Table of content

Medical Journal of Babylon

مجلة بابل الطبية

ISSN: 1812156X 23126760
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Medical Journal of Babylon (MJB) is a quarterly medical journal concerned with clinical and basic medical researches. MJB follows the Publication Ethics Statements suggested by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

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العنوان البريدي: العراق-محافظة بابل- الحلة –ص ب 473 جامعة بابل –كلية الطب – مجلة بابل الطبية
عنوان البريد الالكتروني medjbabylon2004@gmail.com

Table of content: 2006 volume:3 issue:1-2

Article
Lipid Peroxidation Product and Antioxidants in Human Primary and Secondary Different Bone Tumors

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Abstract

This research aimed to a novel study has been carried on lipid peroxidation activity ( LPO ) and antioxidant measurement such as, reduced glutathione concentration (GSH) and uric acid in sera of a healthy male and female control (n = 42) , primary benign bone tumor (Osteochondroma n =12 and Chondroblastoma n =10 ), primary malignant bone tumor (Ewing's sarcoma n =20 and Osteosarcoma n = 12) and secondary bone tumor (from breast cancer n = 20 and lung cancer n =13 ). In-patients with Ewing's sarcoma ,osteosarcoma and secondary bone tumor the lipid peroxidation level shows significant higher levels (p<0.005 ) with control, while glutathione concentration shows significant large decrease (p<0.005).This increase and decrease in this groups very large compared with benign bone tumor patients. A statistically difference in lipid peroxidation and glutathione was also found between osteochondroma, chondroblastoma and control (p < 0.05) .Serum uric acid in all patients also showed alterations in their levels but did not reach to the level of significant .Electrophoresis profile differences in serum protein bands were also observed, shows wide variety between normal and patients. These results may consider a biochemical marker to aid in the diagnosis.

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Article
Encephalitis it's Prevalence and the Computerized Tomography Changes

Authors: Abdul Kader Tapoo --- Dhaher JS Al-Habbo
Pages: 11-16
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Abstract

To study the prevalence of encephalitis in Mosul and to evaluate the CT scan changes in these patients. Two hundred fifty patients with encephalitis were examined clinically and all referred to the CT scan at Ibn-Sena Teaching hospital from the Intensive and Respiratory care unit Ibn-Sena Teaching hospital , General medicine and Pediatric unites in Mosul city between 1983 to1988. Full history and clinical examination was done for all the patients at the time of admission and during the follow up period, and all of them referred for CT scan early during their admission and for a second CT scan during the follow up period. Encephalitis was found to be not uncommon disease, with a seasonal variation and to be more common in the cold months of the year. The most common age group was from infancy to the age of 29 years of age. Various kinds of neurological deficits like epilepsy, hemiparesis, different cranial nerve palsies and aphasia. The commonest CT scan lesion was diffuse nonspecific demylination, low attenuation of the white matter, cortical and cerebellar atrophy and various temporal and frontal lesions. Encephalitis is not uncommon disease in infancy and young age group, and can cause serious neurological deficit.CT scan is very useful tool for diagnosis treatment and follow up of encephalitis.

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Article
Hormonal Contents of Two Types of Black Seed (Nigella sativa) Oil: Comparative Study

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Abstract

The use of black seed (Nigella sativa) capsules as a herbal therapy to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients are associated with menstrual cycle irregularities. The present study was designed to analyses and to compare between two types of Nigella sativa (N.sativa) agricultures in Mosul region and those imports from Saudi Arabia Kingdom, and to investigate the levels of hormones in volatile oil of black seed that regulate menstrual cycle that might be present in Nigella sativa. Volatile oil of N.sativa was extracted by steam distillation using diethyl ether as an organic solvent.Then, hormones analysis were done using (miniVIDAS software version) instrument. Results of present study showed a presence of considerable amount of sex hormones estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, testosterone, FSH and LH .This might interpret the cause of menstrual cycle irregularities occur when black seed capsule was taken as a herbal therapy to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients.

