Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

e mail:

Table of content: 2005 volume:5 issue:6

Article
The effects of type of tooth and the placement site of electrode on the electrical pulp testing of the anterior teeth

Authors: Talal H Al–Salman
Pages: 97-102
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of type of the tooth and the placement site of electrode on electrical pulp testing of the anterior teeth. Twenty persons were participated in this study. The six maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth were checked to evaluate the response threshold to electrical pulp testing; each tooth was examined at four placement sites on its labial surface, which are the incisal edge, incisal third, middle third and the cervical third. The results showed that the response threshold of the mandibular anterior teeth was lower than that of the maxillary anteriors. The canines may respond to the electrical stimulus in a highest threshold than the lateral incisors and the central incisors which had the lowest response threshold. Also, this study showed that the best placement site of electrode was in the incisal edge of the tooth and the pulp tester reading was increased as the electrode moved toward the cervical region of the tooth.


Article
Gingival response to relief and non relief removable orthodontic appliances

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Abstract

The gingival state of thirty seven young patients (mean age 11.6 years) wearing simple removable orthodontic appliances was assessed and followed at monthly intervals for 3 months. For 17 of the patients, intentional relief of the appliance was carried out in the upper right area. Statistically, the plaque index levels were similar in both “relief” and “non relief” groups and reached a similar score at 2 and 3 months. The gingival index was significantly higher in the “relief” group.


Article
Xerostomia: Analysis among dental patients

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to estimate the incidence of xerostomia (dry mouth) among 200 dental patients had different systemic diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular (CV) problems, anemia, arthritis and cancer. Distribution of xerostomia according to the type of systemic disease, age and sex was analyzed. In this study, 64% of total patient represent xerostomia, 24.5% of xerostomic cases were males, while 39.5% were females. Incidence of xerostomia was correlated directly with age where 16% of xerostomic patients were limited in age group between 21–40 years, while 48% of xerostomic patients were limited in the age group between 41–60 years. The results concluded that systemic disease played role in development of xerostomia which could be due to underlying medical condition, or due to their medication intake. Patients complained from xerostomia were instructed for good oral hygiene and increase their water intake. In certain cases, pilocarpine was indicated to relieve their symptoms.

Keywords

Xerostomia --- dry mouth


Article
Mesiodistal axial teeth angulations of permanent anterior teeth using postero–anterior cephalometric radiograph

Authors: Afrah Kh Al–Hamdany
Pages: 114-120
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Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the mesiodistal axial angulations of upper and lower permanent anterior teeth in young Iraqi adults having normal occlusion using postero–anterior cephalograph. Also to detect the sex difference in the mesiodistal axial angulations of such teeth. The sample consisted of 33 young Iraqi adult students, 17 males and 16 females aged 20–23 years old who were having Class I normal occlusion. Postero–anterior cephalograph was taken for each subject and was traced to determine the mesiodistal axial angulation of upper and lower permanent anterior teeth. The results revealed that the mean values of mesiodistal axial teeth angulations in both sexes showed very limited variation. No significant bilateral differences were found for right and left sides for both jaws (for males, females and total sample). From the above results, it could be concluded that no significant bilateral differences in mesiodistal axial tooth angulations were found for both jaws, for total sample and for both sexes. Also, male–female comparison showed no significant difference in mesiodistal axial teeth angulations and for both jaws.


Article
Oral hygiene and gingival health status among teenagers population lived in Al–Rashidiya, Ninevah

Authors: May Gh Al–Ajrab
Pages: 121-126
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the oral hygiene and gingival health among teenagers aged 13 to 16 years old living in Al–Rashidiya in Mosul City. The sample consisted of 633 students (345 males and 288 females) examined in their schools using plane mirrors and periodontal probes. Plaque index by Silness and Löe (1964) and gingival index by Löe and Silness (1963) were used for detecting plaque and gingival scores respectively. The results showed that 31.9% and 31.3% of the sample brush their teeth for males and females respectively while 25.1% and 11.7% of students did not. A very highly significant difference has been found in mean plaque and gingival scores between those brushed their teeth and those not in all age groups. The study revealed that mean plaque score for total males and females were 1.01, 1.00 for those brush their teeth and 1.32, 1.46 for those not and there is no significant difference by sex. While the mean gingival score for total males and females were 1.28, 1.31 for those brush their teeth and 1.63, 1.76 for those not, with no significant difference between sex. It has been obvious that mean plaque and gingival indices increased with increasing age of the individual.


