جدول المحتويات

مجلة جامعة كربلاء

ISSN: 18130410
الجامعة: جامعة كربلاء
الكلية: رئاسة الجامعة او مراكز
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

أن مجلة رئاسة الجامعة هي مجلة علمية محكمة تصدر بشكل فصلي لأغراض الترقيات العلمية وهي مجلة علمية رصينة في مختلف الاختصاصات تأسست في عام 2003 حاصلة على الترميز الدولي ISSN-1813-0410 تستقبل المجلة بما يقارب 500 بحث في السنة وعليه يبلغ عدد البحوث المنشورة بما يقارب 300 بحث منشور في السنة وبما يقارب 200 بحث قيد النشر وتخضع البحوث المقدمة للتقويم العلمي من قبل أساتذة اختصاصين وتنشر البحوث باللغتين العربية والانكليزية اما أعمال المجلة هي :-

1- استقبال البحوث الخاصة بالسادة التدريسيين الراغبين بنشرها في المجلة .
2- عرضها على السادة المقيمين .
3- تزويد الباحثين بكتاب قبول نشر بعد حصول الموافقة على النشر .
4- تنضيد البحوث وفق السياق الخاص بالمجلة والمرفق نسخة منه طياً .
5- استنساخ العدد الخاص بالمجلة بمعدل 50 نسخة لكل مجلد (علمي عربي + علمي انكليزي + انساني )

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معلومات الاتصال

phone Number :07814214835
E_mail :Journal@uokerbala.edu.iq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 7 العدد: 3

Article
Effect of spraying with NAA and Vapor Gard on quality characters of local fruit pomegrante (Punica granatum L.).
تأثير الرش بنفثالين حامض الخليك والمادة الشمعية Vapor Gard في تحسين الصفات النوعية لثمار الرمان المحلي (Punica granatum L.).

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted in a local pomegranate trees / Najaf on 1/ 7/ 2006 on 10-years old to investigate the effect of two concentrations of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) (25 and 50) mg / L and Vapor- Gard wax (2 and 4) % and combination treatment between them on quality characters of fruit. The Results indicated that, NAA gave a significant increase in the moisture peels, pulp, juice percentage and reducing the cracking, T.s.s, acidity, anthocyanine and vitamin C in juice during fruit ripening . Vapor Gard was more effective than NAA in that respect but the combination of NAA and Vapor- Gard were more compared with effective single treatments. The treatment (NAA 50mg / L + V-G 4 %) gave the best result than others.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
HOMOPHONY IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC

المؤلفون: Iman Kh. Oda
الصفحات: 1-14
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الخلاصة

The aim of the present paper is to explore homophony in English as well as Arabic as one of the lexical relations. Homophony then refers to the phenomenon of words with different meanings having the same sound. Those words are called homophones. Homophony offers a fertile ground for a paper of a small size which falls into three sections. The first deals with the concept of homophony in English through some definitions by Western linguists. Related terms to homophony are also provided in this section with reference to different types of homophony in English. The second section is concerned with homophony in Arabic. The same approach adopted in the first section is followed in the second one. Definitions of homophony by Arab rhetoricians are surveyed followed by the various different types of homophony in Arabic. The third section is intended to shed some light on similarities and differences in terms of definitions and types of homophony in both English and Arabic. The findings of the paper are summed up in the conclusion.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
الأغراض البلاغية للنداء في القرآن الكريم

المؤلفون: سهيلة خطاف عبد الكريم
الصفحات: 1-13
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الخلاصة

