Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume: issue:201

Article
In The Name Of Alla, Most Gracious, Most Merciful "Interference in Arabic Grammar"
المداخلات في النحو العربي

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I have been meditating a phenomenon while parsing with my students for years. A form may represent two or more morphological forms, and a word may be parsed in two different ways so that it once indicates a grammatical sense, moreover, it could indicate another according to grammatical considerations. I think I have done my best to explain what is important when comparing the two interpretations. Interference according to my induction may be restricted to the following subjects: - Nomen agentis and adjective assimilated to the present participle. - Intensive forms and the adjective assimilated to the present participle. - Noun (af'al) of pre-eminence "comparative degree of adjective" and the adjective assimilated to the present participle. - Verbs of surprise or wonder 'exclamation' and verbs of praise and blame. - Explanatory apposition and substitution. - Concomitant object and conjunction by the particle (wāw). - Adverb of manner (hāl) and specification (tamyiz). - Adverb of manner, absolute object and causative object. Other interference is attached to the appropriate section. I hope I could provide readers and researchers with grammatical deductions helping them know more about what is beyond those joint parsings. F.A. Fouad

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Article
Generation of PWM signals for full range speed control of three –phase induction motor simulation by using a computer

Authors: Aws Mahmood Abdullah
Pages: 1-10
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The principle operation of speed control systems is depended upon a wide range of generated frequencies a microprocessor was used to generate PWM or a six-steps modulated signal to maintain a constant voltage/frequency ratio. Because of speed computation limitations found in many available microcomputers previously, it was concluded that the on-line computation of switching patterns was not practical. The control and monitoring by using PC is more efficient and active.

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Article
الاحتجاج للقراءات القرآنية

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نالت القراءات القرآنية اهتمام العلماء والباحثين وألفوا فيها الكتب التي توثقها وتنسبها إلى أصحابها، ولكل قراءة ما يدعمها ويعززها، وقد تناول العلماء من المفسرين واللغويين والنحاة هذا الجانب وأولوه عنايتهم واهتمامهم، فألفوا فيه الكتب التي سميت بـ (الاحتجاج للقراءات) وذكروا فيها الحجج لكل قراءة، وقد تنوعت هذه الحجج وتعددت، فكان منها القرآن الكريم والقراءات القرآنية والحديث النبوي الشريف وكلام العرب شعرا ونثرا، وكذلك احتجوا بمعنى الألفاظ التي اختُلِف في قراءتها، واحتجوا كذلك بإعرابها وتصريفها وغير ذلك من أمور، وقد درست في هذا البحث هذه الحجج وبينت أنواعها وجهود العلماء فيها بشيء من التفصيل.

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Article
Edge Detection For Eye States Using Color Image Sequence

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In this work, an automatic and real time method for detecting eye states is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the regions of iris and white regions of an eyeball can be detected when it is open. In this case, color images contain more information helpful for detecting irises than intensity images. The saturation of color is used to detect whether the eye is open or closed, then the edge map of the eye image is used to detect the irises. Using the color information to detect the locations of irises is more accurate than using only the edge image.

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Article
The pessimistic Attitude in the poetry Of Shaul Cherenkhofiski Translation and analysis of his poems
النظرة التشاؤمية في شعر شاؤول جير نخوفسكي

Authors: Shayma F.Hamudi
Pages: 35-46
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Article
Die Flexion des Adjektivs von alten Zeiträumen bis zur Entstehung der neuhochdeutschen Standartsprache Eine theoretische Forschungsarbeit
تصريف الصفة من العصور القديمة حتى نشأة اللغة الالمانية الحديثة/ دراسة نظرية

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Article
Induction In Morphology
الِاسْتِقْرَاءُ الصَّرْفيُّ

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Induction in Morphology induction is dependent upon morphological authorizing the morphological rules, which fall into two categories: total, and partial. Have adopted some Authors the induction of partial They thought that some acts are used instead of the other acts, they stated that some of the Verb on behalf of other Verbs. In fact, contrary to their belief. Have adopted some Authors the induction of partial They thought that some of the words that indicate the plural indicates only a small number, and other words indicating a lot number. Indicate Quranic texts and poetic texts of the invalidity of this belief, and that the words that indicate the plural indicate the small number and lot number.

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Article
A Syntactico-Semantic Study of English Phrasal Verbs
دراسة دلالية نحوية للأفعال المركبة في اللغة الانكليزية

Authors: مآرب محمد صنكور
Pages: 89-112
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This paper is an attempt to investigate the syntactic and semantic features of the English phrasal verbs. In this paper, phrasal verbs were classified into subgroups according to their syntactic and semantic characteristics. After giving a survey of literature written on the meaning and definition of phrasal verbs, two sections have been devoted to tackle the most important issues in this category of English verbs. Section one sheds light on the basic definitions of the term ‘phrasal verb’ which are, according to the researcher’s point of view, sufficient to cover the area of the study. In addition, it studies the number and the importance of phrasal verbs in English. Section two deals with the syntactic and semantic features of English phrasal verbs. It shows whether these phrasal verbs are transitive intransitive and separable inseparable, as well as it focuses on the differences between phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs. Finally, the literal and idiomatic usage of English phrasal verbs has been tackled. In the light of the findings of the study a number of conclusions are drawn.