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Article
Epineurotomy in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; is it Necessary?

Authors: Abdul Latif Aziz AL-Zaidy
Pages: 22-26
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Abstract

This prospective randomized clinical study included 50 hands (44 patients) that were treated operatively from July 2000 through August 2002. The criteria for inclusion were clinical- signs and symptoms of dysfunction of the median nerve in the carpal canal that were not responsive to no operative treatment. The hands were chosen randomly to receive one of the two types of treatment: operative decompression of the median nerve alone(group 1) or operative decompression of the medial nerve and longitudinal opening of the epineurium in the region of the carpal canal (group 2). The patients were evaluated 12 months postoperatively, and all of the patients had an EMG study performed both preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. 22 patients (25 hands) were randomly assigned to Group1 (no epineurotomy) while 22 patients (25 hands) were randomized to Group 2 (epineurotomy). At the 12-month follow-up evaluation,16 hands inGroup1 and 15 hands in Group 2 no longer had any symptoms of median nerve dysfunction. With the numbers available for the study, the difference was shown to be insignificant. There is no difference in outcome when an adjuvant epineurotomy is performed compared with when a ligament release is performed alone for the most advanced forms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

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Article
Haemostatic Changes in Acute Leukaemia at Diagnosis and Post Induction Phase of Chemotherapy

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Acute Leukaemia is one of the diseases associated frequently with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) , early diagnosis and management of the primary illness will be of great help in decreasing the frequency and the severity of this complication. The study was conducted to confirm abnormalities of haemostasis and the evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulaton in newly diagnosed patients with acute leukaemia at presenrtation and post chemothaerpy. Prospectively 40 newly diagnosed acute leukaemic patients were enrolled, 28/40 were with acute myeloid leukaemia , 12/40 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia . Their age range between 9 to 60 years, 29/40 were females and 11/40 males.Prior to treatment and any supportive care, full clinical evaluation, complete blood cell count and blood film, bone marrow examination, cytochemical stains,liver and renal function tests were done and haemostatic evaluation was performed at time of diagnosis and post induction therapy phase. The coagulation tests performed were prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen assay and D-dimer reaction. The Japanese score for diagnosis of disseminated coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute leukaemia was adopted, but has been modified according to what is available of materials. The laboratory tests results elicited that the most common haemostatic abnormalities are thrombocytopenia 92.5%, positive D-dimer reaction 82.5%, prolonged APTT 42.5%, prolonged PT 30%, prolonged TT 22.5%, reduced fibrinogen 12.5%. The incidence of DIC was (25%), (70%) of them presented with bleeding tendency, D-dimer reaction was positive in 100% of DIC cases, prolonged PT in 90% of them, reduced fibrinogen in 50%. After treatment with supportive measures and induction phase of chemotherapy the relative frequency of improvement was in 80% of DIC cases. The relative frequency of improvement of PT, APTT, TT, bleeding manifestation, D-dimer reaction was 83.3%, 64.6%, 66.6%, 85.7%, 39.4% respectively. Early diagnosis and management of DIC is important in reducing the mortality and morbidity in acute leukemia by careful clinical evaluation together with the laboratory investigations applying the modified Japanese score . Thrombocytopenia appears to be the most common haemostatic abnormality ,though it is not specific nor sensitive sign of DIC. A normal fibrinogen level does not exclude DIC since it is an acute phase reactant but serial follow up assays of fibrinogen concentration may be more informative.

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Article
Correlation between the Outcome after Surgery for Lumbar Disc Herniation and the Duration of The Leg Symptoms

Authors: Mossa O. Mossa Al-Gazali
Pages: 42-46
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Abstract

To investigate the correlation between the outcome after surgery for lumbar disc herniation and the duration of the leg symptoms . Twenty-four patients were selected for lumbar disc surgery from april 2002 to march 2005 . There were(20) male and (4) female patients , the average age was (31) years ,range 20-42 years . Results showed that out of twenty-four patients who had lumbar disc surgery only (12) patients (50% ) had excellent results ,(7) patients (29.16 %) had good results , (5) patients had fair results (20.83%) . Those patients were consider an excellent and good results , they had the shortest duration of the symptoms pre- operatively (2-10 months),while those with the longest duration of symptoms pre-operatively (13-20 months) they have the fair results. The duration of the leg symptoms can be consider as apredictor of outcome after surgery for lumbar disc herniation .

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Article
Effects of Phenobarbital Monotherapy on Thyroid Function Tests in Epileptic Children

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To determine the effects of Phenobarbital (PBT) monotherapy on thyroid function tests including total T 4, total T 3 and TSH in epileptic children whose age ranged between 7-15 years. The study was conducted in the department of pharmacology, college of medicine, university of Mosul, during a period of 9 months commencing from January-2005. The patients’ group consist of 19 patients on PBT monotherapy together with a control group. Serum total T 4 , total T 3 and TSH concentrations in epileptic children on PBT monotherapy were compared with those in control group by using unpaired “t” test. We found a statistically significant reduction in total T4 levels in patients receiving PBT compared with the control group, while Total T 3 and TSH levels were indifferent statistically. All patients were in euthyroid state, there were no clinical findings of hypothyroidism. These data suggest that PBT monotherapy decreases serum total T 4 levels significantly(P<0.001), while total T 3 and TSH levels remained unaffected

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Article
Recurrent "Chronic"Appendicitis ; Is it a myth ? Is Appendicectomy Indicated?

Authors: Karim Shalan Al-Araji
Pages: 51-55
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The existence of recurrent "chronic " appendicitis and its treatment outcome are controversial . The aim of this study was to investigate its existence as an entity and to analyse its treatment outcome with appendicectomy . Prospective study included patients with recurrent "chronic " appendicitis admitted in Hilla General Teaching Hospital from 1992 through 2001 and submitted for appendicectomy .All patients were investigated by general urine analysis , full blood Count , and abdominal ultrasonography . All appendices were examined grossly by the surgeon for evidence of chronic appendicitis. Histopthological examination was done for 17 (29.3%) patients and not all .Followed up period was for 2 to 6 years for disappearance of symptoms or appearance of other diagnoses Out of 721 patients undergoing appendicectomy , 63 of them had recurrent "chronic" appendicitis . .Follow up results for 2 to 6 years were possible in 58 patients , 32 ( 55%) females and 26(45%) males . Age ranges from 6 years to 21 years with a mean of 13years . Fifty-eight patients had abdominal pain and mild tenderness in the right iliac fossa . There were no significant changes on urinary analysis , full blood count or abdominal ultrasonography. In 54 patients there were gross evidences of chronic inflammation in the appendix and the surrounding tissues. Histopathological examinations were assessed in only 17 (29.3%) patients and 16 of them had evidences of chronic inflammation with lymphoid hyperplasia , and 1 carcinoid tumour of the appendix . Postoperatively , 54 patients were without complications , 1 developed adhesive intestinal obstruction, 3 patients developed wound infection. There was no operative death. On follow up period 56 patients were completely pain-free and the other two patients showed moderate improvement and no patient developed a diagnosis other than what was presented to. The study concluded that recurrent "chronic " appendicitis does exist as a real entity and not a myth because some patients with appendiceal disease have atypical course, not exactly similar to classical picture of acute appendicitis and their appendices showed gross and microscopical evidence of chronic inflammation. In addition to that and because this study showed that significant number of these patients become symptom-free after appendicectomy , we believe that appendicectomy is a good treatment for this disease .

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Article
A Comparative Study in Vitro Sperm Activation Techniques of Oligozoospermic Patients

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The objective of the present study was to select an efficient technique of sperm activation for the patients complaining from sever and moderate oligospermia. In vitro sperm activation was performed on eighteen semen samples by using three techniques : Simple layer, Centrifugation wash- out, and Glass Wall- Column techniques, for three incubation periods (30,45, and 60 minute)by using Earle`s medium to select the efficient technique and incubation period. The results revealed that in vitro sperm activation of moderate oligospermic specimens caused a significant improvement(p>0.001) in sperm function test which are include: sperm motility percent, grade of activity, and abnormal sperm morphology percent. Also there were a significant increased(p>0.001) in recovery sperm concentration by using glass wool- column and centrifugation wash- out techniques compared to simple layer technique in all incubation periods. The comparison study of incubation periods which follows the sperm activation of sever oligospermic specimens by using simple layer technique revealed a significant increase in grade activity (p>0.05) following 45min. incubation compared to 30 and 60 min. incubation. While there was a significant increased in sperm motility percent(p>0.01), grade activity(p>0.005) within 60 min. compared to 30 min. only by using glass wool- column technique. The sperm activation of moderate oligospermic specimens revealed that 45 min. incubation period giving a significant increased in sperm motility percent(p>0.005) and grade activity(p>0.05) compared to 30 min. by using simple layer technique. A significant decrease(p>0.001) in sperm motility percent and grade activity in 30 min. compared to other incubation periods by using glass wool- column technique. It was concluded from the present study that glass wool- column is the efficient technique of sperm activation in vitro for patients complaining from sever and moderate oligospermia.

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Article
Cryptic Bacterial Infection in Pneumonic Patients

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Streptococcus pneumoniae (35.29%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.52%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.56%) cryptic infections were noted among pneumonic patients. The cell wall defective bacteria (CWDB) were at most sensitive to common used antibiotics. However emergence of multiple resistances of up to nine drugs were noted among CWDB. By this cryptic infection can be defined as persistent, recurrent, associated with CWDB & some associated with multiple resistance.

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Article
Prevalence of Typhoid Fever among Pediatric Patients at AL-Musaib District

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The study was conducted at Ibn-Saif hospital for maternity and children in AL-Musaib district during the period from January through December, 2003 to investigate the prevalence of typhoid fever. A total of 470 pediatric patients suspected with typhoid fever were admitted to the hospital. Of which, 235 patients were diagnosed as typhoid fever, most of the cases of this disease occurred within the age-group (>12-14 years old ) . One hundred and forty two (60.4%) were females while ninety three (39.5%) were males and more than 54.4% of cases were urban .The highest number of patients was in May and July, and less commonly in other months of the year.The most isolates had multidrug- resistance.

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Article
Laryngeal Carcinoma: Prognostic Index and Evaluation of Treatment Results

Authors: Ali Hassan Al-Timimi --- Safa Sahib Naji
Pages: 81-87
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Carcinoma of the larynx Constitutes 1.5% of all cancers and 25% of head and neck cancer. It is etiologically related to tobacco smoking, alcohol overuse, nutritional deficiency, human papilloma virus infection and environmental pollution. The aims of the present research was to study the Prognostic Index in Laryngeal carcinoma including age, sex, clinical manifestation, histological types, and to evaluation and correlated with treatment results . 165 consecutive patients with laryngeal carcinoma who were diagnosed, treated, and / or followed at Hilla hospitals during the period (1990-2004) were studied. The total number of patient diagnosed with laryngeal Carcinoma were 165 during the fourteen years period, 129(78%)patients were males 36 (22%) were females . M: F ratio was 3.58:1. 52% of patients were between 50 and 60 years of age. There were 3 patients with carcinoma insitu (2%), (13%) in stage1, (35%) in stage 2,(35%) in stage 3 and (15%) stage 4 . Of 165 patients, 102 (62%) were treated surgically followed by radiotherapy (group 1), 35 patients (21%) treated surgically followed by Radiotherapy and chemotherapy (group 2), and 28 patients (17%) were treated by surgery & conservative treatment (group 3). For patient in group (1) the one year survival rate was 68%, the 3 year survival rate was 38% and the 5 year survival rate was 15%, for group 2 the survival rate was 48%, 30% and 14% respectively, and for group 3 the survival rate was 28%, 10% and 4% respectively. We concluded that Laryngeal carcinoma in Babylon occurred at younger age group than the western reported studies and had low one , three & five years survival rate . Further studies are needed to confirm the risk factors involved in laryngeal carcinoma and to improve the health education toward its early detection and treatment.

