Table of content

AL Rafdain Engineering Journal

مجلة هندسة الرافدين

ISSN: 18130526
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Al Rafidain Engineering Journal
Abstract

The first issue of Al Rafidain Engineering Journal published in 1993 by the college of engineering – University of Mosul. The journal is publishing at a rate of six issues in the year (Bi-Monthly).
The journal publishes the referred original and valuable engineering research papers.
Al Rafidain engineering journal includes the following titles:

• Architectural Engineering
• Civil Engineering
• Computer Engineering
• Electrical Engineering
• Environmental Engineering
• Mechanical Engineering
• Megatronic Engineering
• Water Resources Engineering
The aim of publishing the journal is to develop the knowledge in the fields of applied engineering science.

• irrigation and drainage engineering
• Computer Engineering
Target domain and
Rivers Engineering magazine aims to develop knowledge in the field of engineering and science related to it. Should contribute to the article submitted for publication in the development of engineering sciences in various fields will be considered in the dissemination of innovative and distinctive articles in these areas. Articles which are referred to the magazine for the purpose of evaluating the arbitrators with the reputation and extensive experience in the field of jurisdiction has been accepted for publication or apologize. And will be re-papers not accepted for publication to their owners.

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Contact info

ealrafidain@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2006 volume:14 issue:3

Article
VLSI Architecture for Real Time IWT
معمارية للتحويل المويجي الصحيح في الزمن الحقيقي

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Abstract

Abstract In this paper, the design of new real time integer to integer lifting based wavelet transform IWT architecture is focused. An efficient design method is proposed to construct an integrated programmable VLSI architecture that can operate as forward or backward IWT in pipeline fashion. The layout VLSI integrated structure is simple, modular, and cascadable for computation of wavelet transform based on 5/3 biorthogonal filters. The architecture is optimal with respect to both area and time and independent of the size of the input signal without necessitate to memory. The lifting steps adapted to be causal and the proposed architecture is suitable to be used in the real time processing applications. The critical path of the architecture is equal to critical path of one lifting step. The numerical precision has been established using simulink model. Experimental tests have been made with 8-bit signed two's complement integer numbers. Based on the experimental result observations, the data path width of proposed architecture is fixed at 10 bits. Keywords: Lifting scheme, VLSI architecture, wavelet transform.


Article
Effect of Misalignment on Gear Teeth Stresses
تأثير عدم المحاذاة على الإجهادات المتولدة في أسنان التروس

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Abstract

Abstract: The present research work concentrated on the analysis of stresses generated on transmitting gear tooth, also the effect of misalignment angle on stress distribution and its concentration. This study had been done on a gear model similar to accessory gear of Gas Station for electricity generation in Mansour-Mosul. Computer program using finite element technique had been developed. Gear tooth model had been analyzed using finite element method in three dimensions. The results of execution finite element program for many cases of misalignment angle showed clearly, that the stress distribution and its concentration on tooth changed with misalignment angle. According to the values of generated stresses, the tooth fracture can be predicted, this leads to the selection of more suitable materials to be used for gears. New formulas governing stresses change with change of misalignment angle, had been obtained - using regression analysis -. Also it is found that when angle of misalignment being generated by 0.1 degree, this leads to increase of 154 % in maximum principal stress at root tension side, 163 % in maximum shear stress and 147 % in minimum principal stress at contact region. Finite element Stress analysis Spur gear Misalignment Keywords:


Article
Application of Thermal Energy Storage Systems to Public Worship Buildings
تطبيقات أنظمة الخزن الحراري في أبنية العبادة العامة

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Abstract This paper presents the feasibility of utilizing thermal energy storage systems in reducing both the initial and running expenses of chiller systems in large mosques. The study focused on the great mosque in the city of Mosul as a model. Two load profiles are considered, the occasional and the normal profiles with three different partial storage control strategies. The conventional strategy is also considered for the purpose of comparisons. From the results, it can be concluded that, the amount of the shifted load from the on-peak period for the occasional profile is equal to 45.2%, 24%, and 39.1% for the three control cases respectively. Up to 74% reduction in the on-peak power consumption can be achieved with a total shifted power, (from the on-peak to the off-peak periods) of up to 47.2%, which will add significantly to the total cost reduction. For the normal profile, the amount of the shifted load from the on-peak period is equal to 9.8%. The peak power consumption is reduced by 33.1%, and about 10% of the consumed power is shifted to low price period. Key words: A/C systems, refrigeration systems, thermal energy storage


Article
Properties and Behaviour of Lightweight Concrete Containing Polystyrene Granulars
خواص وسلوك الخرسانة الخفيفة الحاوية على حبيبات الاستايروبور