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Article
A Study on the Efficient Teaching Method of the Arabic Language - From the viewpoint of Arabic Sociolinguistics -
أفضل منهج لتعليم اللغة العربية لغير الناطقين بها - من وجهات نظر علم اللغة الاجتماعي –

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Article
Sign Manifestations in the Iraqi Poem (Mushtaq A. Ma'an as an Example)
التجلِّياتُ العلاميَّةُ في قصيدة الشعر العراقيَّة

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Article
Politics in the Plays of Harold Pinter

Authors: Ikhlas Sabah Abdullah
Pages: 113-144
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In many of Harold Pinter’s plays, the conflict is set in motion by the arrival of a visitor at the door. Within this unexpected admission a particular power struggle emerges, and by the end of the play, someone has lost the struggle and someone has won. It would be poetic to say that this very conflict mirrors the events of the Holocaust, that in the end, with the defeat of the Nazis, someone had won. Unfortunately, there were not any winners in the Holocaust, only victims. It is the memory of these victims that motivates Pinter to write the plays that he does, plays that are, at heart, addressing the corruption of mankind.

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Article
Limitation in words semantics in Arabic
ضيق دلالة المفردة في اللغة العربية

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يظهرُ البحث في مفردات اللغة العربية ودلالاتها جملة من التغير النوعي في تلك الألفاظ، إذ حملت بعض المفردات معنى واحداً شائعاً بين المتكلمين بها، ومتى أطلق أحد تلك الألفاظ فهم المراد منه، ولكن بمرور الزمن وبفعل عوامل متعددة، تولد معنى آخر غير المعنى الأول، وان كان مأخوذا منه في اغلب الأحيان، وهذا الأمر اسماه اللغويون المحدثون ( ضيق دلالة المفردة ). وقد احتوت كتب القدماء طائفة واسعة من الكلمات العربية التي ضاقت دلالتها خصوصا بعد مجئ الإسلام وانتشاره بين أرجاء جزيرة العرب. وان التفات القدماء لهذه الظاهرة في اللغة العربية يفصح لنا عن متابعتهم للنمو التاريخي للغة العربية، مما أدى إلى عناية الدارسين المحدثين بهذا الموضوع، ولكن يبقى هذا الموضوع بحاجة إلى بحث وجمع للمادة وأسبابها التي انشاته وأوجدته في لغتنا العربية، ويأتي هذا البحث لبنة في هذا البناء. أما أهم النتائج التي وصل البحث إليها فهي: - اثبت البحث جملة من الأسباب التي أدت إلى نشوء هذا الأمر، ومنها أسباب سياسية واقتصادية ودينية واجتماعية وغيرها. - أشار الدارسون المحدثون في بعض كتبهم إلى أن هذا الموضوع لا يزال ينمو في اللغة العربية في وقتنا الحاضر بفعل الأسباب نفسها التي أدت إلى نشوئه قديما. بيّنَ البحث إفادة اللهجة العامية من العربية الفصحى في تضييق بعض دلالات الألفاظ. - ألمعَ البحث إلى السبل التي تسلكها الألفاظ في ضيق دلالتها، ومنها: انتقال دلالة اللفظ من الدلالة الحسية إلى المعنوية، والانتقال من العام إلى الخاص.

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Article
USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES TO STUDY AND ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN AL-HABBANIYA LAKE AND SURROUNDING AREA

Pages: 145-156
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The study area lies in the central part of Iraq, in Al-Anbar Governorate, it covers about (4400) km2.It includes Al-Habbinya Lake which represent touristic region and waterish reserves used for water balance management of Euphrates River. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were adopted as practical tools for long term monitoring of Al-Habbinya Lake (1990-2001) to study Environmental change detection in the study area using ERDAS 9.1 Imagine and Arc GIS 9.1 programs. Supervised classifications were applied for the LANDSAT5 and LANDSAT7 images to classify the data and determine the change which took place during the period (1990-2001). The outcomes of these processes are two classification maps display eight classes of the land cover types for TM (1990) image in total classification accuracy reached 91.14% and a kappa coefficient 0.8989, eight classes of the land cover types for ETM (2001) image in total classification accuracy reached 93.06% and a kappa coefficient 0.9221. The obtained result shows increase in area of vegetation, muddy soil, moist land and decrease in area of water, bare soil, bare soil with gravel, and sabkha during the period from 1990 to 2001.

