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MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL

مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان

ISSN: 18138500
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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SCIENTIFIC AND REFERRED DENTAL JOURNAL

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Table of content: 2005 volume:2 issue:2

Article
Effects of composite thickness on shear bond strength to dentin

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Abstract

Sixty non-carious extracted human molars were used in this study. The enamel on the occlusal surface ofthe crown of the tooth was removed by a diamond bur then the surfaces of the teeth were ground flat. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups each of ten and stored in distilled water at 370 C. Two types of composite were used in this study, Definite and Tetric. The bonding agents Etch and Prime were prepared according to manufacturers directions and applied to the dentin surface on the first three groups and light cured for 20 seconds. The composite Definite was packed into either 2, 3, and 4mm thick using split metal mould in the first, second and third groups respectively and bulk-cured from top of the composite for 40 seconds, the same procedure was repeated in the remaining three groups but the composite used was Tetric which its corssponding bonding agent was Excite. The bond strength was measured with universal compression machine.The results showed ` that there was no significant difference between the two types of composite Tetric and Definite used in this study. The shear bond strength was affected by the composite thickness, the 2 mm increment showed higher bond strength than the 3mm and 4mm increment in both composites


Article
Shear bond strength of the Iingually and buccally bonded brackets via three composite systems

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Abstract

This study aimed to determine and compare the shear bond strength of lingually bonded brackets via: Two—paste composite (Orthodontic Mix Bonding System), No — mix composite [Orthodontic Bonding System (No—mix)] and Light—cured composite ( Transbond XT .) Thirty extracted upper first premolars for orthodontic request were used for this investigation. The teeth were divided into three groups; each of which consisted of l0 teeth. The lingual surface of the tooth used to evaluate the lingual bond strength and the buccal surface of the same tooth utilized to evaluate the buccal bond strength. For each group of teeth investigated to determine the lingual and buccal bond shear strength, using one type of composite system for each group . The lingually bonded and buccally bonded samples were subjected to shear force using the universal compression testing machine apparatus. The lingual and buccal shear bond strengths were recorded and converted into Mpa and the data were statistically analyzed . The results showed the lingual shear bond strength insignilicantly less than that of buccal shear bond strength regarding the Orthodontic Mix Bonding System and Orthodontic Bonding System (No—mix), and the lingual shear bond strength was significantly less than the buccal shear bond strength regarding Light—cured composite (Transbond XT), The lingual and buccal shear strengths of the bonded bracket via Orthodontic Mix Bonding System were the highest than the shear bond strength of the other composite systems


Article
A comparison of spreader penetration depth and load required in curved canal using two types of spreaders

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to compare nickel titanium and stainless steel spreaders penetration depth and load in lateral compaction. Thirty curved mesial canals of extracted mandibular molars were used in the study. The canals were prepared using step-back technique with Gates-Glidden. Afterward the teeth were divided randomly into 2 groups. In part 1 of the study, the force required to insert each spreader to within 1 mm of the working length in an empty canal was measured . In part 2, the force required to insert each spreader to within 2 mm of the working length was measured in canal containing a master cone. ln part 3, the depth of penetration of each spreader with a master cone in place using a 1.5 kg force was measured. Using a t-test for paired samples, the results from pan 1 showed that nickel titanium spreader required high significantly less force than stainless steel s reader P<0.01 . ln part 2, a nickel titanium s reader re uired high si niticantl less force than a stainless steel spreader .As expected in part 3, a nickel titanium spreader penetrated to a significantly high depth than stainless steel spreader (P<0.0l


Article
The flaring efficiency of the Profile and Protaper on resin simulated root canals

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Abstract

Forty resin simulated root canals with standardized curvature prepared for this study, divided into four groups ten canals for each group. Thirty canals were prepared with rotary endodontic instruments, profile 04, profile 04, 06 and protaper, ten canals for each type, with slow speed contra angle hand piece (300 rpm) using crown — down technique the other l0 canals were prepared with stainless steel k-flexo hand instrument using step — back technique. The total time required for preparation was calculated. The resin blocks were scanned; the pre-instrumented and post - instrumented images were stored in the computer and superimposed for two dimensional evaluation of canals preparation using Adobe photoshope 8.0 and Corel draw 9. For the coronal portion the amount of canal substance removed was calculated at 7mm, 9mm, llmm levels from the working length. For the apical curvature the centering ratio was calculated at 2mm and 4mm level from the working length. The results showed that the amount of canal substance removed from the coronal portion by protaper was statistically higher than other groups with statistically less ability to stay center in the canal than profile rotary instruments but more ability to preserve apical curvature than k-flexo hand instruments with less time required for preparation. K-flexo files showed statistically less amount of canal substance removal at coronal portion and statistically higher centering ratio than other groups, and require more time for canals preparation .


