Table of content

Iraqi journal of mechanical and material engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الميكانيكية وهندسة المواد

ISSN: 20761819
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal for mechanical and material engineering is a refereed scientific journal published quarterly by the engineering college/ university of Babylon. It deals with high quality researches in fields of mechanical and material engineering.

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Contact info

Journal E-mail:
j.mec_mat_eng@yahoo.com
Babylon university/Babylon/Iraq P.O.Box(4)
Tel:++96430245387.(1155)

Table of content: 2009 volume:E issue:first conf./ eng. coll.

Article
EFFECT OF RIGIDITY OF ECCENTRICAL LOADEDFOR RECTANGULAR FOOTINGS WITH WIDTH DIRECTION ON THE CARRYING CAPACITY
تأثير الجساءة لاسس مستطيلة محملة لا مركزيا بأتجاه العرض على سعة التحمل

Authors: لمياء نجاح سنودي
Pages: 737-745
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Abstract

The finite element method is utilized to study the behavior of eccentrically loaded rectangular footings (with width direction only) on clayey and sandy soils. Also the effects of variation in footing dimensions and soil properties are investigated. It is proved that Meyerhof’s principle of effective width gives, in general, conservative values of the load carrying capacity for footings resting on clay, whereas it overestimates those for footings erected on sand. For the studied practical ranges, the variations in footing dimensions ratio (thickness of footing/ width of footing) and the ratio of (E f /E s ) where (E f the elastic modulus for footing and E the elastic modulus for soil), have negligible effects on the values of carrying capacity reduction factor (R s f


Article
EFFECT OF ADDITIVE MATERAILS IN MINIMIZING
تأثير المواد المضافة في تقليل الشقوق الانعكاسية

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Abstract

Reflection cracks through a road structure is one of the main causes of premature pavement deterioration which which shortens the service life of overlays. This phenomenon, which often appears when a layer of asphaltic material is placed on top of a discontinuous base, can have many different aspects, in accordance with the large number of factores governing the mechanism of crack initiation and propagation through a road structure. A number of additives appear to be promising in plying an important role in improving the properties and performance of paving mixtures. Wheel tracking testing techniques were developed to examine one type with different contents of asphalt modifier additives (High-density polyethylene) overlays for situations where reflection cracking may normally developed. The prime objective of this research is to investigate the potential role of HighDensity Polyethylene as additive in retarding or minimizing reflective cracking. A total of 120 Marshall Specimens is prepared and tested by Marshall, Indirect tensile and Creep tests at different temperature decrease. To simulate the overlay performance under a rolling tire, 18 compacted asphalt concrete beam samples are tested using wheel tracking apparatus after modification. It can be concluded that modified mixes with 9% of High-Density Polyethylene (by wt. of asphalt) gives the maximum resistance to reflection cracking.


Article
THE E RESPONSE OF COMPOSITE CONCRETE-I-BEAMSUNDER THE EFFECT OF BOTH FIRE AND EXTERNALLOADINGS

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Abstract

The study of nonlinear response of steel buildings under elevated temperatures from fire loading can be achieved by sequentially using heat-transfer analysis and stress analysis. By means of finite element analysis represented by the commercial finite element (FE) software ANSYS both thermal and structural response of composite concrete beams exposed to fire has been set up. The proposed three-dimensional FE model is able to simulate the overall flexural behavior of simply supported composite beams subjected to either concentrated or uniformly distributed loads in combined with temperature effect. The bond between the top flange of the steel beam and the concrete slab was assumed to be rigid in this model.