الحمد لله حمدا لايساويه حمد ، حمدا لاتدركه الأماني ولا تستوعبه الأواني ، حمدا يليق بكل بسملاته ومعجماته ومحكماته ومتشابهاته ومعوذاته 0 والثناء على الله الذي يهدي لنوره من يشاء الذي أرسل رسوله بالهدى ودين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون ، والثناء على الله الذي نفخ من روحه في الحجارة وجعل من الطين وعاء لرحمته وشرف علمه 0 والذي جعل حروف ذكره سيوفا حية قاطعة تقتل كل شكوك الكافرين ، ودروعا صلدة تقي صدور المؤمنين 0 لقد أراد الله أن تكون لغة العرب دائمة الحياة بعيدة عن الضياع تعلو في مجدها كل معالي اللغات 0 فمن طاف فوق سطوح البحور حتى ينضب ماؤها فلن يجد فنا أجل من النداء فهو فن من فنون الإبداع في الفهم والتخاطب وقد شرف الله النداء عندما جعله واسطة بينه وبين أنبيائه ورسله وعباده الصالحين 0 فالوحي هو أعلى مراتب النداء ، قال رب العزة : [فَدَلَّاهُمَا بِغُرُورٍ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآَتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِنْ وَرَقِ الجَنَّةِ وَنَادَاهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا أَلَمْ أَنْهَكُمَا عَنْ تِلْكُمَا الشَّجَرَةِ وَأَقُلْ لَكُمَا إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لَكُمَا عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ] {الأعراف:22} ، وقال : ( [فَنَادَاهَا مِنْ تَحْتِهَا أَلَّا تَحْزَنِي قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيًّا] {مريم:24} ، [وَنَادَيْنَاهُ مِنْ جَانِبِ الطُّورِ الأَيْمَنِ وَقَرَّبْنَاهُ نَجِيًّا] {مريم:52} وقال : [وَنَادَيْنَاهُ أَنْ يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ] {الصَّفات:104} ، وقال : ( [فَلَمَّا أَتَاهَا نُودِيَ يَا مُوسَى] {طه:11} ، وبالنداء نصر الله رسله وشد أزرهم لنشر الدين وإذكاء روح الفضيلة ، قال جل شأنه : ( [قُلْنَا يَا نَارُ كُونِي بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ] {الأنبياء:69} ، وقال : ( [وَلَقَدْ آَتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ مِنَّا فَضْلًا يَا جِبَالُ أَوِّبِي مَعَهُ وَالطَّيْرَ وَأَلَنَّا لَهُ الحَدِيدَ] {سبأ:10} وبه ردع الله الطغاة والجبابرة ، قال تعالى : [قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنْتَ مِنَ العَالِينَ] {ص:75} 0 فالنداء قديم أزلي ابتدأ بنداء آدم (عليه السلام) أول البشرية قال تعالى : [وَقُلْنَا يَا آَدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ] {البقرة:35} ، واستمر مع كافة الرسل والأديان ، ولجلالة قدر النداء وأهميته لاينتهي بانتهاء الحياة فيوم الحساب هو يوم التناد ، قال تعالى : [وَيَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ يَوْمَ التَّنَادِ] {غافر:32} ، ويستمر النداء ففي الحياة الآخرة يتنادى أصحاب الجنة وأصحاب النار ، قال تعالى : [وَنَادَى أَصْحَابُ الجَنَّةِ أَصْحَابَ النَّارِ أَنْ قَدْ وَجَدْنَا مَا وَعَدَنَا رَبُّنَا حَقًّا فَهَلْ وَجَدْتُمْ مَا وَعَدَ رَبُّكُمْ حَقًّا قَالُوا نَعَمْ فَأَذَّنَ مُؤَذِّنٌ بَيْنَهُمْ أَنْ لَعْنَةُ اللهِ عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ] {الأعراف:44} ، وقال : [وَنَادَى أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ أَصْحَابَ الجَنَّةِ أَنْ أَفِيضُوا عَلَيْنَا مِنَ المَاءِ أَوْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللهُ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللهَ حَرَّمَهُمَا عَلَى الكَافِرِينَ] {الأعراف:50} هذه أهمية النداء في الذكر الحكيم،أما أهمية دراسة دلالته فتنبع هذه الأهمية من أن الموضوع لم يدرس على وفق القاعدة المنهجية التي لاتتعدى قواعد الصناعة النحوية التي تقسمه إلى حرف النداء ، والمنادى ، وتابع المنادى وألفاظ لازمت النداء وما إلى ذلك من نظر يلحظ القواعد ويتجنب أو ينسى الدلالة بينما حرصت على أن يصبح مراد الدرس النحوي القرآني كشف الدلالة وتوخي معاني النص ، لذلك فان دراسة النداء على وفق منهج يكشف عن دلالته تقتضي كشف معاني النحو وعلاقاته في النص وهو لايقتصر على التقسيم التعليمي لهذا النص – حرف النداء والمنادى وتابع المنادى – وإنما يستوفي النظم والتأليف ولا يقف إلا عند تمام المعنى والدلالة وربما استوجب اتصال المعنى والاتساع في النظم كشف معاني النحو وعلاقاته في جملة تابعة لجملة النداء في مفهومها التعليمي، من هنا اخترت موضوعي هذا (( الأغراض البلاغية للنداء في القرآن الكريم )) وقد قسمته على مبحثين تسبقهما مقدمة والتمهيد : -

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Synthesis of Nano particle ZnO-organic Nanohybrid and its role in Controlled Release of 4-Chlorophenoxy Acetate from the lamella of ZnO nanocomposite
تحضير جزيئات نانوية بين اوكسيدالزنك وجزيئات عضوية من خلال التهجين ودورها في عمليه السيطرة علئ تحرر 4-كلور فينوكسي حامض الخليك.

المؤلفون: Abbas Matrod Bashi
الصفحات: 1-8
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الخلاصة

Direct intercalation of 4-Chlorophenoxyacetate into ZLH interlayer was obtained by reacting ZnO with 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid. The resulting Nanohybrid material is white needle like-crystals with two phases at 21.25. and 18.69 Å respectively. This was characterized using XRD. SEM and TEM to show a fibrous nonohybrid structure. The controlled release study showed that within 2000 min. the accumulation of 4-Chlorophenoxyacetate is 94% and t ½ value of 990 min. That is an indication, ZnO can be used to study the controlled release delivery of herbicide active molecules.

الكلمات الدلالية

Herbicides --- 4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid --- ZnO --- control release --- intercalation


Article
Effect of temperature on the external parasites which recorded on the mugilid fish Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) in AL- Hilla River, BABYLON PROVINCE
تأثير درجة الحرارة على الطفيليات الخارجية المسجلة على أسماك الخشني (Heckel, 1843) Liza abu في نهر الحلة محافظة بابل

المؤلفون: حسين تخيل حسين
الصفحات: 5-11
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الخلاصة

During the period from March 2008 till September 2008, a total of 193 Liza abu from AL- Hilla river, Babylon province were inspected for ectoparasites. The inspection results showed the occurrence of nine species of ectoparasites which included of Ichthyophthirius mulifiliis, Trichodina cotidarum, T. nigrs, Paraergasilus inflatus, Ergasilus sieboldi, Dactylogyrus simplex, D. extensus, D. minutus and D. pavlovskyi, The Liza abu is considered as a new host in Iraq for D. minutus. The percentage incidence of infection with the studied parasites varied according to different months.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Description of a new species belonging to the genus Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker,1983(Crustacea : Ostracoda) from Iraq.
وصف نوع جديد يعود للجنس Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker,1983 (Crustacea : Ostracoda) من العراق

المؤلفون: Sabah F. Bassat --- Hanan Z.M. AlDaa
الصفحات: 9-16
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الخلاصة

The Present study provides description of a new species of Ostracods genus Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker,1983. External morphological characters particularly shape, size and structure of left and right valves of carapace and body appendages were described and illustrated. Locality and date of collection were given. This study showing some new and important characters such us:carapace with reticulate patterns anteriorly and posteriorly,first antenna:basal segment large, second antenna: natatory setae short ,mandible: first segment of pulp enlarged and irregular in shape, second thoracopod :six –segmented, third thoracopod: basal segment short

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Anatomical study of stem of the genus Asteriscus Mill (compositae) in Iraq
دراسة تشريحية مقارنة لساق نبات جنس النرجس البري من ( العائلة المركبة ) في العراق

المؤلفون: نيبال امطير طراد الكرعاوي
الصفحات: 12-19
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الخلاصة

Species of the genus Asteriscus L. in Iraq has been systematically studied. Work involving anatomical study of the stem transverse section. The anatomical characters like diameters and the numbers of the layers of the epidermis , cortex , phloem , xylem and pith were found to be considerable taxonomic value which separated and diagnosed the two species. So the characters like the shape and thickness of the cells of different stem tissues were found to be with taxonomic value. In conclusion two species of three were recognized for Iraq which belong to the genus Asteriscus L. ,A.graveolens and A.pygmaeus

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Interaction Anxiousness and its Relation with personality type of Karbala University Students
قلق التفاعل وعلاقته بنمط الشخصية لدى طلبة جامعة كربلاء

المؤلفون: فاضل عبيد حسون الشمري
الصفحات: 14-36
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الخلاصة

قلق التفاعل حالة من التحسس يدركها المرء على شكل شعور من خلال التفاعل، قد يبدو ضيقا وعدم الارتياح او شعورا بالسعادة تجاه الاشخاص او الموضوعات او المواقف المتصلة بهدف محدد مما قد يؤثر على الصحة النفسية ونوعية وكمية الوظائف الحياتية وبضمنها اداء الالتزامات، زد على ذلك قد يؤثر في بناء شخصية ذو نمط محدد من السلوك. لقد كان لحالات قلق التفاعل منذ اقدم العصور في تاريخ الانسان اهمية في عملية المعايشة السلمية او الحروب من جهة او التفاعل مع البيئة الاجتماعية بجانبيها السلبي والايجابي من جهة ثانية .هذا التلاقح يولد امران الاول يتعلق بطبيعة القلق والثاني يتعلق بأنعكاساته على شخصية الفرد من خلال التفاعل . بناء على ماتقدم يهدف البحث الحالي الى:- 1-التعرف على مستوى قلق التفاعل لدى طلبة جامعة كربلاء تبعا لمتغيري الجنس والتخصص. 2-التعرف على نمط الشخصية لدى طلبة جامعة كربلاء بحسب قائمة أيزنك. 3-التعرف نمط الشخصية لدى طلبة الجامعة تبعا لمتغيري الجنس والتخصص. 4-التعرف العلاقة بين قلق التفاعل ونمط الشخصية لدى طلبة الجامعة

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Semantic Implications of the Imperatives in English and Arabic

المؤلفون: Besma Khalid Ingeish --- Saadiya Wudaa Hassan
الصفحات: 15-29
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الخلاصة

This paper is intended to shed some light on the semantic implications of the imperatives in English as well as Arabic. The semantic implications refer to the functions (meanings) of the imperatives in both languages. It has been divided into four parts. The first one gives a description of the semantic implications of the imperatives in English while the second is concerned with those of the imperatives in Arabic. The third part is reserved for the similarities and differences between the implications of the imperatives in English and Arabic. The conclusions are summed up in the last part of the paper

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Correlation between the Compressive Strength of Concrete and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity; Investigation and Interpretation
الارتباط بين مقاومة الانضغاط للخرسانة وسرعة الذبذبات فوق الصوتية،تحري وتفسير

المؤلفون: Adil .M. Abdul Latif --- Zainab Mohammed Ridha Abdul Rasoul
الصفحات: 17-29
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الخلاصة

The literatures on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) as a nondestructive test for evaluating the properties of concrete have been reviewed. Many researchers attempted to correlate compressive strength of concrete to (UPV) and they suggested many equations for this purpose. In this study the reliability of these equations has been investigated. It seems that none of these equations is reliable enough to be recommended to be used in practices. This conclusion may be interpreted on the basis that some properties of composite material, such as compressive strength, are a function of the weakest component, while the UPV through the composite is a function of UPV in all components. Griffith theory is also used to interpret this phenomenon.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Taxonomy , chemical , pollen grain , and distribution study of Species Solanum nigrum L( Solanaceae )In Iraq.
دراسة المركبات الفينوليه وحبوب لقاح للنوع (Solanum nigrum (L Solanaceae في العراق

المؤلفون: --- حيدر لطيف فرحان --- فاضل كاظم كريم
الصفحات: 20-25
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الخلاصة

The study conclude the chemical content of plant parts ( Leaves , Flowers and Seeds ) of Speies Solanum nigrum L Results showed that there were showed eleven chemical compounds which were differ in color and Rf in Solanum nigrum L plant parts . The pollen grains are smooth and tricolporate . In concern to the distribution study of this genus indictate that it has been found in the most region of Iraq .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
تأثير المستخلص المائي لبذور الحبة السوداء Nigella sativa L. في حيوية طفيلي المتحولة الحالة للنسيج Entamoeba histolytica مختيرياً

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الخلاصة

650 stool samples were examined in Baquba General Hospital in Diyala district among the period from December / 2003 to August / 2004 to explore the effect of the seeds extracts on the viability of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in vitro. During the study period, 597 stool samples were collected from patients with acute amoebiasis, and 53 with chronic cyst passers were examined. Isolation and maintenance of E. histolytica trophozoites from both acute and chronic cases were achieved in culture media. The effect of water extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds on the trophozoites of E.histolytica was conducted through addition of different concentrations of there extracts to the culture media containing 50×104 trophozoites/ml. Each concentration was tested five times beside the negative control. The results revealed that the water extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds effecte against trophozoites . The minimum lethal cancentration for trophozoites isolated from chronic cases was 250 microgram /ml , and 62.5 microgram /ml was the inhibitory concentration for the growth of these trophozoites . Furthermore, the concentration of 125 microgram/ml was the minimum lethal cancentration for trophozoites isolated from acute cases, while 31.25 microgram /ml was the inhibitory concentration for the growth of these trophozoites . The addition of 15.625-750 microgram /ml of this extract to the culture media change the pH toward acidity, since the pH values of cultures media for trophozoites isolated from chronic and acute cases were ranged between 6.9 - 5.5 and 7.0 - 5.5 respectvely

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
A Linguistic Study of Oxymoron

المؤلفون: Reja'a M. Flayih
الصفحات: 30-40
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الخلاصة

The study deals with the linguistic analysis of oxymoron as a figure of speech in which two words or phrases with contrasting meanings are brought together intentionally for effect. The effect can be ironic, humorous, paradoxical or merely emphatic. The starting point of this paper is an attempt to explicate oxymoron as a figure of speech. Then the study aims at drawing general parameters by means of which the grammatical structure as well as the semantic perspective can be described. A manifestation for the various rhetorical effect of oxymoron and its kinds will also be highlighted. The practical part includes certain text extracted from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Finally, the findings of the study will be summed up in the conclusion.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Lower Melting-Point Lead-Free Solder Alloy
درجة ذوبان اقل لسبيكة اللحام – خالية من عنصر الرصاص

المؤلفون: Tarik T.Issa --- Farah T.Mohamed --- Nadia A.Ali
الصفحات: 30-33
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الخلاصة

A lower –melting – point solder alloy composition Sn42-Bi57.3-Zn0.7 has been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), a large portion of the alloy melts sharply at a approximately 136˚C, the melting point of Sn-Bi , Sn- Zn eutectic alloy .The produce alloy was analyzed by XRD and optical microscopy for microstructure characterization .The hardness of alloy has been tested and was found of a value 10HRB as a ductile form .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of sowing date and phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ).
تأثير التسميد الفوسفاتي ومواعيد الزراعة في نمو وحاصل الحنطة ( Triticum aestivum L. ).

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Agriculture College, Karbala University, during 2007-2008 growing season. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of sowing date (15/11 , 25/11 and 5/12 ) assigned in the main plots and 5 levels of phosphorus ( 0,30,60,90 and 120) kg P2O5 ha assigned in the subplots on some characteristics of wheat plant. Plant growth , yield and yield components of wheat plant cv. Alfateh were determined. The experiment was arraneed as split–plot within randomized complete block design R.C.B.D. means were compared using LSD at p= 5%. Results could be summarized as follow : First and second sowing dates gave the highest number of spike/ m2 and biological yield. The second sowing date gave the highest number of grains / spike . whereas the third sowing date gave the highest weight of 1000 grains. The highest percentage of determination coefficient(r2) during 1st sowing date was obtained from flag leaf area and number of grains per spike (0.82 and 0.77),. respectively . The highest percentage of determination coefficient during the second sowing date was obtained from the biological yield ,flag leaf area ,number of grains / spike and number of spike /m2 (0.93 ,0.83,0.77 and 0.76 ), respectively. The third sowing date gave the highest percentage of determination coefficient represented from 1000 grains weight. Regarding phosphorus fertilization ,120 kg P2O5/ha gave the highest flag leaf area , number of spike / m2 , number of grains/ spike and grains yield (46.59 cm2 , 346.60 spike , 36.83 grains and 5310 kg P2O5/ha ), respectively.

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Article
دراسة مدى انتشار البكتريا في الحروق وجروح العمليات في مستشفى الحسين العام في مدينة كربلاء

المؤلفون: كوكب عبدالله حسين السعدي
الصفحات: 35-41
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الخلاصة

The study appeared 67 % of bacterial infections in burn and wound surgery .while there is no any bacterial growth in infection in 33% of these case. And there is combination of two types of bacteria in the case at rate 13.95% . The arrangement of bacteria according to source of infection as follows in : Burn case The Pseudomonas are responsible for burn infection which recorded 53% while the rate of Proteus spp. Were 8%, these bacteria followed by Enterobacter,Klebseilla, Streptococcus, S.aureus at rate 4% . Wound case The arrangement of the isolates in this case different from burn, where E.coli and S.aureus a quipped the first class at rate 33.5% then followed by Proteus at rate 22% finally the rate of the Pseudomonas was 11% .

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Article
معاهدة الدفاع الايرانية - الامريكية 1959 وردود الفعل السوفيتي منها ( من خلال جريدة الاهالي)

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الخلاصة

شهدت سنوات ما بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية تقدما في علاقات الصداقة ما بين إيران والولايات المتحدة الأمريكية وتطورت هذه العلاقات في الفترة اللاحقة بحيث أصبحت ابرز علاقات إيران الخارجية وقد تحقق هذا التقدم في العلاقات من خلال ا لرغبة المشتركة لدى كلا الطرفين لإقامة مثل تلك العلاقة فبالنسبة لإيران كانت الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية تمثل (قوة ثالثة)يمكن الاستناد إليها في مواجهة الاتحاد السوفيتي وبريطانيا كما وان صداقة إيران للولايات المتحدة الأمريكية كانت تعني إمكانية الحصول على المساعدات العسكرية لبناء قدرات إيران العسكرية ، ومساعدات اقتصادية لمواجهة مشكلاتها الاقتصادية المتفاقمة . أما الولايات المتحدة فان مبعث اهتمامها بتوثيق علاقاتها بإيران وتعزيز نفوذها فيها كان يتمثل في عاملين أساسيين ، هما النفط والموقع الاستراتيجي .لان إيران بحكم حدودها المشتركة مع الاتحاد السوفيتي تعد موقعا أساسيا لمراقبة ما يجري داخل تلك الدولة . واستنادا إلى ذلك فقد أنظمت إيران إلى حلف بغداد عام 1955 والذي ضم أيضا كلا من تركيا والعراق وباكستان وكان هذا الحلف جزءا من خطة وزير الخارجية الأمريكي (جون فوستر دالاس)لاحتواء ما اسماه بالنفوذ والتهديد السوفيتي في الشرق الأوسط . كما أيدت إيران بقوة تصريح الرئيس الأمريكي دوايت ايزنهاور في كانون الثاني 1957م بخصوص سياسة ملئ الفراغ في الشرق الأوسط . ثم توقيع الاتفاقية الدفاعية بين إيران والولايات المتحدة الأمريكية في آذار 1959م بعد انسحاب العراق من حلف بغداد على اثر ثورة 14 تموز 1958 . وفي مقابل هذا التقدم المستمر في علاقات الصداقة مع الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية فان العلاقات الإيرانية السوفيتية تميزت عموما بالتوتر بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية وحتى أوائل الستينات . ويرجع هذا التوتر إلى رفض الحكومة الإيرانية لمطاليب الاتحاد السوفيتي ، في إقامة شركة نفطية _ سوفيتية مشتركة عام 1947 م وإتباع إيران لسياسة خارجية موالية إلى الغرب عموما والولايات المتحدة الأمريكية خصوصا . فضلا عن شكوك إيران في نوايا السوفيت ودعمهم ل(حزب تودة) . لذا لم تشهد الفترة الواقعة بين نهاية 1947م وبداية الستينات أية اتصالات إيرانية سوفيتية مهمة باستثناء توقيع اتفاقية تجارية في 13 أيلول 1953 م بين البلدين وأخرى في 2 كانون الأول 1954 م لتسوية بعض النزاعات الحدودية وإعادة ما بذمة السوفيت من ديون إيرانية . وفيما عدى ذلك فان حقبة الخمسينات شهدت حملة من الانتقادات القوية لإيران في الصحافة السوفيتية واحتجاجات متكررة من قبل الحكومة السوفيتية ضد دخول إيران إلى حلف بغداد عام 1955 م وابرامها اتفاقية الدفاع المشترك مع الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية في آذار 1959 . واستنادا إلى ذلك جاء بحثنا ليوضح طبيعة المواقف السوفيتية الإجرائية خلال توقيع إيران للمعاهدة الدفاعية مع الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية وموقف العراق من ذلك . يأتي هذا البحث بنتاج جديد يرام من خلاله الحفاظ على الموروث التأريخي العراقي والذي تناولته واحدة من أهم الصحف العراقية وهي صحيفة الأهالي لسان حال الحزب الوطني الديمقراطي ، ليقدم جمعا وافيا عن كل ما احتوته هذه الصحيفة من مواقف دولية وشعبية إزاء الاتفاقية الإيرانية – الأمريكية . ويشتمل البحث على مقدمة وثلاثة مباحث . يختص الأول منها في المعاهدة الدفاعية الإيرانية الأمريكية وشروط توقيعها ومضمونها . في حين يوضح المبحث الثاني سياسة التصعيد السوفيتي وموقف حكومة إيران من ذلك . أما المبحث الثالث فقد أبان طبيعة الموقف الشعبي العراقي من ذلك الاتفاق . ويختم البحث بخاتمة وقائمة هوامش وأخرى للمصادر المعتمدة في كتابته . والله ولي التوفيق

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Article
Borrowing and Lexicon

المؤلفون: أزهار حسن سلومي --- صباح مهدي حسين
الصفحات: 41-46
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الخلاصة

It is natural that the meaning of any word in a language changes , develops or disappears across time. So every language has to adopt certain criterion in order to expand its vocabulary. The most common source of adding new vocabulary to a language is called borrowing .The present paper sheds some light at the concept of borrowing and displays the major periods of borrowing in the history of English . In addition , it introduces with some examples the basic types of borrowing. Finally , some conclusions are pinpointed through explaining the concept under study.

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Article
قياس نسبة تقريبية لسرطان الجلد في العراق ودراسة علاقته بالأشعة الفوق البنفسجية

المؤلفون: دعاء ضياء عبود
الصفحات: 42-50
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الخلاصة

The atmosphere, generally, and ozone layer, specially, respect the nature protective hauberk to the earth from the ultra-violet ray, because the UV-Ray respect the main cause to infect with the skin cancer and eyes cancer, so that, the ozone layer harmful since the last years and rising the pollution average in atmosphere by the human vigors that led to pile up the gas’s of greenhouse effect in atmosphere in high ratios from it nature range, so all these parameters take part in diffuse speedily this sickness in global, essence in this research study and analysis it is causes for the wounded persons in iraq by study the available statistics during 2000-2004 that prove the relationship between the skin cancer and the environmental pollution

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Article
Description of a new species of the genus Cypridopsis Brady,1867 (Crustacea : Ostracoda)from Iraq.
وصف نوع جديد يعود للجنس Cypridopsis Brady,1867 (Crustacea : Ostracoda) من العراق

المؤلفون: Hassan S. AlAsady --- Hanan amyZ.M. AlDa
الصفحات: 42-48
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الخلاصة

In the Present study a description of a new species of the genus Cypridopsis Brady,1867(Ostracoda). External morphological characters particularly the shape, size and structure of left and right valves of the carapace and body appendages were described and illustrated. Locality and date of collection were given.This study showing some new and important characters such us: Carapace, with 5 dark green regions ,outer surface pitted and covered with hairs. First segment of endopod of second antenna with one plumose setae. First thoracopod, vibratory plate bear three equal setae.Uropod, reduced , rhombus in shape.

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Article
Prophet Abraham’s Call : Reasoning in order to approach the Proof

المؤلفون: Abbas A. AbdulRidha
الصفحات: 47-52
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الخلاصة

Prophet Ibrahim has applied successfully the philosophical dictum “a doubt is the first step of reasoning “and in order to lead his people to the faith. He planted the seed of doubt into their cult of the stars and heavenly bodies. According to the analyzing the evidence that Ibrahim had followed, We conclude that he is the one who first established this way of reasoning in order to approach the proof, without forcing them to say that their idols could not speak, useless and powerless creatures .

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Article
A Simple spectrophotometeric Assay for determination of L-Dopa in pharmaceutical preparations via oxidative coupling reaction.

المؤلفون: Abdul Barry Mahdi. Mahood
الصفحات: 49-59
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الخلاصة

A sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method for the estimation of levodopa (LDP) in either pure form or in its pharmaceutical formulation is described. The method is based on the reaction of levodopa with thiourea in the presence of ferric chloride as oxidative reagent , to form an intense blue – water solution dye that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 660 nm. A rectilinear relationship between absorbance and concentration range 2-32 g.ml-1 with a molar absorptivity of 2.027x103 L.mol-1 .cm-1 sandell sensitivity of 0.97x10-4 g.cm-2 , a relative error of ((-0.625)-3.06%) and a relative standard deviation(RSD) of(0.823-1.247%) depending on the concentration of levodopa . The detection limit of the method was found to be 0.349 g.ml-1. The stoichiometric ratio was found to be 1:1of Levodopa- Thiourea .The mole ratio was applied for determination of the conditional stability constant of the formed compound and was found to be 9.2x107L.mol-1. Finally, the proposed method have been applied successfully for the determination of levodopa in pharmaceutical preparations.

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Article
Study the Image of Line Object for Optical System Using Synthetic Circular Aperture
دراسة صورة جسم خطي لنظام بصري باستخدام فتحة دائرية مركبة

المؤلفون: أزهر عبد الزهرة رحيم
الصفحات: 51-61
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الخلاصة

In this research, the line spread function)LSF( has been investigated for group of circular synthetic in place of one circular Aperture which usually used in optical systems, which use optical system diffraction limited or contain focus error (W20=0.25λ,0.5λ), when the Aperture (N=1,3,5,7).The results have been showed that the increment of number of multiple circular Aperture leads to increase the image intensity of the line object and resolution power for optical system, also the circular Aperture which contain seven multiple Apertures was a preferable from the other.

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Article
التفريق للعيوب التناسلية للزوجين في القانون والشريعة

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الخلاصة

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Article
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL BANDD KOCH CURVE DIPOLE FRACTAL ANTENNA
تصميم وتحليل هوائي كسوري ثنائي قطب لمنحني كوخ ثنائي الحزمة

المؤلفون: Header.S.Jaafer
الصفحات: 57-63
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الخلاصة

In this study ,the analysis and design of small size dual band Koch curve dipole antenna is presented .The proposed antenna design ,analysis and characterization were done using NEC4 which is moment –method (MoM) based software. The radiation characteristics ,voltage standing wave ratio(VSWR)and input impedance are also calculated. The new design antenna has operating frequencies 470,940 and 2670 MHz and so it can be used in communication system.

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Article
Effect of cultivation mediums and different concentrations of kinetin acid on seed germination and seedling growth rates of albizzia plant, Albizzia lebbek (L.)Benth .
تأثير أوساط الزراعة وتراكيز مختلفة من حامض الكاينتين في إنبات بذور ونمو شتلات الالبيزيا Albizzia lebbek ( L. )Benth

المؤلفون: صباح غازي شريف باجلان
الصفحات: 62-71
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الخلاصة

The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture , College of Agriculture , Karbala University in 2008 to determine the effect of different concentrations of kinetin acid and different cultivation media on seed germination and seedling growth rates of albizzia seedling , Albizzia lebbek (L.)Benth .The Reeds were treated with the following concentrations of this acid : ( 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 and 40 mg /l ) and many types of cultivation media were used including : sand , peat moss , sand +peat moss at ratio of 1 : 1 v/v , sand + peat moss at ratio of 2 : 1 v/v and sand + peat moss at ratio of 1 : 2 v/v . The experiment results were as follows : The acid concentration of 40 mg /l was the most effective regarding all studied growth characteristics . The cultivation medium consisting of sand + peat moss at ratio of 1: 2 v/v was the most effective regarding germination percentage , the cultivation medium consisting of sand + peat moss at ratio of 1 : 1 v/v was the most effective regarding mean number of leaves , the medium of peat moss was the most effective regarding seedling mean length , dry weights of leaves , vegetative branches and root system , and amount of chlorophyll .The effect of interaction of acid and medium was found that acid concentration of 40 mg /l and cultivation medium consisting of peat moss was the most effective interaction on mean length of seedling , dry weights of leaves , vegetative branches and root system and chlorophyll content . The interaction of acid concentration of 20 mg / l and cultivation medium consisting of sand + peat moss at ratio of 1 : 2 v/v was significantly the most effective regarding seed germination rate .