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Abstract

In the current research polystyrene particles are added to the concrete mix to produce six strips of reinforced slabs, in order to study the strips bearing capacity at the age of 56 days then later at 10 years. A selected mix of specific w/c is used; the main properties of the mix were studied from the results of casting cubes and beams. The results indicated that the L.W.C containing the polystyrene particles may be used to manufacture reinforced slab strips, in addition and as a by product to fabricate precast building blocks. Keyword : Light Concrete, Properties, Polystyrene Granulars


Article
Mechanical and Thermal Expansion properties of Roselle Fiber Reinforced Cement Composite
الخواص الميكانيكية والتمدد الحراري للاسمنت المسلح بألياف الكجرات

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Abstract This paper describes an experimental investigation on the mechanical, physical and thermal expansion properties of cement reinforced with Roselle fibres. The short discrete fibre length of (5-7mm) were used as reinforcement which were randomly oriented and uniformly distributed in the cement matrix and with various volume fraction of fibre cement ratio of (0-4%). The flexural strength, fracture energy, and thermal expansion of composites were found to increase as the fibre volume fraction was increased, while the elastic modulus was decreased, and also the results of the physical properties showed that a lightweight construction materials was obtained. Key ward : Roselle Fiber , Flexural strength , Fracture Energy , Elastic Modules , Thermal Expansion , Reinforced Cement Composites . 2005/11/


Article
VALIDATION OF THE TOTAL RESISTANCE HEAT DISSIPATION MODEL FOR HEAT TRANSMISSION THROUGH ANNULAR FINS
تحقيق نموذج المقاومة الكلية لانتقال الحرارة في الزعانف الحلقية عملياً

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An experimental investigation of the heat transfer in annular fins of constant thickness was carried out to prove the total resistance model suggested by Kahwaji [4] , given in equation (1) in the introduction . The experiments covered both the natural convection and forced convection heat transfer modes using fins of different materials and dimensions. Different Ra and Re numbers also achieved through varying the power input to the fins and the speed of the air flowing through the fin assembly. The results indicated good agreement between the suggested model and the experimental findings. Calculated and measured heat flux was found to be less than (8.33%) in the natural convection tests and (11%) in the forced convection tests. The maximum experimental error was estimated at about (6.33%). A numerical solution, based on the Gauss-siedel technique, was also derived and used to support the results. Key words: Heat transfer, annular fin, natural and forced convection, heat transfer coefficient


Article
“MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL FIBROUS CONCRETE”
"الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة المسلحة بالألياف الفولاذية"

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Abstract This paper studies the tensile strength of steel fibrous concrete, four different percentage of fibers where used to find out the effect of the addition of steel fibers on the tensile strength of concrete using the splitting, flexural, and compressive strength of concrete. Test results from this study and earlier published data were used in a regression analysis to derive empirical equations for tensile strength of SFC. The following relationships were derived; splitting strength and the compressive strength of fiber and normal concrete, the relationship between the flexural and compressive strength of SFC and compressive strength of normal concrete, and the splitting cylinder strength and the flexural strength of SFC. Key Words: Steel fiber concrete, tensile strength.


Article
The Effect Burnt Alum To Removing Turbidity From Water
تاثير حرق الشب على ازالة العكورة من الماء

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Abstract

Abstract The research focuses on the use of ordinary and burnt alum to remove the light turbidity (10 NTU) and reduces the medium ones (75NTU) by adding of different doses of ordinary alum Al2(SO4)3.16H2O and compare the results with these obtained from the burned alum at varying temperatures (200, 300, 400, 500, 600) C0. Jar test is used to find the change in the water characteristics of turbidity, pH, EC at the conditions. The study revealed that 10mg/l of burnt alum at 200Co and more give, final turbidity of about (2NTU), while it gives NTU between (7-8) in the case of using ordinal alum in removing of the light turbidity of (10NTU). In the case of reduction of the medium turbidity it find that 10mg/l of burned alum at 200Co reduces the final turbidity to about (3NTU). It appears also that the alum consumption is about 14% in case of using burnt alum as compared with the ordinary alum especially in reducing of the medium turbidity to 5NTU. key word (burnt alum, remove the light turbidity, Jar test)


Article
Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality in Group of Schools at Mosul City
التقييم النوعي لمياه الشرب في بعض مدارس مدينة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT The monitoring of water quality produced for drinking is one of the most important study in order to evaluate the suitability of water for human consumption also to evaluate efficiencies of treatment water plants and water distribution system especially in the present situation of the country. This study focusing on the quality of drinking water used by student in some schools at Mosul city. Where 17 schools had been selected through the city. main chemical and physical analysis had been done on these samples in addition to the total bacteria count, the study revealed that the water quality of the studied schools was within the standards of drinking water. A negative result were appeared for total bacteria count in one sample, only seem to be an indication of a new case of pollution with bacteria, this might be due to the water supply network, fortunately the result were within the Iraqi standards for drinking water. Key words: Water quality, Drinking water, Schools, Iraq, Mosul, Blockade, Water Supply. 2005/


