Table of content

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

Loading...
Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2010 volume:13 issue:4

Article
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, THEORETICAL TREATMENT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY STUDIES OF SOME METAL IONS COMPLEXES WITH 2-HYDROXY-4-NITRO PHENYL PIPERONALIDENE

Authors: I.Q.Yousif --- M.F.Alias
Pages: 1-14
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ions V(IV), Co(II), Rh(III), Pd(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) were prepared in ethanolic medium. The prepared complexes were characterized by FT-IR, Uv-Vis spectroscopy, metal analysis, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The nature of the complexes formed in ethanolic solution was studied following the molar ratio method. From the spectral studies, monomer structures for the V(IV), Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes and dimeric structures for the other complexes were proposed. The proposed geometry for prepared complexes was Ochtahedral for Co(II) and Rh(III) complexes, square planer for Pd(II) and Cu(II) complexes, square pyramidal for V(IV) complex and tetrahedral for Cd(II) complex. Structural geometries of these compounds were also suggested in gas phase by using Hyper Chem-8 program for the molecular mechanics and semi-empirical calculations. The Hf and Eb for the prepared compounds were calculated by using PM3 method. Also PM3 was used to evaluate the vibration spectra for the Schiff base and starting material. Preliminary in vitro tests for antimicrobial activity shows that most of the prepared compounds display good activity to (S. aureus), (E. coli) and (C.albicans).

Keywords


Article
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NEW TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES WITH 2,5-di(4-AMINO PHENAZONYL) HEXANE

Authors: Abbas Ali Salih Al-Hamdani
Pages: 15-22
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A new tetradentate N2O2 type Schiff base ligand 2,5-di(4-amino phenazonyl)hexane L was synthesized from the condensation of 4-aminophenazone and 2,5-hexanedone. Monomeric complexes of this ligand, of general formulae [M(L)]X (M-X=Co(II)-(OAc)2, Ni(II)-(OAc)2, Cu(II)-(OAc)2,VO(II)-SO4,Zn(II)-SO4,Mn(II)-Cl2 or Fe(II)-Cl2;OAc=acetate ) are reported. The mode of bonding and overall geometry of the complexes were determined through I.R, UV-Vis, NMR spectral studies, magnetic moment measurements, elemental analysis, metal content and conductance measurement. These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries for the Co(II), Ni(II),Mn(II),Fe(II) and Zn(II) complexes, square pyramidal for VO(II) complex and square planar for Cu(II) complex. The study of complex formation via molar ratio in DMF solution was investigated and the results were compeer to those found in the solid complexes with a ratio of (M: L) as (1:1)


Article
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW N-TERMINAL BCHAIN MODIFIED HUMAN INSULIN ANALOGUES

Authors: Jewad K. Shneine
Pages: 23-30
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

New human insulin analogues were synthesized by fragment condensation reactions of N A1, N B29 Msc protected native human insulin of different B-chain lengths with the dipeptide Boc-Asn- Thr-OH. Edman degradation was used to obtain shortened B-chain insulin intermediates. Purification of the products was achieved using gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography and RP-MPLC chromatography. Analysis of synthesized analogues accomplished by RP-HPLC chromatography and amino acid analysis. The modified insulin analogues with the amino acids Asparagine in the first position and Threonine in the second position of the N-terminal B-chain of insulin would be expected to show an enhanced T R* transition compared with that of wild-type structure.


Article
SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY FOR SOME OF CARBAZOLE DERIVATIVES

Authors: Khitam T. A. Al- Sultani
Pages: 31-38
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research includes preparing of some carbazole derivatives .The (3,6-Disulfonylchloride- 9H- carbazole (1) was achieved by the reaction of carbazole with chloro sulfonic acid in cold condition, reaction of compound (1) with sodium azide in acetone as a solvent to give (3,6-Disulfonyl azide-9H- carbazole) (2), then reaction of compound (2) with different phosphine and phosphate compounds(1mole and 2 mole) yielded the (3,6-Disulfonyl -6- azide-3-(phosphine or phosphate imine)-9H- carbazole) derivatives (3-8) and (3,6-Disulfonyl (phosphine or phosphate imine)-9H- carbazole) derivatives respectively (9-14).Some of physical properties have determined for the prepared compound, and identified by spectral methods (FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR), furthermore evaluation of the biological activity for some of the prepared compounds on two type of bacteria Bacillus and E.Coli.

Keywords


Article
SERUM LEVELS OF 2MICROGLOBULIN AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG CHRONIC HEPATITIS B PATIENTS

Authors: Maysoon K. Al-Shaikle
Pages: 39-44
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the level of 2microglobulin (B2M), total serum bilirubin (TSB) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the sera of (30) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients (patients group) and (30) healthy HBV carriers as (control group). The study showed that levels of 2 microglobulin were high among patients group (3.41 1 mg/L), while it was normal among control group (1.42 0.35 mg/L). Regarding biochemical parameters, it was found that (TSB) and (ALT) were increased among patients group, and their level were (37.66 30.8 mol/L) and (43.6 32.51 U/L) respectively. While it was normal among control group (4 0 mol/L) and (17.4 7.16 U/L) respectively.


Article
CONVERSION OF ¿-HALOESTERS AND ALKYNES INTO CORRESPONDING CINNAMATES AND KETONES DERIVATIVES RESPECTIVELY BY USING SOME ORGANOTELLURIUM COMPOUNDS AS REAGENTS

Authors: Abdel-Amir M. Fenjan
Pages: 45-51
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Telluroxidation of di-n-propyl telluride 1 guides to obtain trans - cinnamate derivatives from condensation of substituted aldehydes and a-haloesters in one pot reaction. p-Diphenetyl tellurinic acid anhydride 3 converts terminal alkynes into corresponding ketones through hydration process to oxidize triplet bond into carbonyl group. Infrared spectra have assisted all organochemical conversions and their identification strongly. The possible reactions mechanisms were proposed.

Keywords


Article
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF AMILORIDE HYDROCHLORIDE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN PHARMACEUTICALS BY DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Method is established for simultaneous determination of Amiloride hydrochloride (Amilo) and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets. The method is based on employing normal and derivative spectrophotometry using the zero order via described by measuring the absorbance at 361 nm and the first order derivative spectra at peak 340 and valley 382 nm for (Amilo), while the zerocrossing method is applied for hydrochlorothiazide. The first order derivative absorption spectra at valleys 285 and 239 nm were used for hydrochlorothiazide. No interferences found between both determined and those of matrices. A good accuracy and precision of simultaneous determination of (Amilo), and hydrochlorothiazide were confirmed by statistical analysis. The percentage recovery of the individual drags under the established conditions is ranged from 97.79% to 101.5 %. Linearity is maintained within a wide concentration range from 2.00 mg/L to 40.00 mg/L for Amiloride hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide. The detection limit was 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L for Amiloride hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide respectively.


Article
STUDY THE PROPERTIES OF THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALS INDUCED BY HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN PYRIDYL- HETEROCYCLIC DERIVATIVES AND BENZOIC ACID, 4-HEPTYLOXYBENZOIC ACID OR 4-OCTYLOXYBENZOIC ACID

Authors: Nasreen Raheem Jber
Pages: 62-69
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Synthesis of new derivatives of heterocyclic compounds such as (Triazoles, tetrazole, oxazole and thiadiazole). Liquid crystalline complexes have been obtained from binary mixtures of (4-pyridyl) heterocyclic derivatives with benzoic acid, 4-heptyloxychlorobenzoic acid or 4-octyloxybenzoic acid. The (4-pyridyl) heterocyclic derivatives are not mesomorphic, but the H-bonded complexes are showed droplets nematic texture which is developed from threaded nematic on slow heating. Their liquid crystalline properties were investigated by polarizing optical microscopy.


Article
COMPLEXES OF 2-HYDROXY- 4-DIMETHOXYPHENYL-6-BENZYLOXY PHENYLPYRIMIDINE WITH SOME METAL IONS

Authors: Dina A. Najeeb
Pages: 70-75
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

New complexes of the ligand 2-hydroxy-4-dimethoxyphenyl-6-benzyloxy phenylpyrimidine with metal ions Cr (III), Fe (III), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) were prepared in alcoholic medium. The prepared complexes where characterized by magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, FTIR, Uv-Vis. The data showed that these complexes have the composition of [ML2].

Keywords


Article
IN VITRO STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SOME PREPARED OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES ON ALP, AST AND ALT ACTIVITIES IN SERA OF HEPATOCELLULAR CANCER PATIENTS AND HEALTHY CONTROL

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The effect of some prepared oxadiazole compounds 5-[4-(p-methoxy phenyl) azo phenyl]-2- thiol-1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole [ ], 5-[4-(methoxy phenyl) azo phenyl]-2-marcapto-alky-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole [ -V]( where alkyl group is ethyl, propyl, butyl and pentyl respectively) were tested on the activity of ALP, AST, and ALT in sera of 30 patients with hepatocellular cancer and 30 healthy individuals as control group. The results revealed significantly higher levels of ALP, AST, and ALT activity in patients group compared to control group. Different concentrations (10-4, 10-5, and 10-6M) of oxadiazole derivatives showed different percentage of inhibitions, but did not showed proportional with the concentration of derivatives. The elevated values of ALP, AST, and ALT activity in sera of patients were returned to about normal values in most cases after addition of oxadiazole compounds to sera of patients in vitro.


Article
CAD OF A THREE ELELCTRODE ELECTROSTATIC IMERRSION LENSES USING THE SPLINE MODEL

Authors: Ahmad Kamal Ahmad
Pages: 82-87
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The focal properties and aberrations for three electrode electrostatic lenses are investigated in detail using the two-interval spline lens model. The synthesis procedure of optimization has been taken into account with the aid of the spline function. The potential ratio is investigated as an effective parameter in lens design. The optimization procedure has shown the possibility of obtaining a practical design of electrostatic lenses operated under pre-assigned conditions to yield minimum aberrations. Non-relativistic velocities and neglecting the space-charge effects are the two main assumptions that have been taken into account throughout the work. The actual electrodes profile which is determined from equipotential surfaces has been constructed in three-dimensional diagrams.


Article
THE EFFECT OF TWO BODY CORRELATIONS ON THE CHARGE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING FORM FACTORS FOR SOME 2s-1d SHELL NUCLEI

Authors: A. K. Hamoudi --- R. A. Radhi --- G. N. Flaiyh --- F. I. Shrrad
Pages: 88-98
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

An effective two-body density operator for point nucleon system folded with two-body correlation functions, which take account of the effect of the strong short range repulsion and the strong tensor force in the nucleon-nucleon forces, is produced and used to study the ground state two-body charge density distributions (r ) ch and elastic electron scattering form factors F (q) for 2s -1d shell nuclei with Z = N (such as 20Ne, 24Mg, 28Si and 32S nuclei). It is found that the inclusion of the two-body short range correlations (SRC) has the feature of reducing the central part of (r ) ch significantly and increasing the tail part of (r ) ch slightly, i.e., it tends to increase the probability of transferring the protons from the central region of the nucleus towards its surface and to increase the root mean square charge radius < r 2 >1/ 2 of the nucleus and then makes the nucleus to be less rigid than the case when there is no SRC. It is also found that the effects of two body tensor correlations (TC) on (r ) ch and < r 2 >1/ 2 are in opposite direction to those of SRC.

Keywords


Article
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS DIFFUSION IN THE SOLAR INTERIOR

Authors: H.S.Ali
Pages: 99-104
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The standard solar model and equation of state have been used to study relative diffusion of Hydrogen and Helium in the present time for solar interior, as a function of distance and depth from the center of the star. The effects of temperature and density on diffusion velocity for these chemical elements have been explaned. It is found that heat flow which is arising from these reactions leads to an increase in helium diffusion velocity, while the temperature and density leading to a decrease in Hydrogen diffusion velocity. This means that Hydrogen behaves inversely with that for helium does through these reactions. Accordingly, diffusion percentages for Hydrogen, Helium and other Heavy Elements could be determined for the main sequence stars and white dwarf stars.

Keywords


Article
PIEZOELECTRIC COEFFICIENT PROPERTIES OF A FLEXIBLE PZT/UPE/C COMPOSITE

Authors: Z. T. Mohammed Noori --- F. Mohammed Noori
Pages: 105-109
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A flexible piezoelectric composite, made from Lead Zirconate Titanate(PZT) powder and Unsaturated polyester (UPE) resin, was doped with small amount of carbon semiconductor powder. The piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) and the dielectric behavior have been studied for this ceramic/polymer composite. The dielectric constant processes of the composite were observed to be dominated by those of undoped ceramic- polymer. The practical results of PZT/UPE/C with ratio 49/50/1 adding a semiconductor phase in the composite showed piezoelectric strain coefficient can be controlled and a continuous electric flux path could be created between the PZT grains. This composite may be poled at low voltage and in shorter time compared with composites without a conductive phase.

Keywords


Article
COMPARISON STUDY OF JOINING Ni-ALLOY WITH GRAPHITE

Authors: Awfa Abdul-Rassol Abdullah
Pages: 110-120
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Modeling of diffusion bonding of Inconel 600 /Pyrolytic Graphite and Inconel 600/steel interlayer/Pyrolytic Graphite is investigated in this research. Modeling implies utilization of ANSYS package to predict axisymmetric thermoelastic finite element analysis from the above materials. The model is used; to calculate thermal stresses induced across diffusion bonded joints. Investigating thermal stress levels along the potential failure interface for both joints is extremely helpful; these residual stresses are mostly the forces of joint failure for both joints. Axisymmetric finite element analysis involves applying temperature along the whole joint as main parameter; the second parameter was changing the steel interlayer.

Keywords


Article
PMT DARK CURRENT REDUCTION USING THERMOELECTRIC COOLING UNIT TE-206TSRF

Authors: Kamal M. Abood
Pages: 121-126
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) type EMI 9863Q with its housing and power supply of rang (1.5-3) kV, beside of the cooling unit type TE-206TSRF are used to perform this research. The evaluation of PMT dark current pulses count are carried out in laboratory at different high voltage and at different temperatures ,the results of these test, are plotted as a testing curves for this type of PMT. The research includes two tests ,one for perform the affect of cooling on the dark pluses counts, and the second test for determined time intervals for PMT housing can be kept the cooling . The maximum dark pluses count at 0 C Temp is 18000, where at -10 C is 4000, and at -20 C is 1000 at same H.V (2.5 kV).The PMT housing cooling stage times are sec for -10, sec for -20, sec for -30.

Keywords


Article
DETERMINATION OF URANIUM CONCENTRATION IN TEETH FEMALE SAMPLES USING FISSION TRACKS IN CR-39 FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES.

Authors: Sallama S. Hummadi
Pages: 127-131
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study was under taken to measure the uranium concentration in female teeth samples collected from different nationalities. The determination of uranium concentration in these samples has been done by using CR-39 track detector. The nuclear reaction is used as a source of nuclear fission fragments is (n,f) obtained by the bombardment of U-235 with thermal neutrons with flux (5x103 n/cm2.s) was used from ( Am-Be) neutron source. The concentration values were calculated by a comparison with standard samples which prepared. The obtained results show that the concentration is ranging from (0.58 0.7ppm) in Oman and Uae to (0.35 0.03ppm) in Iraqi for male, the uranium concentration was the highest in Oman and Uae for female.

Keywords


Article
ANTIBACTERIAL AND CYTOGENETIC EFFECT OF Cassia italica LEAF EXTRACT ON ALBINO MALE MICE

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial and cytogenetic effect of Cassia italica (Senna) on metaphase index and micronucleous formation in polychromatic erythrocytes of bone marrow cells of mice. Results showed that Cassia italica leaves methanolic extract caused a significant inhibition in growth of E.coli and Staphylococcus auerous and Candida albicans especially at high concentrations in comparison with the negative control (Distilled water) and positive controls (Tetracycline). On the other hand the results showed that Cassia italica extract caused a significant increase in metaphase index and a significant decrease in micronucleous formation in bone marrow of mice in comparison with the negative control (Distilled water) and positive controls (Cyclophosphomide).

Keywords


Article
THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CULTURE MEDIA ON IN VITRO FERTILIZATION OF MICE

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The effect of different types of media on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of mice oocyte was investigated. IVF was carried out in RPMI-1640 medium at recommended temperature (37 C) and pH (7.4). The obtained results showed that 63.73% of used oocytes were fertilized, and the percentage of abnormal embryos was 27.58%. While, using other culture media at same temperature and pH, gave low percentage of fertilization and higher yield of abnormal embryos. Thus, using Medicult IVF, Earl s and TCM-199 were gave fertilization percentages equivalent to 38.75, 42.42 and 61.45% respectively; whereas, the percentages of abnormal embryos were 32, 35.7 and 33.89 % respectively. The reported results indicate that composition of various types of culture media have significant effect on the rate of fertilization and abnormal embryos.


Article
EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF COTTONSEED ON SOME PARAMETERS OF SPERMS AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF ALBINO MICE.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Two cottonseed extracts including alcoholic and aqueous at doses 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day were orally administered to male mice for 6 weeks to study their effects on some of sperm parameters. Results showed that 20 and 40 mg/kg alcoholic and aqueous extract caused highly significant (P 0.01) decrease in the sperm concentration, motility (%) and progressive sperm motility (%). While, Results of the abnormal sperm morphology (%) for two treated groups 20 and 40 mg/kg/day of alcoholic and aqueous extracts revealed a significant (P 0.05) increase after 6 weeks when compared to the control group. Results revealed that the percentages of sperm agglutination were highly significant (P 0.01) increased in mice treated with 20 and 40 mg/kg/day of alcoholic and aqueous when compared to the control. The fertility (%) and percentage of males of new born babies showed a significant (P 0.05) reduction in the treated mice as compared to female in the same groups and to the control group. Meanwhile, a significant (P 0.05) increase in the recovery time was showed with the increasing of doses of the two extracts when compared with the control group.


Article
Genetic study to bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii - Lactamase producer

Authors: Rasah Abid Ali
Pages: 159-165
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Six isolates were collected from different clinical sources from laboratory in medicine century. These isolates were belonging to the genus Acinetobacter depending on morphological and biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility tests against 8 antibiotics were examined, and it was found that the all isolates have multiple resistant to antibiotic, all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, 50% were resistant to augmentin, 20% were resistant to ciprofloxacin ,while 10% from isolates show resistant to amikacin and trimethprim. All isolates have sensitivity to imipenem. The ability of Acinetobacter isolates to produce -lactamase enzymes was, tested using iodometric method, and the results showed that all isolates produced this enzyme. The ability of these isolates to produce extended spectrum -lactamase (ESBLs) were also determined by double disc synergy test, only one isolates produced these enzyme. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that Acinetobacter isolates -lactamase producer have two small plasmid bands. Transformation experiments revealed that these plasmids were capable to transform E. coli MM294, an observation which indicates the ability of these plasmids to show their expression in more than one host.

Keywords


Article
HPLC ANALYSIS OF RUBIA TINCTORUM AND ITS EFFECT OF METHANOL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BURNS INFECTION

Authors: Anmar S. Aboud
Pages: 166-175
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study provides a scientific information about the aqueous and methanol extracts of Rubia tinctorum based on its antimicrobial potential against gram positive and gram negative bacteria isolated from burns infection using the broth dilution and well diffusion method. Results of this study indicate the presence of many phytochemicals which have antimicrobial activity against broad spectrum of bacteria. The methanol extract of R.tinctorum showed highest activity than aqueous ones. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the aqueous extract on the tested organisms was 25-100mg/ml while in the methanol extract ranged between 25-50mg/ml on the tested organisms and the minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) of the aqueous extract was 25- 200 mg/ml while the methanol extract ranged between 25-100 mg/ml. The highest activity of methanol extract demonstrated at 100 Co, 121 Co against S.aureus, K.spp, A.hydrophila, and S.marcescens, while there was low activity against S.dysenteria and E.coli. The activity of plant extract increased at acidic pH5-3 whearus, there are slightly increased of plant extract at alkaline pH 8. R.tinctorum contained. essential element (Pb, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mn, Co and Cu) at different concertation. The high preformance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) analysis of R. tinctorum showed some chemical compounds that have antimicrobial activity against test isolates. The result of this study demonstrate that HPLC analysis of R.tinctorum constituent revealed that htis plant have antimicrobial activity against test organism and this may be suggest the use at this extract in treatment of infections disease.


Article
DAIF AND SCP – DERIVATIONS ON SEMIGROUP IDEAL I OF A NEAR–RING N.

Authors: A.H. Majeed --- Hiba Abdulla
Pages: 176-180
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper we study two kinds of derivations on a semigroup ideal I of a near ring N. The first kind called Daif derivation (Daif 1 derivation and Daif 2 derivation), the second kind is called strong commutativity preserving derivations. Bell and Mason, showed that a prime near ring N must be commutative if it admits any of these kinds of derivations, and we generalize this to a semigroup ideal I.


Article
L-FLAT MODULES

Authors: Ahmed Bakheet
Pages: 181-185
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this work certain generalization of flat modules is consider relative to prime radical. We extend some results on flat modules and study the relations between these modules with other known modules.

Keywords


Article
MODULES WITH THE QUASI-PURE SUM PROPERTY

Authors: Nuhad S. Al-Mothafar
Pages: 186-189
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Let R be a commutative ring with identity and M be a unitory R-module. We say that M has the quasi-pure sum property (qpsp), if the sum of any two pure submodules of M is quasi-pure. In this paper we study modules with this property and we give a characterization of some kind of rings in terms of modules with the quasi-pure sum property.

Keywords


Article
HOMOTOPY PERTURBATION METHOD FOR SOLVING THE NONLINEAR WAVE EQUATIONS

Authors: Ranen Z. Ahmood
Pages: 190-193
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, we present the approximated solutions of special types of the nonlinear partial differential equations in one dimension namely the nonlinear wave equations by using the homotopy perturbation method. Some examples are solved to show the efficiency of this method and a comparison is made with the Adomian decomposition method.


Article
S-QUASI-INJECTIVE MODULES

Authors: Ahmed Hanoon Abud
Pages: 194-198
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Let R be a ring with non-zero identity and let M be a right R-module. This paper study the concept of s-quasi-injectivity. Some properties of this concept are investigated and some conditions has been given for s-quasi-injective R-modules to be injective or quasi-injective. Some conditions stated for submodules with this property to be s-quasi-injective.

Keywords

injective --- quasi-injective --- stable.


Article
USING DIRECT RITZ METHOD FOR SOLVING ELECTROCHEMICAL MACHINING MOVING BOUNDARY PROBLEM

Authors: Fadhel S. --- Sinan H.
Pages: 199-204
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, the objective is to derive the variational formulation of the electrochemical machining problem (ECM for short) and to evaluate the numerical solution using the direction Ritz method. This problem is of degenerate problem which has so many difficulties to be solved using other approach.

Keywords


Article
ON QUASI-MAXIMAL MODULES

Authors: Hatam Yahya Khalaf --- Bothaynah Nijad Shihab
Pages: 205-210
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Let R be a commutative ring with identity, and let M be a unitary R-module. In this paper we introduce the concept of quasi-maximal module, some properties and characterizations of quasi-maximal modules are given. Also, various basic results about quasi-maximal modules and regular modules are considered. Moreover, some relations between quasi-maximal modules and other types of modules are considered.

Keywords


Article
PARTICLES SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR THE CRYPTANALYSIS OF TRANSPOSITION CIPHER

Authors: Sarab M. Hameed --- Dalal N. Hmood
Pages: 211-215
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Transposition ciphers are a class of historical encryption algorithms based on rearranging units of plaintext according to some fixed permutation which acts as the secret key. This paper presents a new investigation for cryptanalysis transposition cipher based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). PSO is utilized for the automatic recovery of the key, and hence the plaintext, from only the cipher text. Based upon a mathematical model of the social interactions of swarms, the algorithm has been shown to be effective at finding good solutions. Experimental results show the ability of PSO in finding the correct secret key which is used to recover the plaintext.


Article
AN AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM USING FINGERPRINT MINUTIAE EXTRACTION AND NEURAL NETWORK

Authors: Suzan Abdulla Mahmood --- Amera Ismail Melhum
Pages: 216-220
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Fingerprints have been the mostly used biometrics for human authentication, based on the minutiae or bifurcation. In this paper, the triangle shapes are used to extract features based on minutiae point. The features have been used as a set of descriptors for the fingerprint data. This set of descriptors is fed to the backpropagation neural network for the purpose of fingerprint recognition. It is found that the process of preprocessing and the method of constructing geometric shapes has great effects on producing good results in the recognition rate.

Table of content: volume:13 issue:4