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Article
Cell Wall Defective Salmonella and Brucella Among persistent Enteric Fever Patients.

Authors: Thewaini Q. N. A. --- Mohameed S. J.
Pages: 88-94
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Cryptic bacterial blood stream infection in persistent enteric fever patient is being reported in 68:268 (25.3%) at Babylon governorate. Cell-Wall Defective (CWD) Salmonella typhi, S.paratyphi A, S.paratypi B, Brucella spp. were noted. CWD Salmonella were resistant to cell wall acting antibiotics and highly sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitory antibiotics. The index of sensitivity of CWD culture techniques were running between 73.3-76.9% in compared with 33.3% of the routine whole blood culture technique. Z-statistic has shown significant statistical difference in comparison to the routine culture technique.

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Article
A Review of 4 Years Experience in Nasal Reconstruction after Tumor Resection in Babylon City

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This is a study of a thirty – three cases of reconstruction of Nasal defects after excision of skin Tumors. The studied cases were evaluated clinically and histo-pathologically, and reconstructed with variable methods of reconstruction. Ages of studied cases were between 30 and 70 years. In all cases , tumors were removed as an excisional biopsy with a safe margin , since we still have a shortage in the facilities of frozen sections and Moh's chemosurgery , and all found to have histo-pathologically a free margins , except for one . The studied cases were followed-up for a period of two years. We concluded that: using the traditional method of (Safe margins), can give satisfactory results in the absence of more sophisticated methods. This study aim to review of four years experience in nasal defects reconstruction and the study of the significance of the traditional method of excising a skin tumor using the (Safe margins) technique ( excising 0.5 cm of normal tissue around a basal cell lesion , and 1 cm around a sequamous cell lesion ) .

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Article
Attitude of Residents and General Practitioners Toward Substance Abuse in Iraq

Authors: Salih Al Hasnawi
Pages: 107-112
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Substance abuse has become one of the main problems affecting the Iraqi population due to their direct health effects, and because many crimes and terrorist attacks are committed under the influence of drugs. To evaluate the attitude residents and general practitioners toward substance abuse. This study conducted in Kerbala health directorate in March and April in 2005 .102 residents and 71 general practitioners was included in the study. Self reported questionnaire was designed by the researcher contain 19 items was introduced to the study group. Data was collected and analyzed by chi squares to compare the response of residents and general practitioners. Both groups evaluate addiction in a moral rather than medical model, the addict is dangerous to the society, no clear and definite factor blamed for addiction, medical treatment can help the patient, using psychotropic without prescription lead to addiction, health education is important factor in prevention. Prescription drugs (p=0.33) is the most common addictive substance according to the Knowledge of general practitioners while alcohol are the most addictive substance mentioned by residents Medical schools curriculum should be adapted to meet the needs in the field of addiction and refreshing courses for general practitioners to change their attitudes should take priority.