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Article
Philosophical Pessimism in Thomas Hardy`s Selected Works

Authors: Asmaa khalaf Madlool ,Ins.
Pages: 157-180
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This research sheds light on Hardy`s pessimism and its effect on his pen. This blackness cannot be regarded as personal characteristic only since sweeps his works .the research also traces the true ground that encourages its appearance in all his works. More illumination is put on the philosophy of his pessimism that has the ability to create tragedy. In spite of the suffer of having such painful feature ,it injects his works with distinguished spirit and new sight and a power to compose tragedy . The research traces the pressure over his pen to soften his hard views, he refuses for many reasons above them that his pessimism his inherited and has deep root in his soul. The arena of searching is selected novels and his important poem in which he admits of having pessimism. He shoulders this blackness the responsibility of not tasting the true meaning of happiness

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Article
ظاهرة الاشتقاق وأثرهـا في إثراء الدلالة اللغوية والمعجمية للمفردة القرآنية

Authors: حيدر علي نعـمة
Pages: 159-183
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The research addressed some of the most important phenomenal Arabic language that is contributed to the enrichment the meaning of Arabic lingual and Qur'an wards, and directed the lexical and linguistic sense of the Quranic terms, in order to arrive at the senses and meaning of it, therefore it has more effective role to enrich the Qur'anic explication..This phenomenon is called "the derivation of lingual word" this phenomenon leads to make limited numbers of words structure to participate in enlargement of the meaning of holly Quran words. This research includes two parts: the first of it include the derivation of lingual Arabic words phenomenon and clarification the most important role of it in create the new meaning of Arabic language words and there categorization, while the second part includes many examples of Qur'anic words make this phenomenon lucid to anyone want to identify to this Qur'anic phenomenon. Conclusions came to list the most important results that addressed the research, followed by list of sources and references that have served

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Article
The Distinction between Coordinate and Subordinate Clauses

Authors: سوسن عبدالمنعم
Pages: 181-202
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Abstract The present study deals with important terms in grammar; namely coordination and subordination in order to shed the light on the differences between them. The study has come out with certain points that coordination is a process used to form two or more categories by the same types by using and, or, but etc. Subordination that forms subordinate clause which is also called independent clause that contains a string of words by using subordinators as since, because, although …etc. Such a clause cannot stand alone but usually forms a major part of a sentence. Both coordination and subordination used for linking units ,but for subordination the unit is subordinated to the other. In addition clauses begin with coordinator normally cannot be moved in front of the preceding clause without changing the relationship of clauses, on the other hand , Subordinate clause has a flexible position in a sentence . Finally, the study has concluded that the coordinators allow ellipsis of the subject of the clause they introduce if the subject has a reference

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قراءة (كانت) على ضوء الفلسفة الإسلامية ((إمكان الميتافيزيقا أنموذجا))

Authors: صلاح الجابري
Pages: 185-200
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We tray, in this paper, to distinguish between Kantian and Islamic understanding of Metaphysics. therefore, we discuss the following differentiation about "Categories": 1. Islamic philosophy were distinguish between primary concepts and secondary concepts, while Kant did not recognize that, and He call them all as ((Categories)). 2. There are two kinds of concepts, one of them call categories, which are primary, they can be predicate of substances. but secondary cannot be predicate of. 3. Categories, that of Kant, made by mind, but they are Ontological ones in Islamic philosophy, by means of, that they are obtained not by mind, but they are reflexes from External World. 4. Kant was argue that Categories mere Formal connections of the sensations which comes from reality as appears us, therefore It never construct any Knowledge by themselves, without sense Intuitions, while, when we conceder categories as Ontological concepts, as Islamic do, that’s make them as components to construct Metaphysics.

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Article
The Case of Utterance and Meaning
قضية اللفظ والمعنى

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It is difficult for any critic to separate utterance and meaning because meanings once arise in the soul of the artist in the creative process they become inseparable from their utterances. But when the critic deals with them separately it is done purposefully which is mainly the uncovering of the aspects of these two principles and their artistic features. The two critics IbnTabatiba and Al-Jurjani complement each other. While IbnTabatiba pays more attention to meaning than to utterance, Al-Jurjani does the opposite. They agree on them through the agency of the context.

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Article
كتاب رسائل التعليقات

Authors: سفانة داود سلوم
Pages: 211-226
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The first represents is about the preference of poetry to prose and the difference between the two. The second research is about the obligation of something unnecessary. It also includes Abu- alalaa's pesimtisicim. The Third thing is the repetition in obligation and the psychological unity. While the fourth aspect is about sections and purposes.

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The Advisability of Using English-Arabic Code Switching as a Teaching Strategy in EFL University Classroom: A Case Study

Authors: Muayyed Juma An-Nasralla
Pages: 227-282
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This paper addresses the issue of English-Arabic code-switching (henceforth CS) in the university classroom and how the use of alternative codes might serve the learning and teaching processes. The study is based on analyzing 20 in-class audio-recorded lectures presented by the researcher along a whole semester . The study aims to investigate the teachers’ awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of their actual use of code switching in EFL classroom when the teacher shares the same native language with his students. It provides a detailed analysis of the linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic considerations of this phenomenon and the reasons of its occurrence. The first two parts of the study provides a theoretical background starting from the traditional perspective of code switching which considered it a random mixture of two languages (Legenhausen:1991), passing through a considerable bulk of research which analyzed many audio-recordings of classroom interactions (Martin-Jones: 2000). On the other hand, the first two parts talk about the various reasons of university classroom code switching, such as the ease of exposition and expression, the translation of particular unfamiliar terms, some socializing functions, maintaining classroom order etc. The third part discusses the various functions of using the L1 in the university classroom on the basis of 20 excerpts randomly selected from the data of the study. The data analysis is followed by a discussion to the findings of the study in comparison to those illustrated in similar studies.

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ملامح تطور اللغة في شكل القصيدة العربية الحديثة

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This study aims to demonstrate the features of the evolution of language in the form of the poem of modern Arabic, which were at distances of grains information for each poet, as it could after twenty years of growth to exceed the old form and he stood between himself and him dividing line is difficult for the reader the hair to go further away and goes beyond that unless grasp, Well shifts by changing and evolving, which has infected the essential elements of poetic form such as language, photography and graphic.

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أحاديـث الرافدين (دجلة والفرات) في الكتب التسعة (دراسة وتحليل)

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Praise be to (Allah), and the best peace and prayers be to His honorable prophet (Mohammed) and upon whose followers and companions. The prophetic Sunnah is the most honorable sciences after the holy Qura'n, it is the second source of the jurisprudence's sources. The prophet explained for all people what they have and what they should be, and clarify a close affairs of their life even those affairs of their future. So the ancient and modern scholars and scientists engaged themselves in such researches and studies which have a connection to their future and they invent plans and strategies and solutions for what may they encounter of events. . So I wrote a research entitled (Hadiths of last days on the six books), and I argued a doctorate thesis entitled (The tilling of the future from the prophetic Sunnah), and I suggested a topic for the master degree thesis entitled (the great battle on the three religions) this was under my supervision and it graded excellent degree. Within my reading on the Hadiths' books I was urged to write in the Hadiths of the receding of the two tributaries (Tigris and Euphrates) because of its relation to the future events like the Hadith (recede Euphrates from a mountain of gold), and the Hadith of( the coming down of Bano Qantora'a on Tigris ) and its relation to the occupation of Iraq. I gathered these Hadiths and they reached (6 Hadiths), and I study them analytical study, and connect them to its supports if it not found in the two Saheehs or one of the two Saheehs and judge them and clarify its strange pronunciation and then the general meaning and the benefits concluded from every Hadith. I pray (Allah) to accept this work pure to His Face.

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метафорическая модель, в русскых финансовых терминов и её отражение в современной политической речи.
النموذج المجازي للمصطلحات المالية الروسية وانعاكاسها في الخطاب السياسي المعاصر

Authors: . وليد لطيف عبدالله
Pages: 283-296
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The Scientific Miracle in Qur’an and Its Relationship to the Modern Experimental Approach
الإِعجاز العلمي وعلاقتهُ بالمنهج التجريبي المُعاصِر

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Praise be to Allah who sent down the Qur'an, immortal scientific miracle, and peace and blessings on Prophet Muhammad, his massage was a comprehensive mercy in the world and the hereafter (peace be upon him), and may Allah Almighty for his companions and followers, and followed them and walked to approach the Quran to the Day of Judgment . And after... It is the greatness of our Quran to be a book of guidance and miracles came down in a manner defying all people of all time, was the miraculous immortal. The resultant of scientific revolutions and technology, the expansion of science and knowledge, the development of inventions and discoveries of modern times and through the experimental method, was to reveal new aspects of Miracles Scientific Quran, which was a century ago in the unseen world . The goal of my research, as a Muslim interested in studying the Qur’an, is to show that the Great Qur'an was included scientific facts mentioned before already existent sciences, and we cannot realize its size and coverage, and the importance of this Search in our time; for being a method in the call to the religion of Allah in a manner commensurate with the era of explosion of scientific knowledge and the revolution in the technical means in which we live. If the contemporaries of the Prophet (peace be upon him) had seen a lot of miracles, the God have been showing the people of our time miracle to His Messenger suit with their time; to prove to them that the Qur’an is a truth, so God considered looking in the universe, upon which the experimental sciences is based, a way to believe in Him and His Messenger (peace be upon him) and his real religion . To illustrate the themes and in order to understand the search, I do not need to provide examples because the literatures are full of miracles, So (interpreted the will of God) I will display the themes that address my research : Axis I: The definition and importance of Scientific Miracles in the era of modern technologies . Axis II: the modern experimental method and its impact in the detection of the Qur'an miracles and the strengthening of the Muslim faith . Axis III: Controls and limits of research in the scientific miracles . Axis IV: scientific miracle is a proof on the integrity and the immortality of the Qur'an and the universality of Islam . If we realized the importance of the scientific miracles in strengthening the faith, in understanding what we were told in the Qur’an, motivate us to take the reasons of the scientific renaissance that is compatible with our religion, to invite non-Muslims to this great religion, getting rid of discord from the minds of the Muslims; and the intensity of our need for a weapon of science and knowledge, we will find that all the research in the scientific miracles are important skills in our era .