Article
Evaluation of the effects of an Iraqi phosphate bonded investment and two commercial types on the marginal fitness of porcelain- fused- to- metal copings .

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Abstract

The effect of different phosphate- bonded investments on the marginal fitness of porcelain- fused—to-metal copings cast by one type of noble alloy and one type of base metal alloy was studied. Three types of phosphate—bonded investments (Castorit - Super C, Norvest, and Iraqivest) were used for investing the thirty copings of each group. The marginal fitness of each coping was determined by measuring the vertical marginal discrepancies between the gingival margin of the coping and the margin of the preparation at four reference points on the labial, mesial, palatal and distal aspects of the die by the aid of light traveling microscope . The statistical analysis of the results showed that there were significant differences in marginal fitness among different investments for both Pd- Ag& Ni-Cr alloys. The Castorit- Super C and Norvest investments produced comparable results with both alloys, while the Iraqivest appeared less compatible with Pd-Ag alloy than the other two investments and it had comparable compatibility to Norvest investment when used with Ni- Cr alloy. The Ni- Cr alloy (Heraenium NA) copings revealed significantly greater marginal discrepancy than the Pd-Ag alloy (QD) eopings specially when using Castorit- Super C and Norvest investments .


Article
Microleakage of two resin composites by using different light curing systems *

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate marginal microleakage of two resin eomposite (Glacier resin composite and Filtek P 60 resin composite) either cured with eonventional light cure unit ( Astralis 5) or light emitting diodes (LED) light cure unit »Radii). Forty class V cavities were prepared in 20 extracted second premolars, one buccaly and one palataly in each tooth. Each cavity was located lmm coronal to eementoenamel junction and lmm apical to it. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups, each group of five teeth (I0 cavities): Group I was filled with Glacier resin composite and cured with LED curing unit. Group ll filled with Glacier and cured in ith Astralis 5 curing unit. Group lll filled with Filtek P60 resin composite and cured v- ith LED curing unit. Group IV filled with Filtek P 60 and cured with Astralis curing xnit. The teeth were stored in distilled water for seven days. Then the apices of the teeth were sealed with sticky wax and the teeth were covered with two layers of nail vamish except lmm around the restoration. The teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic faehsin dye for 24 hours at 37°C in the incubator and then were longitudinally xctioned in a buccolingual direction and the extent of dye penetration was recorded. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that the use of LED light cure unit, results in highly significant reduction in the microleakage occlusally and gingivally


Article
An evaluation of temperature rise inside pulp chamber of the tooth during dentin channel preparation by twist drill ( A Comparative Study

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Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the temperature rise inside pulp dentin channel preparation by twist drills . Twenty premolar tooth divided into two groups, each subdivided into 4 subgroup , si prepared the channels at 1.500 rpm/700 G by first & 5th uses of the drill, group B the channels at 30.000 rpm/50 G measuring the temperature rise inside the pulp , mmumed to prepared each channel . both groups there was temperature rise, but in group A ( slow speed) the iimr:1i;¤e:=.rtxre didn‘t reach to critical level (5.5 °C), while in group B this degree was wmtziistei ki some of specimen, also found the mean of temperature rise in case of 5th uses zore higher than the mean of the lst use in both groups . Tznperature rise inside the pulp during pin-hole preparation affected by speeds , tram rt;·i;Iy. sharpness of drill and also the diameter and the time consumed


Article
The effect of educational level of females on their dental caries expedence

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This study was designed to evaluate the influence of education levels of females on their dental caries experience. Two hundred sixty seven (267) single females were selected randomly in this study, with an age of 18-39 years old. The educational level were classified to live code (illiterate, primary, intermediate, secondary, college and postgraduate). Caries experience were diagnosed and recorded according to the criteria suggested by WHO (1997). The decayed, missing and filled surface (DMP S) index was used to assess the caries experience. The result show that the females in the high level of education have slightly lower DMP S seen than other levels of education with no significant differences between them. The study indicated that the mean decay surface in low education level have higher mean significantly than the high education level. For the missing surface, the result show that the high education level (college degree) has lower mean tha.n the other levels with no significant differences between them while for the filled surface, the study demonstrated very high significant difference between low and high education levels


Article
Traumatize anterior teeth, dento-facial anomalies among deaf person in the middle region of Iraq

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This study was designed to determine the type and prevalence of trumatic dental injuries, aenterio—posterior molar relation among (519) deaf persons and (532) school students at 5-16 years of age in the middle region of Iraq. The study showed that the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries were 6.94% for deaf persons and 5.83% for schools students. Males showed a higher percentage of traumatized teeth than females in institutions and school students. Enamel dentine fracture without pulp exposure was the most predominant type among deaf persons while simple enamel fracture was the most predominant among schools students. The majority of deaf persons and schools students demonstrated normal type of occlusion 57.42%, 55.64% respectively. Deaf person showed significantly with percentage of 4.62% mesial full cusp deviation from normal .antero·postrior molar relation compared to school students 2.07%


Article
Method to measure faciolingual teeth inclination

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This research evaluates the faciolingual inclination of people in Mosul city as a base bracket design for straight wire arch technique (SWA) 50 study models (25 females) used aged 12-15 years, they concomitant with six keys of normal 52 .that suggested by Andrews The data then subjected to statistical evaluation at p<0.05, description of the data (mean SD.. minimum, maximum) also the correlation of all the teeth and comparison for both sexes. )The result show a higher record in lower central and lateral incisors in males (17.0 whereas a lowest record found in lower iirst molar in males (-30.0). A high correlation can be seen among anterior teeth and among posterior teeth with each other


Article
A scanning electron microscopical study of initial changes in human premolars teeth after orthodontic tooth movement

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scanning electron microscope was used to study the effect of orthodontic tooth movement by using a force of 50 grams on the pressure side of 2l upper left premolar mt for 5- 75 days while the contralaterl side 14 teeth were used as a control. In order to ruiy the morphology and occurrence of root resorptions, the organic tissue was removed rsigg sodium hypochlorite and the denuded root surface were re—examined in the scanning electron microscope. Initially, tissue affected by pressure was mainly located in he marginal region and subsequently the mid- portion of the roots became generally uri genced. The resorption process of cementum begins after 5 days as around cavities measuring about 4u. Further resorption in cementum was characterized by measuring small, thin—walled round lacunae which confluence into extensive, shallow resorptions after 25 days and more


Article
Shear bond and rebond strengths of four composite systems

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Abstract

:The orthodontic composite bonding material is available in various system which are chemically—cured composite such as Two—past and No—mix systems in whicl the composite set by chemical reaction; Light—cured composite system, in whicl :composite set by light exposure; and Dual—cured composite system, by which th composite cured by chemical reaction and light exposure. Thus it is necessary tt .investigate and compare the commonly used composite bonding systems This study was aimed to determine and compare the shear bond and rebonc strength of: Two—past composite system (Concise, 3M, Unitek USA), No—mix composite ,system (Right—On, TP Orthodontics UK), Light—cured composite system (Transbond XT .)M Unitek USA), and Dual—cured composite system (Sono—Cem ESPE, Germany3 ,Fifty six upper premolars were divided into four groups of fourteen, each group mesh—backed metal advant edge brackets were bonded to the buccal surface ofthe teeth using one of the composite system according to the instruction of manufacturer. Then .bonded samples were thermocycled in an attempt to simulate oral circumstances The samples were subjected to shear force using the universal compression machine apparatus, then the results were recorded in Megapascal (Mpa). The remaining composite on the buccal surface of the tooth was removed by hand sealer and polished, a new bracket was bonded to the buccal surface of the tooth using the same type of composite system. The rebonded samples were tested under shear strength using the .universal compression machine apparatus and the results were again recorded in Mpa ,The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive analysis, ANOVA test .Dtu1can’s Multiple Range Test and Student’s t—test at p g 0.0l The results showed that the Concise had no significant higher bond shear strength than the Transbond and Sono—Cem composite systems, and there was signilicant increase bond strength of the Concise than the Right—On composite systems. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in bond shear strength among the Right—On, Transbond .and Sono—Cem composite systems The shear rebond strength of composite systems was decreased, and there were The shear rebond strength of composite systems was decreased, and there were no .significant differences in bond and rebond shear strength of each composite system Conclusions of this study are that Concise has the higher shear bond strength but .has highest regression in its rebond shear strength


