Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

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Table of content: 2006 volume:6 issue:8

Article
Variation of facial heights among the Class I, II and III dentoskeletal relationships (Cephalometric study)

Authors: Hussain A Obaidi
Pages: 98-105
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Abstract

Aims: To compare the anterior and posterior facial heights among the sexes and total sample. Mean while; to find the facial height variations among the Class I, II and III dentoskeletal groups. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 32 lateral cephalometric radiographs (16 for each sex) for each of the Class I, II and III dentoskeletal relationships. The age of the sample subjects was 15–20 years. The lateral cephalometric radiographs were traced. The total, upper and lower anterior facial heights and the total, upper and lower posterior facial heights were measured. Results: No significant differences among the both sexes and total sample for the dentoskeletal groups were demonstrated. All the facial heights appeared significantly greater in Class II group than Class I group except upper anterior, upper posterior and lower posterior facial heights and was significantly higher than Class III group in upper anterior, lower anterior and upper posterior facial height. Class III group displayed significantly lower value in total facial height than Class I group and significantly larger value in lower posterior facial height than of Class I group and Class II group. Conclusion: The facial heights are not affected by the sex variation, but there are certain variations in facial heights among the dentoskeletal groups.


Article
The variation of the lower anterior facial height and its component parameters among the three over bite relationships (Cephalometric study)

Authors: Saba H Al–Zubaidi --- Hussain AA Obaidi
Pages: 106-113
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the genders and over bite subjects group variation for the lower anterior facial height (LAFH) and its component parameters in Iraqi population in Mosul City. Materials and Methods: The study was performed by using measurements on pretreatment cephalometric radiographs of 79 patients, 27 with normal over bite and 26 for each open and deep over bite. The age ranged from 12–16 years with Class I dentoskeletal relationship. Results: The normal over bite group was significantly larger maxillary anterior alveolar ratio and the mandibular anterior and basal height in male when compared with female. Deep bite group appeared significantly larger mandibular anterior alveolar depth in males than in females. The open bite group showed significantly larger interincisal angle in females than in males. Multiple range variation analysis of the lower facial height and its component parameters disclosed no significant differences in these parameters among the over bite groups except that the open bite group was significantly larger mean value in the LAFH and significantly lower mean value in the interincisal angle when compared with normal and deep bite groups. Conclusion: The significant gender variation of the LAFH and its components of the normal over bite group were appeared in maxillary anterior alveolar depth, ratio and mandibular anterior alveolar height; whereas in deep bite group appeared in mandibular anterior alveolar depth, and in open bite group demonstrated in the interincisal angle.


Article
Aqueous extracts of Propolis and Miswak as topical medicament to improve post– operative outcome after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar

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Abstract

Aim: To asses the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of either Propolis or Miswak on the post–operative outcomes in relation to the duration of operation after surgical removal of lower third molar was performed. Material and Methods: A total of 97 patients participated and distributed randomly into 3 groups according to the medicament applied into the extraction socket: Group I, in which 5% aqueous solution of propolis extract used; group II, in which 10% aqueous solution of Miswak extract used; and group III, in which distilled water used (control group). Results: A significant improvement in post–operative outcome at 3rd day in both group I and II comparing to group III was observed. No significant difference noticed at 1st day and 6th day. Assessment of dry socket showed no significant difference in between the three study groups. However, when assessment performed in relation with operation time, a significant difference noticed in between the three study groups with high incidence of dry socket reported in operation take longer than 30 minutes in the three study groups. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Miswak and Propolis as a topical medicament following lower third molar extraction had a slight reducing effect on the severity of post–operative complications.

Keywords

Miswak --- Propolis --- impacted tooth.