Article
Analysis of Oxygen Transfer Performance On Subsurface Aeration Systems
تحليل أداء أجهزة التهوية غير السطحية في نقل الأوكسجين

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Abstract The efficiency of oxygen transfer depends on many factors including type, size and shape of diffusers and tank geometry. In this paper, the effect of the depth of water in the tank and, the extension of coverage area of diffusers on each of oxygen transfer capacity (OC), efficiency (E) and, on a percentage of oxygen absorption (δ) is tested. Experimental procedure is adopted to evaluate the effect of these parameters. The results of the study showed that, both of a depth of water and, the expand of coverage area of diffuser had a significant effect on the tested parameters. The values of oxygen transfer capacity (OC) and the efficiency (E) were ranging from (18 to 170 grO2/m3 tank. hr) and from (2 to 17 grO2/m3air) respectively, depending on the depth of water in tank and the ratio of diffusers coverage area. The value of an oxygen absorption percentage was ranging from (0.45-5.4%) depending on the circumstances of the test. Individual mathematical models to describe the effect of each parameter were also derived. The exponentional form of derived equation proved to be efficient to describe the effect of a depth of water on oxygen transfer capacity (OC) whereas; the linear form of the equation was good enough in representing the effect of the other parameters. Keywords: oxygen transfer capacity, absorption, diffusers, water depth, KLa, efficiency, diffusers coverage area


Article
Predicting Yield Response Factors In Jensen Model
ايجاد معاملات الانتاجية في معادلة جينس

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Abstract

Aِِbstract The yield response model is very important in irrigation planning and management of irrigation projects. A computerized model for simulating irrigation water requirement for wheat crop at Mosul area has been proposed for (20)years of daily climatological data. The model predict daily actual and potential evapotranspiration, then the relation between relative yield and relative evapotranspiration is put into (20)equations and solved mathematically to find the coefficients for each stage of growing growth period of wheat crop at Mosul area.The yield response factors is found for two cases, the first is for rainfed agriculture practice for wheat for (20)years where an available data for production is available ,and the second is for irrigated practice where four years production data were available[1] .Then the results are compared with the results obtained from (Doorenbos & Al kassam 1979) equation for yield. [2] and show a small variation while the last equation is justified by International Agriculture and Food Organization(FAO). Keywords: crop water production function ,yield response factor, yield Jensen model, irrigation managemen


Article
Developing Annual Load Duration Curve Using an Intelligent Technique
استحصال منحنى فترة الحمل السنوي باستخدام الطرق الذكية

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Abstract The paper discusses a method to get the hourly load data from the peak daily load (i.e. to store one value and get 24 values). The method uses one of the intelligent techniques (Artificial Neural Network ANN). The annual load duration (ALDC) is used in different studies, such as power system planning, reliability study . . . etc. In this work the ALDC is used as an example for the application of the proposed method. When the hourly load data for a year are available, it is easy to find the ALDC. In the studies where the ALDC is needed, the load is usually forecasted (future load) where the hourly data are not available. A proposed ANN is explained to overcome this difficulty. The method develops the daily load (24 hours) from the peak load. The required days are encountered, which means that the ALDC is obtained for the required days. Also if there is a missing period, the proposed method can develop that missing period in the data. The data of the Iraqi North Region National Grid (INRNG) for the year 2001 is used to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results of a conventional method are also given. Key words: ALDC, Daily load, Hourly load, ANN.


Article
THE CONSTANT & VARIABLE IN FORMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OLD MOSUL CITY MOSQUES
الثابت والمتغير في الخصائص الشكلية لعمارة الجوامع في مدينة الموصل القديمة

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Abstract The research focused on studying the specialty of mosque architectures in old Mosul City as theoretical knowledge can be used by architect in designing mosques that have its origins in the traditional model of mosques. The research adopted typology to analyze models of Mosul traditional mosques, focusing on its formal characteristics by inducing the apparent characteristics related to plans and elevations , and essential characteristics related to movement system. The research concluded the constant characteristics of mosque architecture in old Mosul City that are the formal embodiment of intellectual direction of mosque typology as the substance of Islamic doctrine in doing the praying duty. 2005/12/

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Article
Probabilities of Storage States of Real Time Reservoir System
إحتماليات حالات الخزين لنظام خزن واقعي

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Abstract The long-term probabilities of storage states of Bakhma reservoir system at northern part of Iraq have been investigated. The seasonal probability transition matrices have been manipulated in different orders to construct the yearly probability transition matrices where the latter were implemented to calculate the steady state probabilities. The results reveal that the final state of the system depends upon how one can manipulate the seasonal transition matrices in an appropriate order. Additionally, it was found that Bakhma reservoir workable storage is either underestimated and should be re-evaluated or the turbine capacity has to be increased to generate additional power, otherwise, significant amount of water might be lost over the spillway. Keywords:Transition matrix, Long Term Probabilities, Reservoir Storage Estimation

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