Article
The effect of dental educational level in adults (18–25 years old) with crowded teeth on the plaque and gingival conditions

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between crowding, plaque and gingival conditions according to the level of dental education of the Iraqi adults. The sample was divided primarily into two groups: The first group was collected from dental students whom dentally well educated, while the second group was collected from other population whom dentally non educated (industrialist). Each group was subdivided into two groups according to the presence or absence of crowding, so that four groups were obtained (educated participants with non crowded teeth, educated persons with crowded teeth, non educated participants with non crowded teeth and non educated participants with crowded teeth). The results of this study indicated that the dental educational level is positively affecting on the gingival health in both crowded and normal occlusion. However, regardless of the level of education, plaque accumulation and gingivitis are significantly higher in the crowded teeth sample.

Keywords

Crowding --- gingivitis --- plaque --- socioeconomics


Article
Effect of anterior teeth inclination on soft tissue facial profile in Class II division 1 malocclusion

Authors: Huda A Al–Sarraf
Pages: 132-139
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate soft tissue adaptability to hard tissue; in other words, to evaluate the relation between the inclination of upper and lower anterior teeth with the upper and lower lips, and how this relation affect the soft tissue profile in Class II division 1 malocclusion subject for both genders (males and females). The sample of this study comprised lateral cephalograms from 40 Class II division 1 malocclusion subjects (20 males and 20 females) aged 18–25 years. Two dental [upper and lower incisor inclination {the angle formed between the long axis of the upper central incisor (U1) and the palatal plane (PP) and the angle formed between the long axis of the lower central incisor (L1) and the mandibular plane (MP)}] and three soft tissue [nasolabial (nla), labiomental (lma) and soft tissue facial convexity (n–sn–pog)] angular measurements were analyzed. The results showed no significant difference between males and females concerning the proclination of upper anterior teeth and the prominency of upper lip, while the females exhibited more proclined lower anterior teeth and more protrusive lower lip than males. The males tend to have more convex facial profile than females


Article
Prevalence and severity of traumatic injury of permanent anterior teeth among 7–15 years old children in Mosul City

Authors: Aisha A Qasim
Pages: 140-144
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Abstract

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and severity of traumatic dental injuries of permanent anterior teeth among children in Mosul City, and to find if there is any variation between age and sex groups. A sample of 209 children aged 7–15 years old (112 males and 97 females) was examined using Garcia–Godoy classification in the diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries. The results showed that the upper central incisors were the most commonly injured teeth (60%) followed by the lateral incisors (35%). No case of injured canine was recorded. The lower lateral incisors reported the very little average (1%). The results also showed that the most common type of dental injuries was the simple enamel fracture (43.7%).


Article
Age differences for Class I open bite malocclusion among adolescence (Lateral cephalometric study)

Authors: Hind T Jarjees
Pages: 145-153
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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the age differences for open bite malocclusion concerning facial skeletal and dentoalveolar height. The study was carried out on a sample of 50 students (24 males and 26 females) aged 12–15 years with Class I occlusion selected according to certain criteria among the students of secondary schools in the center of Mosul City. The sample was divided into two age groups: 12–13 years old, and 14–15 years old. Lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken for each subject. Twenty one cephalometric measurements (nine angular and twelve linear) and five ratios had been determined. The data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results revealed that males showed significant increase in total posterior facial height, upper posterior facial height and ramus height with increasing age, while females showed increase of upper anterior dental height and decrease the ratio between upper posterior dental height and upper anterior dental height with increasing age. Concerning angles, females approved significant increase of the angle formed by the intersection between occlusal plane and palatal plane (OP–PP), while males showed a slight decrease of the angle of palatal plane inclination in relation to anterior cranial base (SN–PP angle) with increasing age.


Article
Comparison between Tanaka/Johnston and Boston University prediction approaches in a group of Iraqi pupils

Authors: Khawla M Awni
Pages: 154-160
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare two mixed dentition prediction methods that do not require the use of periapical radiographs of the unerupted permanent lower teeth. The two compared methods were the Tanaka/Johnston (T/J) and the Boston University (BU) prediction approaches. Study casts of 52 children (20 males and 32 females) were used; those children were selected from primary and secondary schools located in different areas of Mosul City. All subjects have normal Class I molar relationship. The finding indicated that on the average the T/J approach overestimated the tooth size of the unerupted teeth (mean + SD = 1.02 + 1.07 mm). On the other hand, the BU approach underestimated the tooth size of the unerupted teeth (mean + SD = –0.2 + 1.07 mm). The findings further indicated that there were statistically significant correlation between the predicted and actual tooth size. The error involved in the use of the prediction equations was expressed as the standard error of the estimate (SEE). The present findings indicated that the SEE for T/J prediction ranged between 0.52–0.63 mm and the corresponding values for BU equation ranged between 0.45–0.68 mm. Depending on the stage of dental development; i.e., which deciduous and permanent teeth are present, the T/J approach can be used when the only permanent four mandibular incisors have completely erupted, whereas the BU approach can be used when all the deciduous (canines and first molars) are still present.


Article
Success rate of apicectomy of anterior and premolar teeth

Authors: Mohammed Kh Hasouni --- Shehab A Hamad
Pages: 161-167
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Abstract

This study was carried out to assess the success rate of apicectomy of anterior and premolar teeth. Out of 336 patients, who had undergone apicectomy in a private practice between 1997–2001, only 256 patients (76.2%) completed the two years recall visits; which was the minimum time recommended in this study to judge whether the operation was successful or not. The age range of the patients was 12–67 years (mean of 34.7 years), 136 were males and 120 were females. The overall success rate of apicectomy in this study was 89.1%. Sex of the patient had no bearing on the success rate (p > 0.05). Highly significant influence of the patient’s age on the success rate was observed (p < 0.01); the success rate increased proportionally with increased age. Highly significant influence of the type of the apicectomised tooth on the success rate was noted (p < 0.001); upper anterior teeth showed the highest success rate (92.1%), whereas upper premolars showed the lowest success rate (77.4%). Periapical condition of the tooth prior to the operation, preoperative vs postoperative obturation of the root canal, and orthograde obturation vs retrograde obturation were not significant factors affecting the success rate of apicectomy (p > 0.05).


Article
Gagging: A problem in prosthetic dentistry and its medical treatment

Authors: Nagham H Kassab --- Maha T Al–Saffar
Pages: 168-173
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Abstract

This study was designed to diagnose and treat patients having gagging reflex whom need prosthetic treatment; patients in this study were wearing denture or received new one; those attending Prosthodontic Department/ College of Dentistry/ University of Mosul. The sample of this study was 243 patients consisting of 167 males and 76 females and their ages ranged between 22– 79 years old. All of them had either single upper, partial or complete denture excluding from this study all patients who did not have denture before, because this study directed toward prosthetic patients only. A sample, which consists of 243 patients, was divided into two main groups according to their response to gag reflex. The first one represented the control group which consisted of 200 patients, those did not have gagging reflex problem while the second group which represented those patients who they suffer from gagging problem when they are wearing or during denture insertion and consisted of 43 patients: Each one of them subdivided furthermore into subgroups according to patient’s medical health status and sex. The second group (gagging patient) subdivided furthermore into 3 subgroups according to severity of gag reflex in which according to that, treatment plan had been made and it consisted of psychological treatment only for patients with mild and moderate gagging and medical and psychological treatment for patients with severe gagging reflex which include metoclopromide and valium 2. The result of this study demonstrated that those patients with severe gagging reflex problem reflect difficulties during prosthetic treatment which required medical and psychological treatment, which include reassurance of patient with explanation of steps of prosthetic treatment plan to reduce fear and anxiety before any prosthesis construction and the response of those patients to medical treatment was approximately 58.3% to this treatment and it was concluded that any type of prosthetic treatment in patients with gagging reflex required medical and psychological treatment plan.


Article
Evaluation of surface roughness of composite according to surface treatment

Authors: Sabah A Ismail
Pages: 174-179
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness (Ra) of two composite resins: An organically modified ceramic (Definite) and a micro hybrid (Tetric). Thirty specimens of each composite resin were fabricated using a stainless steel mold of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth. The composite resin was covered by a Mylar strip and pressed flat with a microscopic glass slide and light cured. The specimens for each composite resin were divided into three groups, each of ten. The specimens in group one received no treatment, while the specimens in group two and three were finished with diamond bur. After finishing with diamond burs group three were polished with Sof–Lex discs. The surface profile of the specimens was obtained with a surface profile–testing machine (Profilometer). The roughness value in micrometer (μm) was recorded as the average Ra. Results showed higher surface roughness in groups finished with diamond burs followed by groups finished with diamond burs and polished with Sof–Lex discs while groups set against Mylar strip showed the lowest roughness values. The result revealed no significant difference in surface roughness values between the two composite resins.


Article
Assessment of mouth opening limitation in myogenic temporomandibular disorder patients

Authors: Ahmed A Al–Tuhafi
Pages: 180-184
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Abstract

This research was to evaluate a new assessment of mouth opening limitation in myogenic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. The suggested assessment was accomplished by calculating the opening ratio (OR) which depends on the ratio between maximum comfortable mouth opening and maximum assisted mouth opening. There was a remarked significant difference in the OR between the TMD patients and control groups. There was no significant relationship between OR with age or sex in both groups. A significant reversible correlation between OR with number of tender muscles and temporomandibular joint tenderness was found. It could be concluded from this research that the OR has diagnostic value in TMD patients, but unlike other measures, as it independent on age and gender.


Article
Evaluation of some adhesive materials for repairing gypsum models

Authors: Radhwan H Hasan
Pages: 185-191
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The aim of this study was to evaluate some adhesive materials that are used in dentistry for repairing of gypsum cast. The specimens were prepared with dimensions 121×16×10 mm length, width and thickness, respectively. The total number of specimens was 96 (48 specimens for dental plaster, while the other 48 specimens were for dental stone). The length of each specimen was measured and recorded on its surface, then the specimens were fractured into two pieces and reattached together with one of the three adhesive materials, reattachment was done either immediately (time= 0) or after 4 minutes of adhesive application. These specimens were divided into six groups for each gypsum product, which involved: Group 1: Control, unrepaired specimens; group 2: Polycarboxylate cement, time= 0; group 3: Polyacrylic acid solution, time= 0; group 4: Polyacrylic acid solution, time= 4 minutes; group 5: Cyanoacrylate adhesive, time= 0; group 6: Cyanoacrylate adhesive, time= 4 minutes. The length of each specimen was measured again and differences in length for each repaired specimen was measured. Then all specimens were subjected to the flexure of transverse strength test. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results indicated that using of cyanoacrylate adhesive, time= 0 and polyacrylic acid solution, time = 4 minutes had significantly higher transverse strength providing maximum adhesion for each gypsum product. The results of this study also showed that there were dimensional changes with polycarboxylate cement adhesive and such changes not observed with cyanoacrylate and polyacrylic acid solution adhesives.

Table of content: volume:5 issue:6