Article
Different methods to measure canine rotation

Authors: Neam F Agha --- Neam R Al–Saleem
Pages: 122-129
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Abstract

Aim: Demonstration of a new method which is liner measurement to record the amount of canine rotation after orthodontic treatment, in addition to the ordinary angular method for measuring canine rotation. Materials and Methods: Forty five patients (20 males and 25 females) were selected: Those need extraction of the first premolars for correction of malocclusion. Their age varied from 12–23 years. A study model was taken for them pre and post treatment, then measurements were done directly on the cast and other measurements indirectly converted on a paper to measure other variables. Results: There were no significant differences among age groups and between the sexes for the angular and linear methods. Also, there was insignificant canine rotation in the mesial or distal sides toward or away from the reference line within the different groups; this clearly seen in the linear method. In the angular method, also canine rotation can be seen within the age groups but not demonstrated the side of rotation like the linear method. Conclusion: Canine rotation occur within the treatment work in the two methods of measuring canine rotation, but this research proved that the linear direct measurement which is the new method followed in this work was more beneficial and accurate for clinical work than the indirect angular measurements.


Article
The ability of Ca(OH)2 to facilitate bone formation by measuring the alkaline phosphatase level (Experimental study)

Authors: Harith H Kaskos
Pages: 130-135
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Abstract

Aim: To investigate the early events of bone regeneration of Ca(OH)2 by studying biochemistry level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as guide for bone regeneration. Materials and Methods: The mandible of eight dogs was prepared by hole of 0.5×0.5 cm in depth and diameter in the apical to the molar teeth. This hole packed with Ca(OH)2 powder mixed with distilled water to become as a paste. Samples of blood were collected pre–operatively considered as control groups [measuring level of serum ALP in experimental animals before implanted Ca(OH)2], then at the 7, 10 and 15 day postoperatively considered as treated groups [measuring alteration of level of serum ALP in experimental animals after implanted Ca(OH)2] for biochemical analysis of the level of serum ALP. Results: There was a significant difference at the day 10 following the operation between the control groups and the treated groups, while there was no significant difference at the day 7,and day 15 postoperatively between the control and the treated groups. Also the results showed that there was a high significant difference between the different postoperative days. Conclusion: The (CaOH)2 powder mixed with distilled water have the ability to accelerate bone regeneration when it is placed in bone defect comparing to thatdefect filled with nothing.


Article
The occupational hazards and diseases among dentists in Mosul City: Musculo– skeletal pain, eye problem and hepatitis

Authors: Ghada Dh Al–Sayagh
Pages: 136-145
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the distribution of the health hazards and diseases among dentists in Mosul City according to age, sex and number of working hours per week. It also stated the usage of personal protective measures among dentists. Materials and Methods: The study of population consisted of one hundred and thirty dentists. The target population comprised dentists who worked in Mosul City. The study was conducted within form of questionnaire. Dentists were asked whether they suffered any occupational disease related to a musculo–skeletal pain and its location whether in the back, upper limbs or lower limbs. Also location of back pain as in the neck, shoulder, thoracic, lumber and sacral regions. Additionally, dentists were asked about eye problem, infectious diseases and if they are wearing medical gloves and masks. Results: The musculo–skeletal pain was the most frequent complaint of the total dentists (63.08%). Back–pain was the most prevalent of the musculo–skeletal disorders among dentists (81.54%) of the total sample and more frequently in the cervical area; i.e., neck and shoulder (66.15%). There was a significant difference between the prevalence of different musculo–skeletal pain and the weekly working hours among dentists (p = 0.01). There was a significant difference between dentists with and without eye problems (p = 0.033). Higher prevalence of dentists from the total sample did not complain of infectious diseases (82.31%). Dentists whom never wearing gloves and masks comprised the higher percentages of the total sample (46.15% and 19.23%, respectively). Conclusions: Carrying out their professional work, dentists are exposed to a number of occupational hazards. The study revealed that musculo–skeletal pain was the frequent complaint of dentists and more frequently in the cervical area (neck and shoulders) with a significant association between the number of working hours per week and musculo–skeletal pain in all locations (back, upper limb, lower limb). The majority of the examined dentists complain of eye problem during their practice, whereas most of them never complain any infectious disease. No significant association between dentists wearing gloves but significant association between those wearing masks with the age.


Article
Dental health status of adult population in Yemen (Thamar City)

Authors: Faraed D Salman --- Khawla M Saleh --- Aisha A Qasim
Pages: 144-150
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the oral health status (dental caries, periodontal disease and treatment needs) in Yemenis adult individuals. Material and Methods: The sample included 471 individuals, age ranging between 20–59 years of both sexes using sharp dental caries explorers with WHO periodontal probes to detect periodontal health by the use of DMFT index of WHO (1997) and CPITN by WHO (1987). Results: The mean DMFT for the total sample was 7.33 + 0.3 which was increased with increasing age for the different age groups with a significant difference but no significant difference in the mean DMFT for total males and females has been found. The results also showed that the total number of teeth (880) with a mean of 1.81 tooth/person in need of treatment is the most prevalent needed one surface filling, and 581 teeth with a mean of 1.23 tooth/ person needed two or more surfaces filling. According to the highest CPITN there was significant difference between male and female in calculus at p < 0.05 and shallow pockets at p < 0.01. The results also revealed that the mean number of healthy sextants for the total sample was 4.13 while for bleeding and calculus were 1.02 and 0.21, respectively. It means that the treatment needs for periodontal disease is more toward oral hygiene procedure and prophylaxis. Conclusion: Dental health education program is an essential activity for promoting optimal oral health and preventing oral diseases

Keywords

Dental health status --- DMFT --- CPITN.


Article
Radiological accuracy in the interpretation of apical fitness in endodontics

Authors: Nazar Gh Jameel --- Nawfal A Zakaria
Pages: 151-154
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Abstract

Aim: To compare the accuracy of right–angle paralleling and bisecting–angle radiographic techniques in the determination of apical fitness in endodontic therapy. Materials and Methods: Thirty three root canals of first upper and lower molar teeth have been used in this study. A K–file was inserted into the canal until its tip was fit snuggly one millimeter shorter than the apex. Each tooth then radiographed twice by the right–angle paralleling and bisecting–angle techniques. The distance between the file tip and the center of radiographical apex was directly measured by two examiners and the mean of each two measurements was recorded. Data were collected and analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Results: The mean value revealed that there were clear differences between the mean of measurements by the parallel technique (0.87mm) and that with the bisecting technique (0.39mm), when these two results compared with the mean of real measurements (1mm). One way analysis of variance revealed there were significant differences in one of the three groups at p < 0.05 level. Duncan’ Multiple Range test showed that the parallel measurements when compared with the real measurements the results showed that there was no significant difference but was significantly different from the bisecting measurements. Conclusion: It is preferable to the dentist to use the right–angle paralleling technique during root canal treatment, where it gives more accurate result for estimation of the working length.

Keywords

Parallel --- bisecting --- apical fitness


Article
Systemic effect of tranexamic acid on Prothrombin and clotting times in rabbits after IV injection of heparin (Experimental study)

Authors: Raid M Basheer
Pages: 155-160
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Aim: To evaluate the effect of a single dose of tranexamic acid (cyclokapron) in reducing the postoperative bleeding following minor oral surgery on ten rabbits on anticoagulant therapy (heparin). Materials and Methods: Samples of blood were collected pre and post heparin and tranexamic acid injection for measuring the Prothrombin and clotting time. Results: There was no significant difference between the Prothrombin time and clotting time normal and Prothrombin time and clotting time after tranexamic acid injection. Conclusion: A single dose of tranexamic acid given postoperatively was effective in reducing the postoperative bleeding following minor oral surgery in experimental rabbit on heparin anticoagulant therapy without changing the regular heparin regimen doses. The same regimen may be applied on hospitalized patient on heparin anticoagulant therapy


Article
Criteria for selection of Implant cases

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Aims: To evaluate upper and lower limits of the parameters used such as (age, sex, or selection of patient), and to detect the grade of understanding and acceptance of Iraqi publics for the implant surgery (education level). Materials and Methods: From a total of 300 patients seeking implant therapy in Al–Salam Hospital Implantology Center, only 45 patients were chosen to undergo implant surgery with age group 17– >60 years during the period from February 2002 to February 2005. A case sheet was specially prepared for this study containing information needed to determine the suitable criteria of implantation. Frialit–2 implant system was used with its different lengths and widths (color– coded). Maxillary and mandibular impressions, registration of maxillo–mandibular jaw relation records were done for each patient to record all findings. Data were collected and statically analyzed. Results: The higher age group patients were 17–30 years with percentage 5.33%, while non–operated patients 51–60 years showed high percentage of 29.66%. Criteria of the forty five patients (22 females and 23 males) participated in this study were statistically analyzed concerning the economical level. The operated patients showed 57.77% level I (high), 40% level II (moderate) and 2.22% level III (low). While for education level showed 53.3% level I, 42.2% level II and 4.4% level III. Conclusion: Low percentage of educational level of patients need an explanation about surgical and prosthetic parts of dental implant to elevate the education level of patients. In addition to educational level, economical level of patient plays an important role in the criteria for selection of patients.


Article
Evaluation of brackets shear bond strengths using two different light–emitting diode curing units

Authors: Ahmad A Abdul–Mawjood
Pages: 171-175
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Aims: To evaluate the efficiency of two types of light–emitting diode (LED) curing units in bonding orthodontics brackets. Materials and Methods: Three groups, ten teeth each, of newly extracted premolars were used in the study. In the control, the brackets were bonded using a halogen bulb light curing unit, while in the other two groups the brackets were bonded using a high and a low intensity LED curing unit, respectively. The brackets were bonded to the teeth using Transbond® light–cured orthodontic adhesive. The bonded brackets were tested for their shear bond strength using a universal compression machine. Results: The mean bond strength of brackets bonded with the high intensity LED curing unit was above the clinically accepted value and it was comparable to that of the halogen bulb light curing unit group. Meanwhile, the mean bond strength of brackets bonded with the low intensity LED curing unit significantly differed from the other two groups and was below the clinical acceptance level. Conclusion: The high intensity LED curing units can be used successfully in bonding orthodontic brackets. The bond strength was sufficient to consider these units as good substitutes for the halogen bulb–based units. The low intensity LED curing units are not recommended to be used in orthodontics.


Article
Oral malignant lesions in a sample of patients in the north of Iraq (Retrospective study)

Authors: Ali I Al–Niaimi
Pages: 176-180
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Aim: To determine the frequency of occurrence and the distribution of different oral malignant lesions in a sample of patients in the north of Iraq. Materials and Methods: This study including the review of 6603 patients’ files with different types of malignant tumors of the body between the years 1995– 1999 and the cases affecting the oral cavity were isolated and undergo descriptive statistical analysis. Results: From the 6603 patients’ files reviewed, only 119 cases (2%) had malignant lesions of the oral cavity with age range between 2.5–90 years and the mean of age was 58.3 years. Male:female ratio was 1.2:1. Squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant tumor of the oral cavity. Lower lip was the most commonly affected site by the oral cancer. Conclusion: Oral cancer included many types of tumors but the predominant type is the squamous cell carcinoma that takes many forms. Although it show high occurrence over the age of 40 years but it may occur at any age and sex. The other types of cancer although they are rare in the oral cavity but they should be taken in consideration during diagnosis of oral cancer.


Article
Assessment of oral cleanliness and gingival condition among intermediate Thamarian school students

Authors: Faraed D Salman
Pages: 181-185
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Aims: To evaluate the oral cleanliness and gingival health among intermediate school students and to find if there was any variation between age and sex groups in Thamar–Yemen. Material and Methods: A sample of 596 students aged 13–15 years old (308 males, 288 females) were examined using plaque index score by Silness and Löe (1964) and gingival index by Löe and Silness (1963). The clinical examinations were carried out in the school using plane mouth mirrors, WHO periodontal probes to detect the dental plaque and gingival health. Results: The mean plaque score for the total sample was 0.90. The plaque index was increasing with age, females reported less mean plaque scores than males with statistically significant difference between them. The mean gingival score was 0.52 for the total sample and it was increasing with age with statistical significant difference. Females also reported less gingival scores than males with statistical significant difference between them. The study revealed that 45.1 % of the total sample did not brush their teeth. Conclusion: Gingival and periodontal diseases are indirectly related to the exposure of bacterial plaque for long time which calls for integrated, coordinated planning of preventive and treatment services as an urgent priority.


