية في برك ضحلة افتراضية في منطقة سفوان –الزبير جنوب العراق

Authors: علاء محسن عطية
Pages: 189-198
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The dynamics of flow associated with pumping form large diameter shallow ponds is investigated. Shallow ponds are considered as a means to develop unconfined shallow aquifer in many areas across the world. Large storage of such ponds allows pumping for short periods with large pumping discharge or for relatively long period with lower rates. A numerical finite-difference based model is used to establish effects of well storage, pond size/ partial penetration and pumping time on the pumping discharge of ponds. Numerical results are presented in terms of generalized dimensionless variables. Both steady and transient cases are identified. The results enable us to evaluate both the short term and long lam yields that can be obtained by pumping form large ponds constructed in phreatic aquifers of given dimensionless and properties. A design procedure is selected/ for transient case/ depending upon the model runs and dimensionless analysis. The parameters that can be obtained from design procedure include pond diameter/ pumping discharge and pumping schedule for given aquifer properties if a daily pumping-recovery cycle is designed as a means to develop the shallow aquifer. Design parameters are suggested for the purposes of planning and design of such pond as a water source for irrigation in Safwan-Zubair area/ south of Iraq. It can be stated that constructing ponds with 15m diameter and pumping time of 0.5d with pumping discharge of about 1980 m3/d are sustained for water demands for irrigation purposes in the area of question. The values of design parameters are based on averages and generalizations.

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Article
On multiplication modules and their generalization

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Article
Comutativity Results on Semiprime Rings

Authors: Mehsin Jabel Atteya --- A.H.Majeed
Pages: 224-226
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Article
Gost Versus DES Encryption Algorithms

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Article
Action of S3 Homotopy 15-Spheres

Authors: Adill Naoum
Pages: 230-233
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Article
Strongly Primary Submodules

Authors: A.G.Naoum --- Inaam M. Hadi
Pages: 234-237
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Let M be an R-module, where R is an integral domain with quotient field K .In this paper we introduce the concept of strongly primary submodule, where a submodule N of M is called strongly primary. if whenever r ϵ K . X ϵ M. rx ϵ N implies .X ϵ N or rn ϵ (N:M) for some n ϵ Z+ . We study this concept and give some of its properties.

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Article
Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluid in Curved Duct with Varying Aspect Ratio

Authors: Fathi S.A. --- Hadi A.M. --- Zainy A.
Pages: 238-249
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In this study consideration is given to viscous, incompressible, second order fluid flowing in a rectangular duct, with varying aspect ratio, under the action of the pressure gradient. In particular consideration is given to visco-inelastic liquid. An orthogonal coordinates system has been framed to describe the fluid motion and it is found that the motion equations are controlled by two parameters namely; Dean number and the Non-Newtonian parameter. Solutions for the secondary flow and the axial velocity are derived as perturbations over straight pipe appearing through the dean number. The finite-difference method is employed to find a perturbation solution. These solutions have been developed in certain coordinates for harmonic and biharmonic equations. This study ended with the effect of the non-dimensional and aspect ratio parameters mentioned above on the secondary motion.

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Article
Satellite Image Classification by Fuzzy Neural Network

Authors: Loay Kadom Abood --- Fatima Bahjat Ibrahim
Pages: 250-254
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Implementation of Fuzzy Reasoning by structure or Neural Network method is used in this work, weights of Neural Network is Fuzzy Reasoning. The FNN can automatically identify the Fuzzy Rules and tune the membership function by modifying the connection weights of Network using the back-propagation algorithm. Post-classification rules is used to reduce the number of isolated mis-classified pixels occur after the pixel-by-pixel classification principle.

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Article
Diploid GA with Real-valued vs. Binary-coded Recombination Operator in Diploid Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Bara'a Ali Attea
Pages: 255-260
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Different evolutionary algorithms based on real coding have been presented for tracking parameter optimization problems. They include evolution strategies (ESs), and real-coded genetic algorithms (RCGAs). As the power of the GAs arises from their recombination (crossover) operator, and it may be considered to be one of the components to be borne in mind to improve the GA's behavior, researchers on evolutionary algorithms considered a new class of recombination operators- called real-valued recombination operators. In this paper, we examine the effect of real-valued recombination operator in diploid genetic algorithm, comparing its results with that of diploid genetic algorithm using bit-coding recombination operators.

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Article
Computer Simulations of Astronomical Objects seen by the Next Generation Optical Space Telescopes

Authors: A.T.Mohammed
Pages: 261-269
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Computer simulations are carried out 10 quantify the quality of astronomical objects as seen by the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). These simulations are studied in terms of the modulation transfer function, MTF, of a reference star, and the power spectrum of a binary star. The results of these simulations are compared with the simulated results for the same astronomical objects as seen via Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and a 4 m Ground-Based Optical Telescope (GBT) in the absence and presence of atmospheric turbulence. This study is also extended to examine the percentage frequency recovery of these telescopes from a binary star of separation is just within the full extent of Hubble's psf in the absence and presence of atmospheric turbulence.

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Article
Implementation of Pseudo-Coloring Technique on Thermal

Authors: Aws N. Al-Saadi --- Loay A.Jorge
Pages: 270-275
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Article
Supervised Classification of Remote Sensing Images Using Fuzzy Technique

Authors: Dhia'a K.Mahdi
Pages: 276-280
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Article
Radiance to Reflectance Conversion Effects on Landsat TM Images

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in this research digital numbers (DNs) for Landsat-5 TM images was Converted to reflectance values, at first DNs converted to radiance by corrected for Gain and Offset values of the particular spectral TM band. Then converted these radiance values to spectral reflectance by correcting the atmospheric effects To study the effects or the conversion, digital image processing techniques were applied for both images (DNs and Reflectance). such as enhancement by histogram equalization, and geometrical correction. Image classification (supervised and unsupervised) also applied as comparative criteria. The analysis of the results shows that the reflectance image gave better ctassiilca.ion accuracy for supervised and unsupervised classification than image DNs while conversion DNs to reflectance image does not affect ns geometrical properties.

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Article
Gradient of Magnetic Field in Pulsar Star

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The magnetic field of pulsar (B), is considered to be magnetic dipole field. The pulsar is a neutron star. The pulsar magnetic field is about (108 T), wit h high if curvature and radius or ( 104 m). The work is interested on the geometry of the magnetic field within the light cylinder (RL =3x108m).The model of pulsar, which we adopted, is that of (Goldriech & Julian), the dipole axis is in the same axis of the star rotation it is an aligned rotator. Within this consideration we studied the types or gradient with changing position angle (λ) The first type, -B-Grudien in (r) direction (∇rB), and the second type,-B- Gradient in (λ) direction (∇λB). The results indicated that the assumed magnetic field configuration enable us to estimate, why the two types of Grad.-B, increase towards the limits of the light cylinder. Therefore we noted the magnetic field inside the light cylinder is very strong with high curvature for star surface. Also, we concluded, after the boundary of (RL), the magnetic field lines are open and the charges will be accelerate with high velocity and flow out the light cylinder.

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Article
Fast Encoding Algorithm for Vector Quantization-Based on Block Truncation Coding Technique

Authors: Maha A. Hameed
Pages: 296-298
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An adaptation will he used to improve the compressibility of the BTC by utilizing the VQ method to represent the binary form of the coded image produced from the BTC. The encoding of a VQ-based image coding requires a full codebook search for each input vector to find out the best-matched codeword. It is a time consuming process. In our presence work, a fast algorithm for vector quantizing image data is proposed The algorithm is proved powerful.

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Article
Comparison Between Zernike Moment and Central Moments for Matching Problem

Authors: Laith A. Eaalyoy --- Aws N. AL saadi --- Raid N. Hassan
Pages: 299-305
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Moment invariants have wide applications in image recognition since they were proposed. The recognition problem is very often connected with image reconstruction technique to determine a desired set of invariants for use feature extractor in the recognition system. The low order moments are found to be related to the global properties of the image, while high order moments contains information about details. It was found that the low order moments are not efficient for image recognition because the general shape of different objects can be similar and do not allow distinguishing one object from another. For this reason, some preprocessing have to be done to enhance this weakness , and use low order moments to overcome the weakness and test it for image recognition, image transformation (rotation, flip, translation and scaling). The main difficulty in the application of the invariant moments is an absence of the theoretical methods of estimation their efficiency in recognition tasks. In this paper, the goal is to analyze the significance of Zenike moments and central moments of different orders and compare them to determine who the best for matching in cases of is Image transformation. The accuracy for matching is almost (90%) for Zerinke moments and (95%) for central moment.

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Table of content: volume: issue: