Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

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Table of content: 2005 volume:5 issue:5

Article
Water sorption of light–cured composites

Authors: Ammar Kh Al–Nori
Pages: 1-5
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Abstract

The aim of the present research was to study the percentage water sorption and solubility of Esthet composite resin based on an ethoxylated bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis–EMA) and Heliomolar composite resin based on bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis–GMA). Six specimens were prepared for each material using aluminum disc 15 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness between two glass slides; then they were light cured for 80 seconds on each side. Percentage water sorption and solubility were measured after one week and one month. The results showed that water sorption after 1 week for Esthet composite and Heliomolar composite were 0.433 and 1.12, respectively and solubility were 0.074 and 1.066, respectively; while water sorption after 1 month were 0.517 and 2.57, respectively and solubility were 0.176 and 2.689, respectively. It could be concluded that the percentage sorption and solubility of composite based on Bis–EMA were significantly lower than that based on Bis–GMA.


Article
The correlation between certain facial and dental measurements that influence dental aesthetics “Cephalometric study”

Authors: Nadia H Hasan
Pages: 6-14
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Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to assess and determine if the correlation between certain facial measurements was significant to recommend their use as reliable aesthetic factors for selection of suitable tooth moulds for anterior teeth restoration. The materials for this study included 50 cephalometric radiographs for selected undergraduate students of Dentistry Collage, Mosul University; 25 males and 25 females. The age ranged from 18–25 years old with normal occlusion. The data were analyzed by using Minitab system and the result confirmed that certain facial measurements considered directly to determine the outline form to restore anterior teeth such as tooth width at the incisor edge, incisor tooth length, intercanine distance, the ratio of incisor tooth length and tooth width at the incisor edge, bi–incisors width, and bi–orbital width, while the others, bi–zygomatic width, intermolar distance, anterior facial height, and the ratio of anterior facial height and bi–zygomatic width, were indirectly indicated. Also there was a significant difference between male and female groups with different facial measurements. The ratio of the anterior facial height to bi–zygomatic width for the total sample was 0.93 mm, while that for the tooth length to tooth width was 0.81 mm. It could be concluded that certain facial measurements recommended as reliable aesthetic factors for selection of suitable tooth moulds for anterior teeth restoration.


Article
The selection of maxillary anterior teeth width in relation to facial measurements at different types of face form

Authors: Nagham H Kassab
Pages: 15-23
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Abstract

It is difficult to determine the dimensions of maxillary anterior teeth for edentulous patient when pre–extraction records are not available. Therefore, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the relationships between maxillary anterior teeth measurements [canine arc distance (CARCD), central incisor width] and certain horizontal facial parameters which included: [(interzygomatic, inner and outer canthus and inter-pupillary) distances in addition to that (interalar, mouth and philtrum of upper lip) widths], and also to determine those relations at different types of facial form in both sexes for the best selection of maxillary anterior teeth widths. The facial and dental measurements were obtained directly from 100 Iraqi undergraduate dental students by using an electronic digital vernier caliper. Depending on facial index for each subject, the larger percentage of students (80%) had a leptoprosopic (long and narrow) face in which their facial indices were 90 or above, whereas 4% of students had a euryprosopic (square) face in which their facial indices 82.1–83.1; while 16% of those students had a mesoprosopic (ovoid) face in which their facial indices 85.3–89.5. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used for all relationships and the results revealed that there was a significant correlation between CARCD and mouth width in males with leptoprosopic face while in those with mesoprosopic face the CARCD was significantly correlated with both mouth and interzygomatic widths but with higher correlation coefficient value being with mouth width, the maxillary central incisor width was significantly correlated with both inner canthal distance and philtrum width of upper lip but with higher correlation coefficient value being with first one. In females with leptoprosopic face, the CARCD had a high significant correlation coefficient with inner canthal distance; while in those with mesoprosopic face the maxillary central incisor width was significantly correlated with interzygomatic distance while the other correlations in different types of face form for both sexes were found to be in low magnitude and were not significant. On the above mentioned results, this study demonstrated that certain horizontal facial parameters could be used as a guide in maxillary anterior denture teeth selection to achieve the best esthetic result in each type of face form in both sexes


Article
Clinical evaluation of the effect of four flap designs on the post–operative sequel (pain, swelling and trismus) following lower third molar surgery

Authors: Mohammad S Sulieman
Pages: 24-32
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Abstract