Article
Survey on maloccluslon in Iraqi dental student sample *

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The aim of this survey is to investigate the prevalence of malocclusion and different morphological features of dental occlusion in an Iraqi sample. The sample consisted of (218) dental student at college of Dentistry, Baghdad university, aged (18-21 year) & of both sexes. Were clinically evaluated after exclusion of students who have received any type of orthodontic treatment. The students also divided into two groups, the group who have received extraction of any tooth and the other group who have no extraction. Ag ,Of the sample (26.14%) had normal occlusion, (6o)05%) had CL.l malocclusion had CL.II malocelusion and (0.45%) who had CLIII malocclusion. The )%3,77( differences in prevalence of maloeclusion was statistically significant between these groups. On the other hand. This statistical difference was significant in eases with extraction than those cases without extraction (P< 0.05). clearly, there is a need for further epidemiologeal research aiming to increase the knowledge a bout the prevalence and type of malocclusion as well as the extent of need & demand for orthodontic treatment.


Article
The periodontal health status of postmenopausal women and its relationship to bone mineral density

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The relationship between changes in postmenopausal women and periodontal condition had been studied in many countries. It has been suggested that estrogen deficiency may play a role in periodontal disease following menopause. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of postmenopausal alteration on the clinical periodontal parameters and teeth loss. In addition, to determine the relationship between systemic bone mineral density and periodontal disease in postmenopausal .women Sixty Iraqi women in total were involved in this study, 20 women as a control group of age (35-45) years and forty postmenopausal women divided into two .subgroups: groupl for age (50-60) years and group 2 of age (60-70) years :Questionnaire involved the following periodontal parameters Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL). All these parameters were measured and tabulated according to redefined scores, or counts, and the data was analyzed .statistically - Fifteen of forty postmenopausal women, were examined using dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DEXA) equipment to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in order to determine the relationship between (BMD) and any of the above periodontal parameters. The means, Gl, BOP, PD and CAL were found to be significantly higher .)in the postmenopausal group than the control (P<0.05 It was found that BMD is negatively associated with Gl, BOP, PD and CAL but the correlation is either of high significant or of slight of difference but not significant at (P<0.05). The clinical parameters may increase depending on the expected negative effects during menopause further, it is concluded that BMD of the .lumbar spine is related to CAL, PD, number of teeth loss and to a lesser extent BOP


Article
Prevalence of cervical enamel projections and enamel pearls on furcation area of Iraqi molar teeth

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Cervical enamel projections and enamel pearls in relation to molar furcations may act as predisposing factors in periodontal attachment loss. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of cervical enamel projections and enamel pearls on furcation areas of molar teeth of Iraqi population. The material consisted of (465)extracted upper and lower molars. They were (200) upper molars and (200) ) lower molars extracted because of` caries and pulp lesions(groupl), while the other molars extracted because they were periodontally diseased(group2). The cervical )64( enamel projections were classified into three grades(described according to peter et al 2000) For group l the results showed that (5l%) of upper molars and (66%) of lower molars had cervical enamel projections. Enamel pearls were identified on (1.5%) of upper molars and (2.5%) of lower molars. Maxillary molars had (59.8%) grade I cervicaljnamel pro`ections and 28.4%) grade ll and (ll.7%) rade III. While mandibular molars showed (66.6%) teeth with grade I, (24.2%) teeth with grade II and (9%) teeth with grade III .For grou 2 cervical enamel rojcctions were identified on (70.7%) ofthe collected molars The results of the present study give an indication that cervical enamel projections are frequent enough to be of clinical importance


Article
roduction of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) in the non surgical periotherapy of aggressive periodontitis

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The non surgical periotherepy are based on the baeteriologic back ground of periodontal diseases. More than 46 different verulant species were composing the bacterial flora. Tetracyclin , Doxycyline , Minocyline were used systemically and / or topicaly in association with conventional scaling and root planning , as well chlorhixidine and wide variety of antiseptics were used . Generalized and localized aggressive periodontitis being a complex disease showing a specific entity and a complex bacterial flora, a curative non surgical remedy not yet well realized. The ,polyvinyl pynolidone (PVP) a highly effective wide broad spectrum bactericidal fungycidal and virocidal antiseptic used in low concentration (3%) as an intrapocket irrigation solution accompanied with conventional ultrasound scaling and root planning . Eight patients having aggressive were involved in this study, 12 therapeutic sessions were performed during 6 months. Once a week , in the first month , twice a month in the next 3 months , then once a month in the later 2 months . The result showed a significant improvement of the clinical parameters, gingival bleeding index GBI), clinical pocket depth (CPD) , and clinical tooth mobility (CTM) , with( . radiologic evidences of bone formation The result suggests that PVP could be the promising effective, save clinically . applicable , easy to use , and cheap remedy of complex periodontal diseases


Article
Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibularjoint

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerativejoint disease marked by progressive loss of articular cartilage and damage of bony components. The clinical features include ;joint pain, crepitus and limitation of movement. The exact cause of OA is unknown however some authors consider it as a multifaetorial disease. The age and over usage are the most common tactors, in addition to race and sex. ln case of temporomandibular joint(TMJ), traumatic occlusion, and over load caused by parafunctions are additional factors. The purpose ofthis investigation was to study the TMJ) arthropathy among a group of Iraqi patients previously diagnosed as having( .OA One hundred patients with OA are used in this study. They were examined .clinically and radiographically for effects of systemic OA on TMJ Results of the study revealed that 39% of patients with OA have TMJ lesions of different degrees ranged between osteophytes, diminusion of joint space and bone .distruction ofglenoid fossa and head of condyle Dental management of temporomandibular joints affected with OA usually aim to suppress the active disease, preserve functions, prevent deformity and relieve pain. Early detection of the disease and early commencement of management greatly i reduce joint destruction and improve prognosis. Results of this study indicated that l1% of patients had only TMJ lesions, with no other joints lesions. Because of difficulty of interpretation of TMJ radiographs we suggest criteria for radiographic diagnosis of osteoarthritis ofthe TMJ


Article
Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on skin wound healing

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Ascorbic acid is essential for proper synthesis of collagen fiber and intercellular .ground substance of connective tissue Objective of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid supplementation mg once daily for l0 days in the treatment of wound skin incision about 2cm in555 .length and 4mm in depth Thirteen albino rabbit were used in this study (eight rabbits represent experimental .)group while five represent as a control group The result of general histological observation revealed rapid and active healing process through complete epithelization of the surface of incision site and colla enous g . . fibrous tissue formation in the incision wound of animals with ascorbic acid administration while in control group incomplete epithelization and incomplete healing of .connective tissue of skin wound It was concluded that the administration of ascorbic acid might be sufficient to promote wound healing


Article
Etiological factors of temporomandibular joint disorders

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The temporomandibular joint disorders are defined as a collective term embracing a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory muscles, the TMJ and associated structures. Myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) is the most common .functional disorder of TMJ Many etiological factors have been blamed to produce pain and dysfunction of .TMJ such as stress, malocclusion and parafunctional habits Stress is thought to be responsible for hyperactivity of the muscles of mastication .which leads to muscle fatigue then muscle spasm and pain The purpose of this study was to determine the role of stress as an ctiological .)factor in (MPDS One hundred dental students were used in this study and evaluated for having MPDS. Another sample of one hundred persons from the general population were .evaluated in the same manner to be used as control The results of this study indicated that (55%) of participating students have MPDS) because of the great amotmts of stress they are going through. While in control group there was only (7%).


Article
Radiographic evaluation of the S2-complex drug on the alveolar bone height

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The S2-complex drug is a chemical preparation of a low molecular weight synthetic organometalic complex, and it has experimented in many researches to prove it’s activity in the treatment of the cancerous tumors, without any side effects. This drug is a potent immunomodulat or that stimulates both, the humoral a.nd cell mediated ,immune responses To examine the effect of S2—complex administered locally and was designed to test the potential effectiveness of S2-complex in the management of periodontal disease .associated bone loss by radiographic evaluation Thirty six pairs of similarly involved periodontal pockets in (20) patients aged between (30-50) years old with pocket depth more than 6 mm were selected. Split mouth ,randomized study was carried out. Scaling and root planing was carried out in both sides in test side received S2- complex for five days in a daily dose of O.l mm/kg injected deeply until reaching the bone of affected site, while the control side was received distal water for 5 days in a daily dose of 0.l mm/kg injected in the same way as that for test side. S2 complex was infiltrated locally through the gingival tissue of the effected site .deeply until reach the defect bone using disposable insulin syringes Clinical attachment level of gingiva were recorded at baseline and repeated once every 2 weeks. Periapical radiographs were taken for both test and control sides at baseline and at the termination of the treatment after 2 months. A long the time of study ,the patients put on a program of motivation to keep a good stander of oral hygiene Clinical and radiographical parameters in general showed improvement with both test .and control groups, with a statical significant difference between them Radiographical evaluation showed high differences in hight and density of bone for both groups, and effect to S2-complex was on sites of anterior and molar areas according , to the hight and density of bone There was high improvement in the clinical attachment level from the base line in .control & test sides , there was higher difference between them


Article
Radiographic evaluation of the S2-complex drug on the alveolar bone height

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Abstract

The S2-complex drug is a chemical preparation of a low molecular weight synthetic organometalic complex, and it has experimented in many researches to prove it’s activity in the treatment of the cancerous tumors, without any side effects. This drug is a potent immunomodulat or that stimulates both, the humoral a.nd cell mediated ,immune responses To examine the effect of S2—complex administered locally and was designed to test the potential effectiveness of S2-complex in the management of periodontal disease .associated bone loss by radiographic evaluation Thirty six pairs of similarly involved periodontal pockets in (20) patients aged between (30-50) years old with pocket depth more than 6 mm were selected. Split mouth ,randomized study was carried out. Scaling and root planing was carried out in both sides in test side received S2- complex for five days in a daily dose of O.l mm/kg injected deeply until reaching the bone of affected site, while the control side was received distal water for 5 days in a daily dose of 0.l mm/kg injected in the same way as that for test side. S2 complex was infiltrated locally through the gingival tissue of the effected site .deeply until reach the defect bone using disposable insulin syringes Clinical attachment level of gingiva were recorded at baseline and repeated once every 2 weeks. Periapical radiographs were taken for both test and control sides at baseline and at the termination of the treatment after 2 months. A long the time of study ,the patients put on a program of motivation to keep a good stander of oral hygiene Clinical and radiographical parameters in general showed improvement with both test .and control groups, with a statical significant difference between them Radiographical evaluation showed high differences in hight and density of bone for both groups, and effect to S2-complex was on sites of anterior and molar areas according , to the hight and density of bone There was high improvement in the clinical attachment level from the base line in .control & test sides , there was higher difference between them


Article
Orofacial, radiographic and salivary changes in thalassemia a major patients in Mosul

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Thalassaemia is considered one of the major health problem, which is widely ,distributed throughout the world Clinical orofacial, and radiographical examinations, in addition to the physical and biochemical analysis of the whole unstimulated saliva had been studied in Major thalassaemia patients (MTP) and the results compared with that of the normal .subjects )The study included (254) subjects. Thalassaemia patients (study group composed of (201) patients and non-thalassaermic. patients (control group) composed of (53) subjects. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to their ages .and sex distribution to study the chronological changes ofthe disease The first,second, and third groups were (6-11, 12-17,2 18) years old .respectively The results of the study showed that, there was a significant difference in ,occlusal relation between thalassaemie and non·thalassaemic groups Thalassaemic patients had a significant degree of malocclusion and high .significant degree of teeth discoloration than non-thalassaemie patients There were significant difference in oral hygein indices between thalassaemie and non-thalassaemie patients and even between male and female thalassaemie .patients The intraoral radiographical assessment of the major thalassaemie patients showed that, there was thinning of the lamina dura and bone marrow hyperplasia .which were significant when compaired with the non-thalassaemie patients Facial pigmentation and saddle no se were highly significant in major .thalassaemie than non-thalassaemie patients

Table of content: volume:2 issue:2