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Article
The Value of Computed Tomography in The Diagnosis of Intracerebral Meningioma

Authors: Abdul KaderTapoo
Pages: 113-121
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To assess the value of computed tomography( CT ) scanning in evaluation and diagnosis of intracranial meningioma Seventy patients suffering from headache, vomiting ,fits and papilloedma were employed in this study. The examination was conducted from January 1995 to January 2000, in computed tomography unit ,department of radiology in Ibin Sena teaching hospital in Mosul city, Iraq The study included 70 cases of intracranial meningiomas, the average age incidence was 42 years with female predominance ratio of (3:1).The study also showed that Arabs were more affected with intracranial meningiomas (51.4%) than Kurd (34.3%), and the other minorities (14.4%) . Moreover, this study showed that 14.3% of the cases were related to old trauma, and it was found that meningioma occurs on right side of the head more than the left side and rarely reported Intraventricular. Finally this study showed that intracranial meningioma was found in children who were even 4 years old male and 7 years old female . Post contrast examination by CT scanning revealed an accuracy of 95.7% for intracranial meningiomas of typical and characteristic appearance of homogeneous enhancement in rather common locations. The false positive cases constitute only 4.3% which latter proved to be gliomas All patients diagnosed with intracranial meningioma underwent surgical resection and biopsy.

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Article
Eyelid and Periorbital Reconstruction in Babylon City

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To show our work of eyelid and periorbital reconstruction over the period Jan. 2000 – Dec. 2005 in Babylon city. In this outcome study we survey the results of surgeries done on 50 cases of eyelid and periorbital skin loss. We investigated the results and complications. Most of our work was direct closure with or without canthotomy or reconstructing the defect with the use of local flaps (advancement, Z plasty, Limberg flap and forehead flap). In two of the cases, we used free oral mucous membrane graft to line the skin flap. The results ranged between excellent and acceptable with adequate patient satisfaction with all the results in varied degrees. This work is a step forward in this task in Babylon city.

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Article
Efficacy of Povidone Iodine in Treatment of Active Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Abbasi
Pages: 132-136
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This is a double-blind prospective study done in Basarah, in the period from the 1 st of February to the 31 st of October 2005. Fourty- eight patients with active chronic suppurative otitis media were included in this study, full history ,otological examination, ear swab for culture were done as well as pure tone audiometry performed before and 2 weeks after treatment. All the studied patients treated systemically by appropriate dose of amoxicillin. The commonest isolated organism was staphylococcus aureus (25%), followed by pseudomonas aeroginosa and streptococcus pneumoniae (18.7%) for each. Povidone iodine (betadine) 5%solution, neomycine dexamethason (neodexone) drops and normal saline 9% were used as local therapy (ear drops) randomly for the three equally divided groups of patients. The use of povidone iodine ear drops associated with 81% complete improvement compared with 69% improvement by neomycin –dexamethason drops and only 25% for normal saline drops, the interesting fact that improvement by the use of povidone iodine occurred earlier than the use of neomycin – dexamethason and normal saline ear drops. No complication was detected as a result of treatment by any of the above treatment.

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Article
The Resting Cardiac Index in Different Left Ventricular Geometric Patterns in Essential Hypertensive Patients Not in Heart Failure State.

Authors: Mansour Abbas Al-Sultani
Pages: 137-144
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This study was performed in Baghdad Teaching Hospital during the period from 21/10/2003 to 30/3/2004 on a study sample of 120 untreated non-obese essential hypertensive patients not in a heart failure state, 78 males and 42 females, their age mean ± SD is 53.62± 9.22 year. They were distributed after performing echocardiographic examination into 14 patients with normal LV geometric pattern (group 1) , 6 males and 8 females, their age mean±SD was 51.58±9.43 year, and 106 patients with abnormal LV geometric pattern (group 2) , 72 males and 34 females, their age mean±SD was 53.94±9.63 years. Patients with signs and symptoms of heart failure and those with cardiac or extracardiac diseases were excluded from the study. The aim of the study was to examine whether there are differences in cardiac index between those with normal and those with abnormal LV geometric patterns, and among the three categories of abnormal LV geometric patterns, namely, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. It has been concluded that there are no statistically significant differences in cardiac index between those with a normal and those with abnormal LV geometric patterns, and non-significant differences in cardiac index among the three categories of abnormal LV geometric patterns too, as far as all patients were not having any of the signs and symptoms of heart failure. Therefore, there is still a chance of initiating antihypertensive medication in view of controlling elevated blood pressure and keeping a normal Frank-Starling mechanism and a normal cardiac index before decompensation state and developing congestive heart failure.

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Article
Evaluation of Throat Trauma & its Methods of Management in Babylon Province

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Prospective study of patients with direct external throat injuries(upper aerodigastive tract) injuries, received by emergency & surgical department of Hilla general teaching hospital in the last (4) years (from march 2001 to March 2005). 100 case recorded with following criteria of this type of injury as cervical surgical emphysema, dysphonia and/ or stridor , dysphagia , neck pain or tenderness & haemoptysis . Those patients average age was 35 year . 75% were men . Mechanisms of injuries were gunshot wounds 47% , motor vehicle accident 33% . Clinical picture 90% had neck Pain and / or tenderness , 75% had Hoarseness of voice and / or stridor . Priority of management depend on air way ( stable or unstable ) and type of injury . Medical treatment control 50% of Patient , mostly those with stable air way .Early surgical intervention to deal with air way obstruction is needed in most of unstable type . The failure of management mostly due to : 1. Absence of social education who to deal with this type of injuries at time and place of accident . 2. Absence of portable X-ray device & theater near emergency room 3. Shortage in respiratory care unit staff & equipments . 4. Massive accident .

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Article
Hematological Changes in Children Suffering From Beta Thalassemia In Babylon Governorate

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This study was designated to investigate the changes that occurs in certain blood characteristics in beta thalassemia minor and major .The total number used was 300,150 healthy children and 150 suffering from beta thalassemia. Their ages (1 – 14 years old ) were divided into four age groups ( 1 -< 3 years ; >3 – 5 years ; >5 - 10 years and >10 – 14 years ).Hematological changes ,covered red blood cells(RBCs) count and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) in both types of beta thalassemia were significant (P<0.01 )decrease than control subject. The values of packed cell volume (PCV)in two types of beta thalasemia showed significant (P<0.05 )decrease than control subject. RBCs indices (MCV and MCH ) showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease when compared to control subject, while MCHC showed no significant difference. Osmotic fragility of RBCs showed a significant decrease (P<0.01 )in two types of beta thalassemia when compared to control subject.Concerning hemoglobin electrophoresis in both types of beta thalassemia. The values of HbA showed significant decrease (P<0.01)than control subject. As well as a significant difference (P<0.05) in HbA values recorded between beta thalassemia minor and major. Values of HbA2 and HbF showed significant (P<0.05) higher concentration than control subject.It has also been found that there is significant difference (P<0.05 ) in HbF values between the two types of beta thalassemia. Changes may be attributed to the decrease or absence of biosynthesis of beta globin chains which lead to severe hemolytic anemia and severe hypoxia.

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Article
The Relationship between the Infestation with E.Vermicularis and Eneuresis In Children

Authors: Maher Ali AL-Quraishi
Pages: 164-168
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During the period from Septemper 2005 and May 2006 we examined 167 Samples of Stool and is it vaginal swabs .They taken from the primary School children and others in Babylon and Najaf governerates. The results of this study have proved that the infestation with Enterobius Vermecularis has asiguificant relationship with night bed wetting in children The percentage of patients infested with E.vermicularis and enuresis is 48.38 % after treatment with antihelminthic drugs from 31 Patients . According to this study the infleunce of enterobiasis in females is more than in mals. The evidence of this result is the increase cure rate in famale patients about 64 .28 % while 34 .29 % in male groups , this means nearly increase about one half .

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Article
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Complicating Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Lesions

Authors: Mohammed Kadhim AL-Hattab --- Makram AL-Waiz
Pages: 169-170
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isoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a relatively benign disorder of the skin, most frequently involving the face, and characterized by various-sized, reddish, well-defined scaly patches, which tend to heal with atrophy, scarring and pigmentary changes

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Table of content: volume:3 issue:1-2