Article
Numerical Simulation of Three Dimensional Water Flow ThrougSpray Nozzle h

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Abstract

A three dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent water flow through air washer system nozzles of cylindrical junction with diameters of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm respectively and of centered diameter with 4 mm was achieved by using FLUENT software. kε model was used in this study. The entrance region of the model was selected to ensure the constant velocity in the inlet gives results near real solution. Modeling includes the construction of a 3D model with the aid of AUTOCAD and GAMBIT. For the purpose of checking the applicability of the modeling and discovering the best location and diameter of cylindrical junction, five different locations and diameters of the cylindrical junction were selected. The present work shows that the best location and diameter are observed for the case of 4 mm. The flow simulation was achieved by studying the velocity vector plot and contour plot of pressure in different slices locations through each of 5 geometries. The results were identical to the physical phenomenon which was observed in the laboratory of fluid mechanics, where the velocities and pressures are zero at exit cylinder center which means that there is no fluid at center of exit cylinder for 4mm case as shown in Fig(1). The results show also that the maximum skin friction occurs at the peripheral boundaries of the cylindrical junction and exit cylinder.

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Article
Study of Hardness ,Wear and Corrosion Resistance of ZrO2 Ceramic Coats Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method
دراسة الصلادة ومقاومة البلي ومقاومة التآكل الكيمياوية لطلاءات الزركونيا

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Abstract

In the present work pure and doped ZrO with (Al and Co 5wt%) thin film has been deposited on stainless steel 304 substrates by spray pyrolysis technique .The film microhardness, wear resistance, and the corrosion at different acids and alkaline are studied . The results are proved that the microhardness and wear resistance were improved after doping specially with (Co).The microhardness of the films has been improved from( 927 Kg/mm 2 ) for pure ZrO 2 2 film to(1095 Kg/mm 2 ) 5 wt% of Co . Wear resistance has been improved from (10*10 -10 g/cm 10 ) for pure ZrO g/cm ) after doping with Co. Loss of weight by corrosion was decreased after coating and doping . 2 to (3.79 *10


Article
Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Carbon Steel
سلوكية التآكل الغلفاني لالمنيوم - كاربون ستيل بأستخدام القطب الاستوائي الدوار

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Abstract

The galvanic corrosion behavior for Aluminum (Al), Carbon steel metals in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution has been investigated under turbulent controlled flow conditions at different temperatures using a rotating cylindrical electrode unit. Corrosion potential, potentiostatic polarization and galvanic corrosion experiments were carried out at 313,323 and 333 k under rotational speed of 0, 50,125 and 200 r.p.m Potentiostatic polarization studies have been performed individually for Aluminum and Carbon steel and when they are coupled with an equal area (19.27 cm ), of cathode to anode. It was found the mass transfer process as measured by the limiting diffusion current density is not affected by the nature of the cathode material. For coupled metals, it is found that the corrosion process of Carbon steel and Al is under diffusion control since the corrosion rate increases with increasing rotational speed. The measured corrosion potentials of these metals give no exact information about the galvanic corrosion but only show the direction of current flow. The zero resistance ammeter has been used to measure the variation of galvanic current with time. The galvanic current was largely increased with increasing rotational speed (r.p.m.) and temperatures. The corrosion potential of (Al-Cs) coupled is larger than the corrosion potential of the individual anode member, which means large amount of anodic polarization due to this galvanic coupling. 2

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Article
Evaluating the Corrosion Rates of Copper with and without
تقييم معدلات تآكل النحاس بوجود وعدم وجود خلائط ثنائية متعددة المكونات

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Abstract

The corrosion rates of copper were determined in presence and in absence of different compositions of water-ethanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dioxane binary mixtures. The rates of corrosion were found to decrease by increasing the concentration of solvents. The percent inhibition range from 10.9 to 78.2% depends on the nature of solvent and its concentration. The calculated energies of activation prove that the reactions are diffusion controlled type. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The investigated adsorption isotherms indicate that protic solvents fit the Langmuir model. The rate of corrosion of copper in presence of diaphragm is less than that in absence of diaphragm due to the prevention of stirring of hydrogen evolved at cathode. The overall mass transfer correlations under the present conditions have been obtained using dimensional analysis method. The results agreed with the previous studies of mass transfer to rotating cylinder in turbulent flow.


Article
"Studying some Properties of Polyethylene Glycol4000 in
دراسة بعض خواص البولي اثلين كلايكول

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Abstract

In this research, studying the increase in concentration ,heating, ultra-violet rays, and reinforcement on properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) which include the absorbance, ability of dissoluble, viscosity and hardness. The results represent the solubility decreases with the increase of concentration by effecting the heat and radiation except the specimen of 3 gm which increase its solubility by increasing sample thickness(increasing the concentration of solution). The relative viscosity increases by augmenting the concentration while the intrinsic viscosity decreases with the increase in concentration and each of them decrease by heating and first time of radiation(48hr)and increase in the second time of radiation(96hr),and the flow time follow the same manner of relative viscosity in increasing an decreasing ,as well as, the absorbance increases with concentration and decreases with heating and the first time of radiation (48 hr) , but it increases with increasing the time of radiation to (96 hr)with increasing the concentration ,but the permeability is opposite manner of the absorbance at the same conditions, while Shore hardness decreases with increasing the weight ratio of AL for the samples without radiation and it increases after the radiation for each intervals.

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Article
Power quality improvement using dynamic compensation of
تحسين جودة القدرة بأستحدام التعويض الديناميكي للقدرة الغير فعالة للسيطرة على قيمة الفولتية

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Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is to improve the power quality in H.V transmission system when line is loaded, by producing solutions to voltage variations problems during load varying. The solution method employs the reactive power control by compensation techniques as the basis of voltage regulation to improve the power quality. Dynamic compensation is used to verify this purpose using FACTS technologies by introducing a circuit model of a SVC with multi level of switching capacitor bank as a source of VARs and one stage of inductor as aVAR absorber. The adopted technique here is to measure of the reactive power demand required to keep the bus voltage at its rated value and then the SVC will compensate the needs of VARs in the system by controlling the firing angle of the thyristors. The ability of VARs generation in the suggested model is four times of VARs absorption.

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Article
Design and Implementation a tracking System under Indoor
تصميم وتنفيذ نظام تتبع تحت بيئة داخل الابنية

Authors: Raafat K. Oubida
Pages: 850-857
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Abstract

A Location based service ( LBS ) field is of increasing interest towards healthcare facilities of smart environments and applications such as tracking, positioning, mobile computing, etc., in Information Technology ( IT ) world. Hospital ( track a special patient ) ; Museum ( track a tourist ) ; School ( track a student ) ; Kindergarten ( track a kids) , are examples of these applications. In an Indoor environment has several systems based on various technologies such as infrared radio ( IR ) signal are emerging particularly; the wireless local-area network ( WLAN ) ( IEEE 802.11b ) radio-signal-based positioning system. Consequently, we can determine or track users via the wireless portable device ( e.g. laptop, PDA ) on a map for each floor in university building. This research illustrates a tracking system under indoor environment at IT University of Copenhagen that designed and implemented by using a simple, flexible, and intelligent application tool ( Flash application) with Action Script programming language. Test and results are also reported.


Article
An Algorithm For Designing an Inductor-Transformer of a
خوارزمية لتصميم ملف المحولة لمحول الارتدادالعكسي بنسبة مثالية لخسارة النحاس / الحديد

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Abstract

Flyback converters are becoming more and more popular due to their simplicity and the few number of components that they require. One of the main challenges that face the design of flyback converters is the design of the transformer which is vital to the operation of the converter. The transformer stores energy when the electronic switch is ON and transfers this energy through the secondary side when the switch is OFF. Hence it's more a case of two coupled inductors rather than the conventional transformer action. This research presents an algorithm to design the inductor-transformer of a flyback converter. The essential equations for inductor-transformer are presented, calculations of primary and secondary winding specifications is also carried out. The algorithm adopts a method of optimizing the design by considering an optimacopper/core loss ratio. Several common cores configuration are considered and results for each type is presented. Numerical values such as optimum CU and core losses, efficiency, air gap length, number of turns on both sides for each type of core is illustrated . Change of switching frequency and its effect on optimal efficiency and air gap length is carried out using two configurations only. Results show that some of the proposed cores have high optimal efficiency, reasonable weight and satisfactory performance. The proposed algorithm can be utilized for continuous and discontinuous modes of operation for a flyback converter.