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Отражение деятельности человека в русских опубликованных фразеологических единицах
انعكاس نشاط الإنسان في التعابير الاصطلاحية الروسية المنشورة

Authors: سعد جهاد عجاج
Pages: 297-307
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English Prepositions: New Perspectives

Authors: Huda Abed Ali Hattab
Pages: 309-318
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Prepositions are short words used to link certain components to indicate specific meanings. They are difficult sometimes for even the advanced learners especially when it is a matter of translation because the uses differ between the mother tongue and the learned language. Prepositions are very important to provide adequate meaning and help in mutual understanding among speakers or people involved; therefore, the requirement for awareness of their uses is a prerequisite to any person seeks to present refined language. Consequently, the research would handle matters of great importance in relation to this area. It is hard if it is not impossible to imagine that language users can continue communicating exposing different topics with out the use of the vivid components which are called “prepositions”. And it is worth mentioning there are about 150 prepositions in English (John and Richard, 1984, p209), though it is a very small number when thinking about the thousands of other words like nouns, verbs,…etc, but they have special state in co working with other components; and this is what the research is behind.

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المصلحة المُرسلة عند ابن عاشور من خلال تفسيره

Authors: عامر خليل ابراهيم
Pages: 313-328
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The scholar Ibn Ashour innovators of scientists who stopped precious lives, and have made Precious their time, in the rebirth of the nation of the quagmire of humiliation and slaveryto the heaven of glory and splendor, has Deposited in the interpretation of which was written in fifty years his views discretionaryand innovative in the renaissance of the nation. Because of the scientific status of the High Commissioner that he arrived, he was assigned to many of the functions The scientific and administrative positions, Fastthmrha in the development and teaching methods, education and curriculum development; To improve the students of science to understand the reality and the ranks of perception,and how to respond to crises and processing, And dealing with all developments in all affairs of life. The interest sent from evidence-based Ibn Ashur in the development of legal provisions Of the facts emerging, provided that does not violate the letter of the texts of the canon. Scientists have fought in the weight of the mind and the permissive her, but this verbaldispute; to work by Almanaan Proof of evidence under another title. And working interest depends on controls to prevent the sending out for the purposes of the law, and when a failure Canceled by the controls work

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Ideas of the reforms and the changes in Iran in the 19 th centary
أفكار الإصلاح والتغيير في إيران في القرن التاسع عشر

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Through the bad huge circumstances which Iran lived in the 19th century appeared inside the society with all its groups , sects, groups and individuals who wanted reforms and changes that assure them prosperous life . The educated people were among them . They turned for it looking to the modern ideas and their interaction with the European groups to the saver for social and miserable people from what they were be . Therefore it is not strange that those are thinking and planning for making a basic change in politic , economical and social group for kajarist country. The military field was fro the first fields which gain the changes in the light of Eurpean patterns on the hand of Abbas mirza, the leader of Azerbijan and the oldest son for Fath Ali Shah and his crowned prince. When Mirza Mohammed khan became aleader : (great prince) who was described by Iranian and western sources as Iran never faced like him in the sixth centuries from its modern history . The greatest intiality in Iran (1848 – 1851) , He adapted the throu reform from anumber of institutions, among the most important was " school of Arts " or " Dar ALFunoon " Malcom khan was one of the pioneers of reformational school . He was the real founder and the spiritual leader for the missionary movement . Also Mirza fath Ali Akandov (1812 – 1878) , the theatrical figure and distinguished thinker of Azerbaijan , and Mirza Hussain khan Musheer AL_ Dulla (1828 – 1881 ) , and Abid AL_Raheem Talbov , the Iranian minister in Pitsburg , and Jamal ALDin ALAfghani , who was the most distinguished between them . Some believed him to be the leader of the Religious_ radical coallision . The contribution of these reformers and others in alerting peoples minds to the demerits of the kajar tyranny , and their call to work for freedom and reform succeeded in achieving their goal in establishing a constitutionalized rule and a parlimantary system (parliament ) ,in Iran in the beginning of the twentieth centary .

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أسباب الطلاق العاطفي لدى الأسر العراقية وفق بعض المتغيرات

Pages: 345-462
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The marriage of women and men, the nucleus of family formation, marriage relationship sacred mentioned the Almighty in His Holy Book (And We made from among yourselves to it and made us love and mercy between) Rum verse 3, but this relationship is subject to many variables affect them positively and negatively and lead them in directionsdifferent As for the more harmony, love and affection, or for more hatred and resentment and hatred, which in turn leads to total separation and the final or to what is known as divorce emotional meaning that the couple live under one roof, as if they were strangers and are forced to endure this situation, but in order to preserve the social form in front ofpeople or to maintain the children from loss and attention, and care or financial interests in common, based on the above, the current research examines the causes that lead to such a case mentioned by the Koran Bnchoz husband or willful defiance wife (who fear Nchoizen refuse to share their beds. And beat them the Otankm not seek to harm them means) Nisa verse 34, he says (and that the woman she is afraid that her husband is strangely or reluctance is not a sin Aehma that Asaleha their Salha) Nisa 138, has adopted a researcher theory of social exchanges (Humans and Peter Blau) was reached a number of conclusions as well as providing a number of recommendations.

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الحسن بن علي (رضي الله عنهما) مواقفه وخلافته

Authors: قحطان قدوري مجحم
Pages: 351-384
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This research under topic (Al-Hassan Bin Ali (May ALLAH be pleased with them) his attitudes and caliphate. This research talks about the brightness that presented by the piercing thinking of Imam Al-Hassan Bin Ali (May ALLAH be pleased with him) through the works which done during his reign. In this research, I have been prove that the personality of Al-Hassan consider as a unique personality leadership although his reign was short during his caliphate. Furthermore, in this research, I have been prove that Hassan’s caliphate (May ALLAH be pleased with him) was successful caliphate and it was complementary to the successful caliphate that mentioned by the prophet Mohammed (peace and blessings of ALLAH be upon him) in the correct hadith ( The caliphate in my nation is thirty years).

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PARALLELISM AS A COHESIVE DEVICE IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC PRAYERS: CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS
التوازي كأداة ربط في الدعاء في اللغتين الانكليزية و العربية (دراسة مقارنة)

Authors: RANA NAJI AZIZ
Pages: 353-371
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العثمانيون والعرب دراسة في المنظورِ التاريخي الحديث رؤية معاصِرَة

Authors: أميرة حسين محمود
Pages: 385-390
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Caliphate was one of the bases on which the philosophy of Ottoman rule was based. They regarded as their state as a contributions of the Arab-Islamic State which had fell in (1258 A.H.) on the hands of Mogul. Historians are divided between a supporter and oppose of the movement of the caliphate system and did not use the title "Caliph" after they subjected the Arab homeland. They were sufficed to the use of the title "Sultan". Is Ottoman claim of caliphate is only a claim or is they used caliphate as an established system. Many historians repeated what their enemies said about counterfeiting.

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إيديولوجية الفكر اليساري في أدب محمد مهدي الجواهري بين التصور والتطبيق

Authors: . جلال عبد الله خلف
Pages: 391-404
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This research tackles the thought trends of the poet,Mohammed Mahdi Al-Jawaheri who was expressing his socialist thought which prevailed in the 1940s and 1950s in most Arab countries . Al-Jwaheri's poet reflected clearly this tought and philosophy . His poetry can be characterized by long poems circle around the poor hard-working farmer , woman liberation , the human right in education ,and peoples right in self-decision . Al-Jwaheri had adopted the dialectic principle as an approach in constructing his poetry ,in which conflict factor is philosophically employed to end with the good to overcome the evil and justice to overcome the untrue

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منهجية الصديق  في مواجهة الردة دروس وعبر

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The study aimed to highlight a curriculum of the Khalifa Abu Bakr Al-Seddiq in the face of apostates and the impact of the dialogues that took place with the opposition parties and the position of el-Sahaba( Companions of the Profet ). And how they have been settled under the most serious issues in the nation through a survey of historical events, backgrounds & verifying it’s facts. Also from the most prominent results of research that had been reached , That the immutability of El-Seddiq and comprehensiveness of his vision in the face of the threat of polytheists to occupy ( El Medina ) , especially in the absence of the islam military force which was led by Osama bin Zaid outside the Arabian Peninsula and his pardon to the Arab valiants & recalcitrant tribal leaders after their return to the right ,by joining their hearts , dispensed with them ,not to be involved in Islamic conquests and stripped of their weapons (Disarming them)as they were unreliable due to novelty of their reign.

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النــــيـــــبــــــــاد: توجه جديد للتنمية في افريقيا

Authors: . فوزية خدا كرم عزيز
Pages: 425-434
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I knew the African continent, characterized by multiple developmental attempts mostly limited area and the effects on the continent are still marginalized within the international context, despite their wealth and their energies are eligible. Hence the relationship of two directions, between the economic blocs sub-regional level the African continent, and between access to the economic entity and political be at the level of the aspirations of the entire continent to promote development Khtmih imposed by the millennium out of the shell of underdevelopment and poverty through their own efforts, and thus represents the NEPAD a new phase of African countries seek to development, and some sort of adaptation and harmony with the political and economic changes and social world has ever seen, by starting from the same African will.

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الــمرأة والالــتزامــات الأســريـة

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Women are half of society not only in size but in terms of functionality about her family and her community have rights and duties (social commitments) that womens commitment to the direction of her family and their own roles and functional aspects enumerated has been instrumental in building community and sustainability in social life and this comminitment is their relationship with her husband and her children and their care and sense of being part of the family .

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The Reality of Human Rights in Secondary Schools in Baghdad
واقع حقوق الانسان في المدارس المتوسطة

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This research aimed to realize the realistic of Human Rights in Secondary Schools in Baghdad from the view of students in the fields of : Social , Health , Educational , Affective and Aesthetic welfares. The sample depended on (250) students ,(125) from each gender , students from 1st – 2nd secondary classes in eight schools for the year (2009) – (2010). Al-Ruba'i (2006) scale was depended on to measure the reality of Human Rights which built on " Child Rights Convention " which had (80) Items. The results cleared that the student in Secondary Schools receives NO Social , Health , Educational , Affective and Aesthetics Welfare according to " Child Rights Treaty " (1989).

