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Medical Journal of Babylon

مجلة بابل الطبية

ISSN: 1812156X 23126760
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Medical Journal of Babylon (MJB) is a quarterly medical journal concerned with clinical and basic medical researches. MJB follows the Publication Ethics Statements suggested by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

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العنوان البريدي: العراق-محافظة بابل- الحلة –ص ب 473 جامعة بابل –كلية الطب – مجلة بابل الطبية
عنوان البريد الالكتروني medjbabylon2004@gmail.com

Table of content: 2007 volume:4 issue:1-2

Article
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Psychiatric Outpatients

Authors: Nesif Jasim Al-Hemyary
Pages: 1-7
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Abstract

Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is common among psychiatric outpatients. Studies that investigate OCD epidemiological and clinical characteristics are lacking in Yemen. Objectives: To examine the prevalence ,socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder among psychiatric outpatients. Patients & Methods: The records of the outpatient clinic were studied,60 patients were given a diagnosis of OCD. Three cases were excluded because they did not meet the DSM-IV criteria of OCD. .The case notes of those patients were studied ,data collected and statistically analyzed. Results: OCD patients formed 2.2% of the outpatient population. 75.44% were males , 61.4% were in the age range of 21-30 years.52.6% were married . The mean age of onset was 21.7 years. The mean duration between onset of symptoms and psychiatric consultation was 2.5 years. Obsessions were the main presentation (58%) where as both obsessions and compulsions were 42%.The most common obsession was fear of contamination, while the main compulsion was washing.The commonest co morbid diagnosis was major depressive disorder. Conclusion: OCD was not so common among psychiatric outpatients in Yemen. Males were much more than females. Married more than unmarried. Obsessions alone were more commonly presented than both obsessions and compulsions.

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Article
Cigarettes Smoking Among Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Salih Al Hasnawi
Pages: 8-13
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Abstract

Background: previous studies have found high prevalence of cigarettes smoking in schizophrenia. The increased prevalence persists even after adjustment for gender, marital status, alcohol use and socioeconomic status. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among schizophrenic out patients .Gender distribution and its relation to the onset of schizophrenia. Method: Smoking habit was assessed in 204schizophrenic patients attending outpatients department in Al Hussein General Hospital, Karbal governorate, Iraq. All patients had fulfilled the ICD10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Smoking rate was compared with general population control subjects. Results: Current schizophrenic smokers were 92 (45%) while 68(33%) of the controls were current smokers (X 2 = 5.92, p= 0.01), (table-1- ) Schizophrenic Males smoked more than non schizophrenic males 74 (65%) vs. 49 (43%) X 2 =11.15 p = <0.001, and no females to females difference. More male patients smoked than female patients (65%) versus (20%) X 2 = 10.83 p= <0.001. Schizophrenic patients were heavier smokers (smoked 20 cigarettes per day) than controls X 2 = 15.49 p=<0.001. The mean of cigarettes smoked per day for a patient was 30.6 and for control 17.8 (table-2-) Two third of patients claimed to start their smoking before the onset of schizophrenia, 72% of males, and 44% of females. (X 2 = 19.56, p=<0.001 (table-3-) More controls were former smokers (6%) than patients (2%) Conclusion: There is a gender difference in the prevalence of smoking in schizophrenic patients, and its relation to the onset of disease. High prevalence was found only in males. Smoking may be a risk factor for developing schizophrenia in males only.

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Article
In Vitro Sperm Activation of Infertile Semen Samples Complaining from Varicocele

Authors: Saad S. Al-Dujaily --- Abdul-Aali H. Salman
Pages: 14-19
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Abstract

The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of in vitro sperm washing technique on the semen of men complaining from different grades of varicocele .The study was conducted at the IVF Institute , Al-Nahrain University. Fifty infertile men were divided to three groups according to the grade of varicocele namely; sub- clinical and palpated with Valsalva maneuver (grade I ,n=24) palpated without Valsalva maneuver(grade II, n=13) and visible(grade III , n=13).Protocol of wash and spin technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation and certain sperm characters were recorded before and following washing technique. Mean of sperm concentration between the three varicocele groups were shown no significant (P>0.05) different before and following washing technique. The percentage of sperm motility was significantly (P<0.01) decreased before and after in vitro washing technique in men complaining from varicocele grade III compared to men with grade I and II .The grade activity of forward progressive movement (a+b) was significantly (P<0.05)lower in the semen of grade III group than that of grade I and grade II groups. There was a significant difference( P<0.01) in the percentage of morphologically normal sperm(MNS) between grade III and other grades of varicocele. It was concluded from this study that the grade of varicocele determine the response of the semen to in vitro washing technique . Other studies are recommended to improve our results practically in intra-uterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF)

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Article
Effect of N-Acetyl-l-Cycteine on the Growth and the Antibiotic Resistance of both Pseudomonas aeurginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae

Authors: Lamees Abdul Razzak Abdul Lateef
Pages: 20-23
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Abstract

In this study, Pseudomonas aeurginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained from patient with burn wound infection in Hilla surgical teaching hospital. The effect of NAC on the growth of Pseudomonas aeurginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria was investigated. It was found that NAC at concentrations ranging from (0.4-1)mg/ml cause an inhibition to Pseudomonas aeurginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae growth. Pseudomonas aeurginosa was resistant to all the antibiotics, while Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to kanamycin and streptomycin but resistant to other antibiotics before treatment with NAC. On the other hand, the combination effect of NAC(at concentration 0.01mg/ml) and antibiotics on the bacterial growth was also studied. The results showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to kanamycin and streptomycin but resistant to other antibiotics, the zone of inhibition is reduced after addition of NAC compared with the zone without NAC. While Pseudomonas aeurginosa entirely resistant to the antibiotics after and before the addition of NAC.

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Article
Immunohistochemical Study of Disrupted Breast Myoepithelial Cell: Implications for Tumor Metastasis

Authors: Ali Hassan Al-Timimi
Pages: 24-35
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Abstract

Previous studies detected focal disruptions in myoepithelial cell layers of several ducts with carcinoma in situ of breast. The cell cluster overlying each of the myoepithelial disruptions showed a marked reduction in or a total loss of immunoreactivity for the estrogen receptor (ER). This is in contrast to the adjacent cells within the same duct, which were strongly immunoreactive for the ER. Paraffin sections from 55 patients with ER-positive intraductal breast tumors were double immunostained in the current study. Cross-sections of ducts lined by ≥ 40 epithelial cells were examined for myoepithelial cell layer disruptions and for ER expression. Of the 55 cases with 1424 duct cross-sections examined, 24 showed disrupted myoepithelial cell layers with 101 focal disruptions. Of the 24 cases, 20 (84%) contained only ER-negative cell clusters, two (8 %) contained both ER-negative and ER-positive cell clusters, and two (8 %) contained only ER-positive cell clusters overlying disrupted myoepithelial cell layers. Of the 101 disruptions, 88 (87%) were overlain by ER-negative cell clusters and 13(12.8 %) were overlain by ER-positive cell clusters (P < 0.01). It is concluded that cells overlying focally disrupted myoepithelial layers and their adjacent counterparts within the same duct displayed different immunohistochemical and molecular features. These features potentially represent an early sign of the formation of a biologically more aggressive cell clone and the myoepithelial cell layer breakdown possibly associated with tumor progression or invasion.

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Article
Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria from Patients with Conjunctivitis in Hilla Province

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Abstract

This work therefore, aims to study the isolation and identification of common bacterial pathogens associated with conjunctivitis and examine some virulence factors such as (Capsule, Hemolysin, Siderophores, Extracellular Proteases and Adherence Factor and Show the effect of some antibiotics on bacterial isolates. In our study, 120 conjunctival swabs were subjected to isolate and identify the bacterial strains associated with conjunctivitis. These swabs were obtained from patients suffering from conjunctival inflammation of both sexes who were attended to the Hilla Teaching Hospital/ Ophthalmic Unit in Hilla province. Bacterial infections were detected in 82 (68.3%) samples and no growth resulting in 38 (31.7%) samples. It was indicated that Haemophilus influenzae was the first colonizer of the conjunctival sac (49 isolates) among the children and adults, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (19 isolates), Streptococcus pneumoniae (7 isolates) and a few number (4 isolates) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on the first week of life were isolated, an act, which confirmed the predominance of Gram-negative bacteria early in life. Also (3 isolates) of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from children below one year old and from adults. Some virulence factors of these bacterial isolates were investigated. Also, invitro effect of some antibiotics on these bacterial isolates was studied, and the results showed that Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol were the most sensitive among the other drugs; hence they should be the first choice for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

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Article
A Study of Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli Isolated from Stool Samples

Authors: Maysa Salih
Pages: 45-48
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Abstract

Thirty-one isolates of diarrheageneric Escherichia Coli have been isolated and detected from patients with or without diarrhea. Haemagglutination has been used to detect 18 out of a total of 31 isolates, and it has been found that 18 isolates were belonging to the enteroaggregative E.coli. The effect of such antibiotics as( Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin and Trimethprim) has also been studied and it has been found that these antibiotics have a negative effect on the Colonization Factor Antigen I(CFA I) though they have no effect on the growth of this bacteria.

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Article
Investigation on Some Ethological Agent Associated with Male Urethritis

Authors: Mohammad Sabri A. Razzak --- Maysa Salih
Pages: 49-52
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Abstract

In this study 29 samples were obtained from patients suffering from urethritis. Detect of microorganisms that causing urethritis it was found that (18) samples were positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and (8) samples for Chlamydia trachomatis and (2) samples for candida Albicans. (1) sample for Corynebacterium urealyticum. The effect of some antibiotics was also investigated on all Neisseria isolates and the results show that all isolates were sensitive to Azithromycin, but lesser to cefotaxin 72.3%, while most strains were resistance to pencillin G72.2% and to piperacilin 66.6%. Also this study was concerned the age group in which urethiritis was prevalent and the results showed that infection with urethritis increased with age group 20-29 in contrast with other age groups.

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Article
A Clinico-bacteriological Study of the Interrelation of Corynebacterium urealyticum and Struvite Urolithiasis

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Three hundred twenty urine samples were collected from patients suffering urinary tract affection.Only alkaline sample were selected which formed 86 specimens yielded 8 isolates of Corynebacterium urealyticum . All the 8 isolates were identical regarding cultural characteristics and biochemical reactions. Results of the studied virulence factors expression by Corynebacterium urealyticum showed that urease was the most important factor in pathogenicity . An experimental study was created to assess the ability Struvite stone formation by Corynebacterium urealyticum during its growth in human urine , it was found that there was gradual increase in urine pH with associated elevation of ammonium ion concentration accompanied by bacterial growth and struvite crystals which appeared grossly as a white precipitate at the bottom of the testing tube after an overnieght incubation in human urine . this observation was compared to the failure of E.coli and control urine to increase the urine pH or ammonium concentration in sterile urine specimens , together with the inability form stuvite crystals when incubated under similar experimental conditions . The effects of the proton – pump inhibitors : omeprazole and lansoprazole on growth and pathogenicity of Corynebacterium urealyticum were examined , it was obvious that these compound markedly affected urease activity in a dose -dependent manner and the bacterial growth was significantly (p<0.001) inhibited by an increasing concentrations of omeprazole .

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Article
Study of Membrane Testosterone Receptors in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Ali H.AL-Timimi --- Emad Hassan Mahmood
Pages: 60-72
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Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in males. Recently, the identification of a membrane testosterone binding site involved in the remodeling of actin cytoskeleton structures and PSA secretion, on human prostate cancer cells has been reported. We have investigated whether this membrane testosterone binding component could be of value for the identification of prostate cancer. We have investigated the expression of membrane testosterone binding sites in a series of prostate carcinomas (n = 15), morphologically normal epithelia, taken from areas of the surgical specimens far from the location of the carcinomas (n = 10) and benign prostate hyperplasia epithelia (n = 10). Isolated epithelial cells were studied by immunohistochemistry, and touching preparations, after 10-min incubation. In addition, routine histological slides were assayed. The results showed that membrane testosterone binding sites are preferentially expressed in prostate carcinoma cells, while BPH and non-malignant epithelial cells showed a low or absent binding. It is concluded that membrane testosterone receptors might be of use for the rapid routine identification of prostate cancer, representing a diagnostic marker of the disease.

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Article
Evaluation the Biological Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. as Antibacterial Agent in Some Diarrhoeal Bacteria

Authors: Ahmed Adil Ali Al-Zubaidy
Pages: 73-76
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The antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. is investigated by disc diffusion and tube dilution methods. The extracts were active against, Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhi, Enterococcus faecalis and Shigella dysenteriae. The leaf extract was more active against S. dysenteriae and least active against S. typhi. The sensitivity of the organisms measured in terms of zone of inhibition ranged from 8 to 19.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were from 8 to 50 mg ml-1 , while the minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 16 to 62 mg ml-1.

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Article
Oral Carriage of Candida spp. in Cancer Patients in Babylon Province

Authors: Huda Hadi Mohammed Al-Hassnawi
Pages: 87-91
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Abstract

Hundred oral swabs from cancer patients were investigated for oral carriage rate of Candida species in outpatients clinic of oncology in Babylon province from January to may 2005. Seventy of them were females and thirty were males, their ages ranged from 6-90 years. 53 (53%) of them revealed positive results, 51 (96.22%) were C.albicans and 2 (3.78%) were C.tropicalis. Eighty nine of those cancer patients were on antibiotic and oral steroid therapy in whom thirty six of them raveled positive results. Relatively high percentage 9 (18%) was found in breast cancer and 7 (16%), 3 (15%) for patients with cancer of genital organs and gastrointestinal tract respectively. The last one 2 (3%) was observed in cancer of skin, also it was found high oral carriage (46%) in patients with oral thrush in relation to oral ulceration (44%).

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Table of content: volume:4 issue:1-2