Article
A clinical study of the anti–caries effect of 1.23% and 0.4% APF fluoride gel on primary dentition: One year follow–up

Authors: Tarik Y Khamrco --- Layla A Makani --- Karam H Jazrawi
Pages: 186-193
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Aims: To determine the efficacy of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel in reducing caries increment in a group of pre–school children in Mosul City, and to compare between the anti–caries effect of two different concentrations (full strength–1.23% and half strength–0.4%) after one year of bi–annual application of the gel. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 363 kindergarten children [192 (52.89%) males and 171 (47.11%) females] aged 4 years –at the initial examination– from 10 randomly selected kindergartens in Mosul City Center. The sample was divided into two experimental groups and one control group. Children in the first group received bi–annual application of full strength (1.23%) APF gel; those in the second group received bi–annual application of half strength (0.4%) APF gel, whereas those in the third group did not receive any fluoride treatment. Dental examinations were done according to WHO criteria using dmft and dmfs indices: One before fluoride application and the other after one year. Results: A significant reduction in dental caries increment of the two experimental groups compared with the control group regarding dmft and dmfs indices. The percentage of caries reduction regarding dmft and dmfs indices were 97.25% and 101.15% for the first group, and 95.94% and 85.33% for the second group, respectively. However, the differences between the two concentrations were statistically not significant, although children in the first group who received the full strength fluoride application revealed slightly better reduction in caries increment than those in the second group who received the half strength fluoride application. Therefore, to decrease the risk of ingesting a highly concentrated fluoride gel, the use of the lower concentration APF gel is recommended. Conclusion: The use of such a program involving professional APF gel application for pre–school children is advised especially for those with evidence of dental caries.


Article
Incidence of third root in mandibular permanent first molar: An endodontic challenge

Authors: Ali M Rashid --- Abdul–Haq A Suliman
Pages: 194-198
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Aim: To investigate the incidence and the morphology of third root for the mandibular permanent first molars from indigenous Iraqi population and their significance in the successful of endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A clinical, radiographical prospective evaluation of first mandibular permanent molar teeth (n= 788) and laboratory analysis of 695 extracted first mandibular permanent molars collected from University Mosul, College of Dentistry, Department of Conservative Dentistry and private dental clinic were collected and examined. All the clinical cases treated as third root present, unless otherwise both 90º, 20° mesial radiographical shift and trapezoidal access opening excluded the presence of this macrostructure. The third root was classified in three groups on the basis of the curve of the root/root canal according to Ribeiro and Consolaro (1997). Chi–square was used to determine the significance between both genders, whereas descriptive statistics was used to describe the result of observations. Results: Upon clinical and laboratory observation of total 1483 first mandibular permanent molars, 121 (8.1%) exhibited radix entomolaris (RE), 17 (14%) were classified as type I (straight root/root canal), 33 (27.2%) as type II (an initially curved entrance and the continuation as a straight root/root canals) and 71(58.6%) as type III (an initial curve in the coronal third of the root canal and a second buccally orientated curve starting from the middle to apical third). Statistical analysis with Chi–square indicated no significant differences between both genders regarding the occurrence of RE. In all cases, RE occurred bilaterally. Out of 71 teeth attended for clinic, 87.3% teeth required retreatment, while the apparent reason of extraction for 86% of 50 collected extracted teeth with RE seemed failure of endodontic treatment and the cleaning and obturation confined to the mesial and distal canals only. In all cases, the orifice of the RE was located distolingual from the main canal in the distal root. Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of this unusual root morphology in mandibular first molars. Radiographs exposed at two different horizontal angles are needed to identify this additional root. The access cavity must be modified in a distolingual direction in order to visualize and treat the RE; this results in a trapezoidal access cavity.

Table of content: volume:6 issue:8