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Article
Inhibition of Zinc Corrosion under Variable Conditions
Dr. Shaker Saleh Bahar

Pages: 879-892
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Abstract

A study of the zinc behavior under specified conditions of corrosion was done. The conditions in which this study was held are 0.1N HCl solution for three values of temperature for each media viz 20, 40 and 60 o C. The inhibition of zinc corrosion in 0.1N HCl solution was performed using thiourea at the concentrations of ( 0, 300 and 600 ppm ) , while for 0.1N NaCl solution, it was NaNO3 for three values of concentration ( 0, 150 and 300ppm ) . It was noticed that the thiourea inhibition in the acid media approaches up to 90%, while for 0.1N NaCl solution in the presence of NaNO3 was up to 78%. All the experiments were carried out using the weight loss method as well as polarization technique. It was seen that the corrosion rate increased and the corrosion potential becoming more negative with the increase in temperature. Increasing inhibitor concentration tends to reduce corrosion current and corrosion potential goes to more positive values.

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Article
Modeling The Factors Affecting Sizing of Attached GrowthSystem of Wastewater Treatment Plant
العوامل البيئية المؤثرة على تصميم محطات معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي ذات النمو الملتصق

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Abstract

a computer program d d e e s s i i g g n n e e d d in Visual Basic Software 6.0 that used for designing attached growth system of wastewater treatment plants which are trickling filters, rotating biological contactor, and bio-towers. This program deals with the different environmental factors that affecting the design of wastewater treatment steps. The verification between the results of the study with there results obtained from hand calculations procedures showed agood agrrement The relationships between independent and dependent variables were determined by multiple non - linear regression analysis using statistical program "Data Fit version 8.0". The population was found to be the most significant variable affecting the design of all wastewater units.


Article
تقييم بيئي وانشائي ومعماري لمبنى حكومي في محافظة بابل

Pages: 908-937
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Abstract

This research involves an environmental, architectural and structural analysis of the government building in the province of Babel ( building of Hilla municipality ) , which consists of climatic environment ( temperature, humidity, ventilation and lighting ) and environmental resulting from the noise and visual aspects inside and outside the building, as well as aspects of construction of the building, according to the following methodology steps: First: description of the environmental-architectural components of the internal spaces of the building and external spaces surrounding it as well as construction considerations, according to different versions of the descriptive environmental analysis by the questionnaires forms to identify environmental and construction problems of the building. Second: the results of the questionnaire obtained from research has been quantitatively analyzed using the SPSS statistical analysis program.

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Article
التعقيد في المدينة الكسرية
دراسة تحليلية لجزء من منطقة الاعظمية

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Abstract

The complexity as one of the basic and adequate concepts configuring the structure of fragmental city has been considered in this search, where it plays an important role in realizing an essential reality which is human can deal with far of routine and tedium. The search explains that the fragmental city as an urban environment is developing gradually due to complexity growing up in entire city environment through favorite and multiple planes in the complexity, and presentation of society importance in realizing the complexity socially and physically; as well as presenting the relation between physical complexity and social complexity whether the complexity is declared or hidden. particularly and stands on the fragmental mechanisms, styles, generation methods, important properties, and fragmental linear and nonlinear concepts. The search browses the previous studies that deal with fragmental city concept so that the problem of search (Absence of obvious and scientific concept about complexity role in fragmental city as one of fundamental properties configuring the structure of fragmental cities) has been determined where summary and conclusions are provided. . The complexity has been browsed through its role in the fragmental city as a main structure of search where a browsing for its meaning in lingual manner and architecturally, its important properties, its role in architectonic generally and urban environment particularly in order to get the complexity's indications. The indications of complexity will be adopted in the practical part of search and measured to see the role of complexity in the fragmental city and to determine the particular problem of search (absence of obvious concept of the relation of complexity with ingredients for fragmental city according to its favorite grade and level.then selection and analysis of region that represents the practical part of search where the particular indications of complexity for fragmental city have been measured depending on the observation study on AlAdamiya city by searcher. This leads to the recommendations and conclusions that refer to the presence a quantity of complexity presented at a favorite level in the old structures more than in the modern structures in other words that refers to the presence of complexity role in the fragmental city.

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