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واقع الأداء الوظيفي لمديري مدارس التعليم الأساسي من وجهة نظر المديرين والمعلمين

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This study is aimed to identify the effectiveness of functional job performance for first parts schools ' managers "primary schools" of basic education. And according to the view of teachers' perspective in these schools , including their directors, as well as the work detection of significant differences between the answers, according to the nature of the work variable ( administration, teaching - that is between managers and teachers) to a determine the effectiveness of functional job performance for school directors. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the instrument (questionnaire) is prepared to measure job performance of school directors, and then to make sure of their sincerity and constancy. The questionnaire was distributed among a sample of educational professionals, consisted of (35) of school directors and (175) of teachers. In order to reach a result from this study, directors and teachers' answers were treated by adopting (T- test). As well as dealing with the answers to the sample, based on the arithmetic average to know the reality of job performance for directors. The study found the following results: 1. The diversity of the performance level for school directors to do their functional duties, ranging between weak, medium and high, according to the view of the members of the sample. 2. No statistically significant differences at the level of 0.05 between the answers of directors and teachers (study sample), which indicates their views are close about the nature of the performance of directors' duties.

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وظيفة التربية الفنية في تنمية التخيل وبناء الصور الذهنية لدى المتعلم وإسهامها في تمثيل التفكير البصري (تطبيقات عملية في عناصر واسس العمل الفني)

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Through the surveillance study and literature in the field of fine arts and art education through the mental operation (attention, sensual realization, imagination, mental imagination, remembering, thinking and others) for the learned individual for these practicing the artistic skills. It appeared that there is an emphasis on the aspect for the help in the development of the imagination and the construction of mental image as well as the cognitive skills. That is done through different skills which needs the training of senses in general and the vision sense in particular as to how to realize the sensational part size, colour, touch, harmony, shadow, light and the three dimensions (depth). The memory could be trained and activated through concentration on the process of assembling of the competent of the artistic work and creating a linked texture of these components. The two researchers see that giving chance to the learner to express freely without limitation as a starting point to recall his expertise according to the requirement of the situation. This could play a role in the development of the imagination and the construction of mental image visual thinking representation and this contribute to the process of innovation and creativity. That comes about through art encouragement. Starting from this, the two researchers touched upon tap problem of the study through the employment of art education for the curricula and its role in the development of the imagination and the construction of mental image and for the learner. Thus, the problem was formulated through the questions: A. What are the stimulators and activators that help leaner express the themes he wants to carry on without restrictions that hinder his freedom of expressing, and also, should be a flexible frame allowing him to imagine the structure of the artistic work? B. Is it possible to develop imagining and imagination for the learners of the themes? C. Could the mechanisms of the imagination and the structure of image be developed through the elements and correlation of art? Upon that, the present study aims at answering the following: 1. Is it possible to develop imagining and imagination for the learners through the educational expertise of the aspects of art education? 2. How the mechanisms of the imagination and the structure of image work with other expertise like sensual realization and thinking? 3. Can mental imagination be measured out through the application in the application? In order to achieve these objectives, the researchers used the developmental method in the construction of the theoretical depiction of the component of the theoretical frame which is centered around the essence of imagination and imagining and its role in the making of mental image for the learner. Then, tackling the Mechanism of imagination and the mental image. For the educational application, they depended on the elelmem, and bases of the artistic work in activation then imagination. Starting from that, they concluded that: 1. The mental image could be built through correlatative relations which form the image of the mental imagery of the of the elements of the work as represented by: forms,lines, colour , touch and harmony, balance and rhythm. These could contribute to the thinking representation for the learner in his work of art. 2. The visual image is formed from the harmony and disharmony in tempo and continuity through visual rhythms of the shapes and movements of the work of art. That is done through linking elements each to each.

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Meaning In Life And Its Relationship to Personal Type (A, B) Among The Students of The University of Baghdad
المعنى في الحياة وعلاقته بنمط الشخصية ( A,B) لدى طلبة جامعة بغداد

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Research aimed to: 1.Identify the level of meaning in life among the students of the University of Baghdad, on a scale of meaning in life and to identify statistically significant differences in the level of the meaning of life according to the variables of sex (males - females) and specialization (scientific- humanist). 2.Identify the level of personalitytype (A, B) on the scale arabized by the researcher and applied to students of the University of Baghdad, and to identify the differences statistically significant at the level of personalitytype (A, B) depending on the variables of sex (males - females) and specialization (scientific- humanist). 3.Identify the relationship between meaning in life and personality type (A, B). Research Tools: Researcher used measure of meaning in life ,arabizedand adapted on the Iraqi environment by Al-Araji (2007). The researcher arabized personal type scale (A, B) and its adaptation to the environment of Iraq. The results showed: 1.Baghdad University students have a level of meaning in life and the existence of statistically significant differences in favor of males, but no significant differences on the scale of meaning in life, depending on the specialty (scientific- humanist). 2. Tendency of students to the type (A) and no statistically significant differences due to the variables (males - females) and specialization (males - females) on the scale of personality type (A, B) in the light of the results ,the researcher reached to some of the recommendations and proposals.

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The marketing in the talk shows An analytical study to the Oprah winfrey show
التسويق في البرامج التلفزيونية الحوارية ــ دراسة تحليلية لبرنامج Oprah Show

Authors: هدى مالك شبيب
Pages: 769-789
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After the informative message was a simple one which collects the whole elements by away hit the goals from the direct advertising , when the information are arranged by clear forms & brief phrases about the good. To this purpose the advertiser has looking for creative advertising forms by the methods & styles in order to offer his goods& ideas in exception of classical ways. One of these ways is(breaking) the talk shows by all of its kinds& the more significant of these programs is talk shows & its recruitment in order to indirect advertising and the reason behind this is as the researchers says: the talk has been taken the huge transient & spatial spaces in the Arabic space channels which bases on the view point which confirms that the human reaction has based in origin on the talk. In addition to the advertisers realize that the talks importance in the social; economical & political fields & its direct effect on the spectators souls. For this reason, he is been taking the talk shows as a method to make his viewpoint arrives to the spectator in a thrilling method. The good example on this case is "the Oprah winfrey show" which presents a marketing ideas in addition to another ideas like: culturing; entertainment……..etc. From this point upwards, the researcher has considered to study this phenomenon "the exploitations level of the talk shows is very far on its targets which is planned for them "on this basis; the researcher has many question which she tried to answer like: 1. The type of the marketing ideas in the well-known talk show "the Oprah wifnrey show" 2. The kind of the commercial campaigns circulated by this program. 3- The methods followed by her to review these ideas the researcher has already followed the content analyze in order to reach the exact scientific results

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الوساطة المالية في المصارف الاسلامية بحث تطبيقي في المصرف العراقي الاسلامي (للاستثمار والتنمية)

Pages: 833-846
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This research attempts to define the method of payments in order to conclude a financial operation together with the funds used in different activities by the Islamic Bank. The Islamic Bank qualified to play the role of financial mediation between the depositors and investors. In addition, to present a standard for Finance and the priorities of investment according to the Islamic law as the bank depends on the arbitrage rather than on a profit based system. The Iraqi Islamic for investment and development has been chosen to be the subject of this research in order to provide the data for the period from (2003-2008). The result of this research shows that there is an enlargement in sales, deposits and in the total revenue for the year 2008, due to the increase of public financial awareness about the importance and the role of Islamic Bank in the society by shoring. The profit and loss in their dealings and by implementing of the new bank applications in their operations of funding , investing and lending.

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جؤرةكانى واتا

Authors: حاتم وليا محمد
Pages: 847
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This paper is entitled ‘Types of Meaning’ which consists of the following sections: In an introduction, various views concerning the nature of meaning in language are presented. Another section is devoted to dealing with semantic and grammatical anomaly in general along with explaining the types of anomaly. The following section deals with descriptive meaning and the intrinsic and relative dimensions through which this type of meaning is recognized. The final section is devoted to analyzing and explaining non-descriptive meaning and distinguishing it from descriptive meaning. The paper ends with conclusions and the list of notes and references utilized in the study.

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دروستةي ناوةوةى ناوى ناسادة- لة دياليَكتى كرمانجيى ناوةرِاستدا د.بةكر عومةر عةلى و د.محةمةد عومةر عةول، كؤليَذي زمان، زانكؤي سليَماني

Pages: 873-888
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It is a descriptive analytic study of the internal structure of nouns in the Central Kurdish dialect.The forms of non-simple nouns have directly been identified on the light of certain syntactic rules. Non-simple nouns are formed by two or more morphemes. These morphemes are not subsequently ordered, but they are organized according to the hierarchical rules which are called 'the internal structure of nouns'. The paper ends with some conclusions and a list of references

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هةلَسةنطاندنى ليَهاتوويةكانى وانةوتنةوةى مامؤستايانى بابةتى ميَذوو لة خويَندنطة ئامادةييةكانى ناوشاري سليَمانى

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History as one of the human sciences has an effective role in the education of healthy individuals in the society. This is achieved through the facts and information that history carries. Also History as school curriculum has its impact on the students. They need be aware of the historical events and able them to critical and scientific thinking .Most of the researches, seminars and conferences suggest that the level of students is very low regarding history. They argue that the reason for this to the incapability of history teachers who are not able to explainin the historical event as a tool to improve student's knowledge. Another reason is also related to the style of teaching. In addition to this the evaluation process for the teachers is another important step in order to know their strengths and weakness. This helps to have a better education system in the Kurdistan Region

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מבט אל המסורת הערבית בספרות משה סמילנסקי

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Table of content: volume: issue: