Table of content

Iraqi journal of mechanical and material engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الميكانيكية وهندسة المواد

ISSN: 20761819
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal for mechanical and material engineering is a refereed scientific journal published quarterly by the engineering college/ university of Babylon. It deals with high quality researches in fields of mechanical and material engineering.

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Contact info

Journal E-mail:
j.mec_mat_eng@yahoo.com
Babylon university/Babylon/Iraq P.O.Box(4)
Tel:++96430245387.(1155)

Table of content: 2009 volume:C issue:first conf./ eng. coll.

Article
PREDICTED EFFECTIVENESS COUNTERMEASURE

Authors: Sahar S. Naham
Pages: 363-372
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Abstract

Improving road traffic safety has high effect to reduce the cost of traffic accident and save the user of highway. Since 1985 the average stopped delay has been used as the measure of service in signalized intersections analyses , on the other hand it is difficult to evaluate the traffic safety in terms of change in number of traffic accident, because the traffic accidents accord has no reliable accident recorded ,while it not only reflect the number of accidents well, but also their nature ; traffic conflict technique is an efficient tool for analyses traffic safety. This study is aimed to developed traffic safety at 4 four- leg signalized intersections in Baghdad City. Regression analyses is performed to relate hourly traffic conflict and average stopped delay .Specific categories of countermeasures such as signalization and geometric countermeasures are adopted. HCS 2000 software are adopt to determine the average stopped delay before and after countermeasure implemented. The results show that the negative exponential model related hourly traffic conflict to average stopped delay and show a better explanation rather than linear model ,as well as it is found that exponential model explains increasing variation (81.6 ) of total hourly traffic conflict in relation with average stopped delay . The highest reduction in number of traffic conflict after signalization countermeasures is 74.63% more than the highest reduction after geometric countermeasures when it reduce by 58.07% . This study recommends to use traffic conflict technique as a tool to improve traffic safety by any proposed countermeasures.

Keywords

Safety --- Traffic --- Conflict --- Delay --- Countermeasure


Article
Effect of Spatial Variation of Soil Permeability on Pressure

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Abstract

Two dimensional unsteady seepage through a zoned earth dam was investigated by the finite element based on Galerkin method. The coefficients of permeability are assumed to vary in terms of geometry, external load influences and the effect of head distribution in the flow domain and the resulted nonlinear seepage problem is solved. The effects of drawdown rates and various material parameters on pressure heads variation were discussed. The results show that the zoned dam permeability has important influence on pressure heads variation as the height of the dam increases. It is believed that a variable permeability analysis such as the one presented in this work should be taken into account.

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Article
The J-integral and KIc as a Measure of Fracture Toughness

Authors: Dr. Jabor AL-Jeabory
Pages: 386-398
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Abstract

By using a simple maximum load failure criterion, material toughness can be determined from load-deflection curves measured during testing of notched flexural specimens. The J-integral (Jc) and the stress intensity factor (Kc) results as a measure of toughness have been determined using four point loading edge notched beams. Generally, there is a good agreement between these two results which describe the fracture characteristics of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). The fibre content varies between 0% and 1.5% by volume with perpendicular, parallel and random orientations to load application were adopted in this paper. Increasing the fibre content results in increased kIc results and also results of JIc. The enhancement of cracking strength, ultimate strength and fracture toughness for the previous fibre content and orientation are reported.

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Article
STUDY OF EVALUATION THE QUALITY OF SHATT
دراسة تقييم نوعية مياه شط الكوفة لاستخدامات المنزلية والاروائية

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Abstract

This study is performed to evaluation the quality of raw water of Shatt Al-Kufa river for domestic and irrigational uses . Water samples from five different water supply stations along Shatt Al-Kufa river for eighteenth months from November – 2006 to April – 2008 were collected .Eleven water quality parameters were analyzed including total hardness ( TH ) , turbidity , temperature , pH , electrical conductivity ( Ec ) , total dissolved solids ( TDS ) , total suspended solids ( TSS ) , sulfate , iron , sodium , and potassium . Data analysis shows that the water quality parameters of Shatt Al-Kufa river is compatible with the drinking water standards except the turbidity and sulfate which shows increasing levels than the maximum allowable levels for drinking water standards . For irrigation purpose data results shows that the water of Shatt Al-Kufa river is medium to high salinity and cause saline and alkali damages .

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Article
دراسة وتقييم اداء منشآت عبور السابلة في مدينة الحلة

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Abstract

The walk is the oldest uses in the means of transport it is very important for pedestrians in order to reached their destination or any other operations although the walk is the main activities for the pedestrian which have the best results on human health as well as the vehicles can not reach to the distention in some times unless by walk. the main problem in this study is the random crossing of pedestrian with no control on there movement also the geometric design of Al Hilla city hstop avoid the pedestrian problem therefore this research attempted to analysis the exists condition of pedestrian crossing then found some solutions in order to reduce the weaving condition between pedestrian characteristics and traffic operating. Pedestrian traffic volume data had collected in all study area during filed survey within peak hour volume period . the research choose four sectors to described the pedestrian characteristics they are ( 60 street , 40 street , bab Al Hoseen area and Babylon health office intersection ) which they are residential, commercial, and education area according to al hill master plan , also the research efforts to study the sidewalk conditions and its suitability in the study area , the research use home interview method to learn the suitability of over pass crossing . the study recommended to construct over pass crossing for pedestrians with Carrey belt stairs and make the legislation and education for use them . ighway network

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Article
Constructional Evaluation of Primary Schools Buildings in Al-Hilla
تقييم انشائي لمباني المدارس الابتدائية في مدينة الحلة

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Abstract

The primary schools buildings are considered from the most important features of the basic items in any country, which aid in evaluation and development, in which we put our effort to take care and give it the needed consideration. Therefore it demands continues research which is the best type of help in the evaluation as well as development as to serve the evaluation of teaching series in our country. This research aims to evaluate the building of the primary schools in Al-Hilla city according to the construction, function and diagnoses of the construction problems that result from execution or the design or miss using by giving the incomplete solutions to get rid of these obstacles and its treatments. In order to achieve this aim, data collection have been made from information that have been obtained from some literatures about evaluation of the primary schools buildings, in addition to other information that has been obtained from field survey for the buildings of the schools in Babylon governorate, alongside collective and personal interviews with specialist from teachers as well as administration, besides collecting data about technical and engineering side by giving important engineering ideas, and others which are really in touch with the concern matter. Results of data analysis have showing many negative points exist in the schools buildings, and it is assured by the results of field survey hence the diagnoses is completed by the construction problems and more clarity. One of them the absence of the periodic maintenance for schools, as well as the absence of the special staffs and sub-staffs that under takes these responsibilities.

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Article
تقييم وتطوير بعض التفاطعات في مدينة الحلة

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Abstract

Highway and its intersection in every country are the mirror of the civilization and the scale of the progress through out the highway quality , number and the traffic facilities in the intersection . An intersection define as an area shared by two or more roads , whose main function is to provide for the change of route directions . Intersection vary in complexity from a simple intersection which has only two roads crossing at a right angle to each other , to amore complex at which three or more roads cross within the same area . This research effort to evaluate and improve Nader and Al thowra intersections . Traffic volume data have been collected for each approach and every movements ( Through , Left and Right ) within peak hour volume in the (pm , am) period for each intersection . Traffic volume classification was don due to vehicles types which they are moving throw the intersections . data was collected by using photographic technique method then translated it in tables and figures .Data was analysis in order to estimate level of service ( LOS) for each intersection by using Highway Capacity System ( HCS 2000) . Data analysis results indicate that LOS type for each intersection by using Highway Capacity System ( HCS 2000) . Data analysis results indicate that LOS type F for the both intersections . the research attempt to improve the geometric design for the both intersections and the analysis led to rise LOS to type C . the study recommended to prevent stopped vehicles and buses in the intersections area with prepare garage outside them as well as protected right movement by using slip road before stopped area especially in Nader intersection also operating them with traffic light according to traffic volume and type of movement in each directions to reduce delay time and traffic accident probability.

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Article
Determining Standard weight for influenced factors on productivity of
تحديد الاوزان المعيارية للعوامل المؤثرة على انتاجية القاشطة

Authors: احمد زغير جابر
Pages: 454-464
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Abstract

The construction sector is usually considered the most important sector among other sectors .The estimation cost of items plays great role in project execution .This paper concludes that implementing standard formula in calculating the productivity of excavating equipment reflects directly on the cost analysis of the project, where the management has been proved the dominant in this era.

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Article
A Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen Blendingon the Temperature Field and Polutants Emission of a Four

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Abstract

The internal combustion engines are generally a major source of air pollution. However the spark ignition engines are recognized by their carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission. One of the methods used to reduce the emission of these pollutants is the blending of hydrogen with the gasoline fuel, either on a mass basis or on energy replacement basis. The present research study is devoted to concern with developing a numerical model to predict the effect of hydrogen blending (based on energy replacement) on the emitted concentrate of carbon and nitrogen oxides and the temporal and local variation of cylinder temperature. It is found that hydrogen blending improves combustion process by increasing the flame propagation speed and hence increasing maximum cylinder temperature. The timing of maximum cylinder temperature is also advanced due to hydrogen blending. It is also found that the hydrogen blending reduces CO and CO concentrations and increases NO concentrations. It is found that when the hydrogen blending ratio exceeds 20% the engine performance is deteriorated. x 2


Article
The Reduction Of Heat Transfer For Concrete Ceiling In
تقليل انتقال الحرارة من السقوف الخرسانية لالبنية السكنية بتغيير زاوية ميلها (دراسة تجريبية)

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Abstract

The quantities of heat transfered through horizontal concrete roof which used in Iraqi residence building was redused by inclination that roofs small angle because , inclined roofs is unpopular in Iraqi building, and that small angle not appear that the surface is inclined). This study was undertaken in Baghdad city (lat.33.3N) with changed the inclined Building ceiling from 0 to 5, and the orientations of that ceiling is changed eight times with assuming many ways to afford that inclination, the concrete ceiling was inclined , clay layer is level to afford that angle or used inclined steel structure (which covered with many insulating materials). At last the researcher found that , the maximum saving in electrical energy for purpose cooling at inclined concrete ceiling by 5 at North orientation is 11% and then North-East & North-West. And the South, South-East, South-West orientation was neglectful, because it's opposite effects, and also the researcher found that level clay saving 55% from ordinary electrical energy, but it's very heavy on ceiling and increases it's dead loads, while, the inclined steel structure with fired clay covered saved 48.2% and become 38.4% when used reeds stalks sheaye 25mm thickness beside the asbestoscenent by light class fiber..


Article
The effect of sintering time on the magnetic properties
تأثير زمن التلبيد على الخواص المغناطيسية للمركب

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Abstract

By The Conventional Solid State reaction is used to prepared the (ZnFe ,NiFe 2 O ) From the Oxide of (Fe ,Zn ,Ni ) while had emphasized the Crystallize Synthesis accurately and Sort by these Synthesis by using the Technique (X.R.D) it is mixed to Formed the final Synthesis (Ni 4 1-x Zn x Fe 2 O ) with (x=0.4 ,0.6) as a ring are sintered at (1350 ◦ 4 c ) for several tenses ,the Practical result of these Synthesis show the [Ni 0.4 Zn 0.6 Fe 2 O ] was the baste sample to use as core at low Frequency (50 Hz) N0.1 4 2 O 4

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Article
Inhibition Vanadic Corrosion by Using Magnesium Oxide in
تثبيط التآكل بالفناديوم الحاصل في مراجل حرق الوقود باستعمال اوكسيد المغنيسيوم

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The hot corrosion is largest danger for the alloys used in high temperature. This study is concluded experiment for two types of steel using in steam boilers of electrical station in south of Baghdad, these samples represent different places in burnt rooms of boiler included steel (1045, 213T11), the ordinary oxidation processes conducted for specimens of steel in the temperature (550-650, 750, 850, 950°C) for different times and then different temperature are used with constant times (3hrs.). Coating process for specimens by impurities material in the following percentage (67%wt.V 2 O 5 :33wt.Na 2 SO ) are performed. This impurity material forms when steel undergoes hot gases which contain sulphur sodium and vanadium which react with each other to produce this system, and after this the oxidation processes for samples were done .We calculate the change in weight with respect to the area at 4 temperatures (550, 650, 750, 850°C) for different times and then used the inhibitor material (MgO) to decrease the effect of impurities on the steel samples and the oxidation processes doing and calculated the change in weight. The inhibition material are added with rations (1Ash:1Inhibitor, 1Ash:2Inhibitor and 1Ash:3Inhibitor). The study shows that the steel oxidation processes at this temperatures(550,650,750,850C) led to form thick, porous, week adhesion oxides, and the mechanism of oxidation change from weight gain to weight loss and the weight loss is small when the inhibitor used especially at the ratio (3 Inhibitor:1Ash) that gives best results.

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Article
دراسة تأثير اضافة مادة نافخة نباتية على خواص المطاط الاسفنجي

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Abstract

The aim of this research to use extracted natural material from waste product oOkra as blowing material by simple method for production sponge rubber with good damping properties. The sample of rubber was prepared with adding different percentfrom extracted material of waste product of Okra (0-25)% to study the effect of thismaterial on properties of natural rubber. When we added blowing material that extracted from plant of Okra ,we get productions of cells inside the sample due to release gases and get sponge rubber. This mean is extracted material of waste productof Okra is suitable to use as blowing material to get sponge rubber and this work existswith a good replacement for synthetics blowing materials avoiding their toxicity and their highly cost.

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Article
Study of Induced Air Flotation for the removal of Oils from

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Abstract

The presence of oil and grease in the industrial effluents has a very bad impact on both the treatment units and the disposal media. One of the important oil/ water separation techniques is the Induced Air Flotation. The principal aim of this paper is to determine the proper air flow rate for oil/ water separation, in a laboratory scale IAF batch system, for two types of industrial waste waters; Sweets and Dairy Industries. The impact of Alum as a coagulation agent, on the separation efficiency via flotation process, is also studied. Results have shown that (3-5 l/min.) air flow rates are the optimal for having separation efficiencies between (77%- 80%) for effluent of Sweets industry, and (66%- 70%) for effluent of Dairy industry. The addition of (0.5 g/l) Alum has proved significant influence on oil/ water separation efficiency, which could reach the values of (96%- 99%), using the air flow rates mentioned above, for Dairy and Sweets industrial effluents respectively.

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