The present study aimed to assess the effect of different flap designs on pain, swelling and trismus following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. The study was carried out in Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Dental Teaching Hospital of Dentistry College, Mosul University. Sixty patients were included in the research where they were divided into 4 groups, each comprised of 15 patients. In the first group, the impacted teeth were removed using an envelope flap. In the second group, a standard flap was used for the removal of impacted teeth. For the third group, the impacted teeth were removed using modified standard flap. While in the fourth group, S–shaped flap was used. Pain, swelling and trismus were assessed clinically post–operatively at 1 day, 3 days and 7 days intervals. Pain and swelling were evaluated subjectively while trismus was evaluated by measuring the maximum mouth opening ability (in mm) between the right upper and right lower central incisors using a vernier. The results showed no significant effect among the 4 flap designs on post–operative complaints. It was concluded that the type of incision appears to have no effect on the degree of pain, swelling and trismus following surgical removal of impacted lower third molar.


Article
The antimicrobial effect of water extraction of Salvadora persica (Miswak) as a root canal irrigant

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of 10% water extraction of Salvadora persica (Miswak) when used clinically as an endodontic irrigant. Twenty four uniradicular teeth with necrotic pulps were chosen. The patients were divided randomly into 2 groups: Experimental group, in which water extract of Salvadora persica (10%) was used as a root canal irrigant; and control group, in which distilled water was used as a root canal irrigant. Bacteriological samples were obtained from the canal at the step of working length determination (before the canal was subjected to instrumentation and irrigation procedures), and at the end of the biomechanical instrumentation procedures by using a sterile K–file. The file was separated from the handle using a sterile wire cutter, and the severed portion was placed in a sterile screw–capped vial containing 5 ml of thioglycollate broth as a transport media. A 0.1 ml of thioglycollate broth was inoculated on each of two brain–heart infusion agar plates: One plate was incubated under aerobic conditions, and the other was incubated under anaerobic conditions using anaerobic jar and gas pack anaerobic system. Both plates were incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours; then, the number of bacterial colonies was counted. The results revealed that 10% water extraction of Salvadora persica is an effective antimicrobial agent when utilized clinically as an irrigant in the endodontic treatment of teeth with necrotic pulps.


Article
Effectiveness of educational program on fixed orthodontic appliance treatment on patient’s oral hygiene

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether educated dental patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment showing better oral hygiene than dental patients who are not educated. The sample is comprised of 16 orthodontic patients (3 males and 13 females), 11–22 years old chosen randomly among patients at Department of Pedodontics, Orthodontics and Preventive Dentistry of College of Dentistry at Mosul University. The sample is divided equally into 2 groups; the first group was educated concerning fixed orthodontic treatment in relation to oral hygiene and given education and instruction to keep good oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. The second group is not educated. Swabs were taken from supra– gingival plaque of facial surface of upper right and lower left central incisors, and upper left and lower right first molar teeth; one before orthodontic treatment and another (4–6 weeks) later and subjected to bacteriological investigation. Qualitative data about oral microorganisms were collected and subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that during treatment records for both educated and non–educated groups show significant difference for certain types of microorganisms and at different locations with the educated group scores the least in comparison with non–educated group


Article
Oral health status and treatment needs of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students (A comparative study)

Authors: Faraed D Salman --- Aisha A Qasim --- Khawla M Saleh
Pages: 46-51
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The aim of this study is to compare oral health status (dental caries, periodontal disease and treatment needs) of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students. The sample included 100 Iraqi dental students and 90 Yemeni dental students of fourth grade, age ranged between 22–23 years old of both sexes. The study revealed that there was a significant difference in the DMFT between Iraqi and Yemeni dental students for the total sample at p < 0.05 level, with significant difference between Iraqi and Yemeni dental students for both sexes at p < 0.01 level. The results also revealed that there was no significant difference in the type of treatment required for the total sample between females of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students, but with significant difference in the treatment need between males of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students. Highest percentage of treatment need for Iraqi and Yemeni students were for 1 surface restoration. The highest CPITN code percentage for Iraqi students was for code 2 (calculus) followed by code 1 with a significant difference between Iraqi males and females students at p<0.01 level, while for Yemeni dental students the highest CPITN code percentage was for code 1 followed by code 2. There was a significant difference in the total sample between Iraqi and Yemeni dental students at p<0.01 level; i.e., Iraqi students require scaling while Yemenis require oral health instruction.


Article
Clinical evaluation of bonded brackets for three composite bonding systems

Authors: Hussain A Obaidi
Pages: 52-56
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Abstract

Bonding the teeth with orthodontic brackets via orthodontic adhesive is essential stage in orthodontic treatment. But, still the failure bracket due to orthodontic or functional forces could be the predominant problem through the orthodontic treatment, in addition to the enamel fracture; in cases the bracket failed at the enamel–composite interface completely or partially (scores 0, 1, 2) as suggested by Artun and Bergland. This study is a clinically attempt to evaluate the failure– bracket number and the bracket failure sites, for three orthodontic composite systems, which were two paste (Concise); nomix (Right ON) and light cure (Transbond). These adhesives were used in bonding a stainless steel brackets to the teeth of adhesive system. The number of the failed brackets through 18 months of treatment were recorded and the site of the failed brackets were observed by magnifying lens (10×) and recorded according to the Artun and Bergland index. The results showed that there were no significant differences of failed brackets at p < 0.05 and 0.01 levels among these three composite systems, but the Concise adhesive had the least failure–brackets. The failure sites of the failed brackets for the three bonding systems were occurred at scores 2 and 3, while the Concise system had the highest percentage of score 3 site (80%) (composite bracket interface).


Article
Aural symptoms in temporomandibular disorder patients

Authors: Ahmad A Al–Tuhafi
Pages: 57-62
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The prevalence of aural symptoms in 100 patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) were investigated and compared with control group of 100 subjects without clinical manifestation of TMD. The relationship between otologic symptoms and severity of TMD signs was also evaluated. Examination of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) included maximum mouth opening, clicking, crepitation, locking, luxation, deviation of midline, masticatory muscle tenderness, and TMJ tenderness. All patients of the two groups were questioned about feeling of ear complaints, including otalgia, tinnitus, and hearing loss. It was found that 48% of TMD patients complained of one or more aural symptoms compared with 13% of the controls. There was a highly significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The prevalences of otalgia, tinnitus, and hearing loss in TMD patients were 36%, 27%, and 4% respectively. While in the control group the prevalences were otalgia 6%, tinnitus 10%, and hearing loss 1%. There were highly significant differences between the two groups regarding otalgia and tinnitus (p<0.01). The evaluation of the relationship between aural symptoms and TMD signs, yielded a significant positive correlation between otalgia with clicking, number of tender muscles, and TMJ tenderness. While it reversibly correlated with mouth opening. Tinnitus was found to be positively correlated with clicking and number of tender muscles. From the results of this research, dentist and otolaryngologist must act as a team in recognizing and diagnosing TMD and the otolaryngologists should refer patients with otalgic complaint without apparent ear diseases to a specialist in TMD for further evaluation


Article
The effects of drying techniques on the compr-essive strength of gypsum products

Authors: Radhwan H Hasan --- Kasim A Mohammad
Pages: 63-68
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Excess water in set dental stone decreases its strength. So different methods were used to expel excess water but the compressive strength may be affected by drying technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength of two types of set dental stone after air, conventional oven and microwave drying techniques. A total of 60 stone specimens (30 specimens made from Silky Rock stone and 30 Zeta stone) were prepared by the aid of an acrylic split mold according to ADA Specification No. 25. Specimens were divided into six groups of 10 identical specimens for each. Then groups were either dried by air, conventional oven or microwave oven. Using Unconfined Compression Machine, the specimens were loaded by a cross head speed of 1 mm/minute till the specimen being fractured. The load required to fracture the stone specimens was recorded and analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test for the statistical comparisons between drying techniques at a significance level of p< 0.05, and Student’s t–test was used to compare between the two stone types. The results revealed that high significant differences were present between the different drying techniques (p<0.0001) with air dried specimens were significantly stronger than others and microwave dried specimens were significantly stronger than conventional oven dried specimens. Silky Rock (type IV) stone was significantly stronger than Zeta (type III) stone (p<0.001). From this study, it could be concluded that the highest compressive strength can be obtained by air drying of the stone for 24 hours, while microwave drying technique give better results than conventional oven drying technique with the advantage of time saving over the two other drying techniques.


Article
Shear bond strength of posterior comp-osite cores

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This study was designed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of posterior composite resin cores to tooth surface using two dental adhesives and two retentive means. Thirty extracted permanent molars were used for this purpose. They were made flat by removing the occlusal one third using “stone grinding wheal”. Teeth were then randomly divided into six groups: Groups I and IV: Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SbMP) and All bond 2 dental adhesives were used for groups I and IV respectively to adhere composite to the flat tooth surface with no retentive mean as the control group. Groups II and V: A circumferential slot was prepared and composite attached to the tooth using SbMP and All bond 2 for groups II and V respectively. Groups III and VI: Four self threading pins were placed and composite adhered using SbMP and All bond 2 for groups III and VI respectively. After storage and thermal cycling, the SBS for each group was measured using “universal testing machine”. The results varied according to the retentive mean and dental adhesive used. Groups with four pins produced the highest SBS and groups with no retentive mean showed the lowest SBS. Also the groups using All bond 2 adhesive generally had higher values when compared with the same groups using SbMP dental adhesive. Within the limits of this study, it is indicated that when the highest SBS is to be achieved, then All bond 2 dental adhesive with pins should be used.


Article
The effect of storage on shear bond strength of three composite resins to dentin

Authors: Sabah A Ismail
Pages: 75-82
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage time on shear bond strength of three composite resin, two utilize total etch technique and one utilize self etching bonding agent. One hundred twenty maxillary and mandibular molars were used in this study. The teeth were prepared by cutting the occlusal enamel with diamond bur to expose dentin and ground wet with silicone carbide papers. The specimens were then divided into three groups and stored in distilled water. Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus was used in the first group and a stainless steel round mould, with a central hole of 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height was used to build up the composite Z100. The composite resin was inserted in two increments, each one was light cured for 40 seconds. This gro-up is divided into four subgroups each of ten according to the storage time (one day, fifteen days, three months and six months) then stored in distilled water accordingly. The same procedure was repeated in the second and third groups. The composite used in the second group was Tetric with Excite bonding agent. In the third group, Definite composite and its bonding agent Etch and Prime was used. The bond strength was measured and the data were statistically analyzed. Z100 composite had the greatest shear bond strength followed by Tetric and Definite. One day and fifteen days storage time for all types of composite had greater shear bond strength than the three months and six months storage time. In conclusion there was a gradual decrease in bond strength with increased storage time up to six months irrespective of the type of composite.


Article
Radiographic and microscopic evaluation of the efficacy of two different techniques in obt-uration of internal resorption defects (An in vitro comparative study)

Authors: Ragheed M Basheer
Pages: 83-87
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This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of lateral compaction and ultrasonic condensation obturation techniques for internal resorption defects, for which 20 extracted human maxillary central incisors teeth were selected. They were instrumented up to size 55 file. Their roots were sectioned transversely 6 mm from the apex and hemicircular cavities were prepared in both sections using #6 round bur. The sections were glued back together using cyanoacrylate thus obtaining root canal with cavities simulating internal resorption. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups of 10 teeth each. The following obturation techniques were evaluated: Lateral compaction (Group I), and ultrasonic condensation (Group II). Ultrasonic condensation gave good results. Obturated internal resoption defects were filled mainly with gutta percha. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference between Groups I and II. Results with lateral condensation were inferior compared to ultrasonic condensation technique for obturation of simulated internal resorption defects Therefore, the latter technique is recommended to be used to obturate the defects of internal resorption defects in clinical practice.


Article
Salivary calcium concentration in patients with high incidence of calculus formation

Authors: Shatha A Hassan --- Tahani A Al–Sandook
Pages: 88-90
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Salivary calcium level was determined in this study in individuals with good oral hygiene who have no repetitive history of calculus accumulation, and in individuals with a history of repetitive calculus formation whether subgingival or supragingival in spite of their attempts in controlling their oral hygiene. Salivary calcium concentration was significantly higher in the second group. Moreover, salivary calcium concentration in this study varied according to age. It is advisable to use alkaline mouthwashes and intensive good oral hygiene to control their calculus formation


Article
Prevalence of Candida albicans in patients using fixed orthodontic appliances after the use of peppermint

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This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal effect of peppermint extract as mouth rinse during orthodontic treatment. Thirty patients (11 males and 19 females) who wear orthodontic appliances and instructed to use chlorhexidine as mouth rinse (8 patients); Mentha piperita extract (10 patients) or left to care of their teeth without any mouth rinse (12 patients); mean number of Candida albicans colonies recovered from anterior surface at three intervals (Time 0: Before wearing the appliance; time 1: After 7 days and time 2: After 1 month) was 48.8, 144.3, 158.9 for the control group; 132.9, 125.4, 147.9 for the peppermint group and 72, 105.8 and 130.8 for the chlorhexidine group. The mean number of Candida albicans colonies from the posterior surface at the different intervals was 87.4, 136.8, 159.5; 121.3, 84, 34.6 and 78.5, 91.25, 91 for control, peppermint and chlorhexidine groups respectively. The use of the peppermint extract decreases the number of Candida albicans significantly at the posterior surfaces

Table of content: volume:5 issue:5