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Article
Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical studies and Biological activities of bimetallic Complexes of new Schiff base thiadiazole derivative with some trivalent metal ions

المؤلفون: Rehab A.M. Al-Hasani
الصفحات: 64-79
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الخلاصة

Tetrachloro [5-(5---phenyl-3---N-ethyl-2---thiazolene)imino-3-N-ethyl-2-thion-1,3,4- thiadiazole].tetanium(IV), of a new Schiff base{TiL}derived from[ tetra chloro (5- amino-3-N- ethyl – 2 -thione-1, 3 ,4 – thiadiazole).tetanium(IV)] and(3-N-ethyl- 2-one –1 ,3,4-thiadiazaole) have been prepared.The product was characterized by by (FT-IR) ,(UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and elemental analysis (C.H.N.S) . {TiL}has been used as a chelating ligand to prepare a number of metal complexes with[Cr(Ш), Fe(Ш) , Ru(Ш), Rh(Ш) and Au(Ш)] . The prepared complexes were isolated and characterized by using (FT-IR) and (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C.H.N.S), Flame atomic absorption technique, in addition to magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. Molar ratio method measurement in solution gave comparable results with those obtained from solid state studies. The work also include a theoretical treatment of the formed complex in the gas phase, this was done using the Hyperchem-6 program for the Molecular mechanics and Semi-empirical calculations. The heat of formation (∆Hf°) , binding energy (∆EB ) and bond length (∆EL) for [ASN] , [TiA]and {TiL} ligand and their metal complexes were calculated by (PM3 and AMBER) methods at 298 K°. Furthermore the electrostatic potential of the free ligand{TiL} was calculated to investigate the reactive sites of the molecules .PM3 were used to evaluate the vibrational spectra and electronic spectra of the ligand{TiL} and it's metal complexes(A1-A5( then compare the theoretically calculated wave numbers with the experimental values by using the [ASN] and [TiA]as authentic compounds .The theoretically obtained frequencies agreed with those found experimentally, in addition the calculation helped to assign unambiguously the most diagnostic bands.

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Article
دراسة جديدة حول استخلاص سائل – سائل الحديد الثنائي والثلاثي باستخدام مشتق الحامض الاميني N – أسيتايل – DL - تربتوفان

المؤلفون: علاء فراك حسين
الصفحات: 72
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الخلاصة

A study on Liquid – Liquid extraction of Iron (III) and Iron (II) with derivative amino acid N- Acetyl– DL – Tryptophane that refer by ( ActrpH) has been made. The effect of different parameters such as type of medium and time of equilibration, concentration of metal iron, type of organic solvent , effect of batch extraction , salting out, effect of cations and inions on distribution ratio and effect of temperature. The function of thermodynamic (ΔG , ΔS , ΔH) were calculated. The stoichiometry of the extract species is determined using three methods such as slope analysis and mole ration. The results indicated formation of [ Fe (III) – ActrpH] in the ration of ( 1:3) ,while the ratio of the formation [Fe(II) – ActrpH] is (1:2). The UV-Visible spectra was studied both to reagent (ActrPH) and extracted complexes. Other physical constant namely, melting point and specific conductivity of the two complexes also were measured.

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Article
السرد المؤلف في أعمال غائب طعمة فرمان

المؤلفون: خالد مرعي حسن
الصفحات: 73-82
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الخلاصة

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Article
The study of poverty measurement in Karbela province , By a lack of basic needs
دراسة ظاهرة الفقر في محافظة كربلاء في ضوء منهج الحاجات الأساسية غير المشبعة

المؤلفون: طالب حسين فارس
الصفحات: 83-102
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Article
MEASURMENT OF RADIATION LEVELS OUTSIDE X-RAY MAMMOGRAPHY ,FLUOROSCOPY AND CT SCAN ROOMS OF AL-HUSSAINI HOSPITEL,KARBALA,IRAQ
قياس مستويات الاشعاع خارج غرف الاشعة السينية ، التصوير الشعاعي للثدي ، الكشف الفلوري والتصوير المقطعي في مستشفى الحسيني ، كربلاء ، العراق

المؤلفون: Mahdi J.saeed,Header S.jaafer
الصفحات: 83-88
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الخلاصة

In this work the radiation levels out side x-ray, Mammography ,fluoroscopy and ct scan rooms of AL-Hussaini hospital at karbala city were measured. The measured doses were a random selection of 48 examinations for different cases. For each patient the age and sex were recorded, also the main technical parameters of tube voltage (kv),current (mA) and time (T ) or current time product (mAs) were recorded during each radiographic exposure with an average of eight readings for each room. The radiation levels were measured in μsv/h and for an actual duty cycle in this hospital of 5 hours a day ,5 days a week ,50 weeks a year, all measured doses converted to msv/y and compared to the dose limits of ICRP .The results show that the radiation out side room 2 where about 1141 to 735 times greater than the general public limit of ICRP and about 57 to 36.75 times greater than the occupational limit of ICRP.The radiation levels outside room 3 where less than the occupational limit but were about 1.66 to 1.5 times greater than the general public limit, and for ct scan the levels of four readings were about 2.05 to 1.75 times greater than the occupational limit and all the ct scan readings greater than the public limit. For fluoroscopy and mammography rooms the limits were less than both the occupational and general public limits of ICRP

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Article
The role of gibberellic acid and DAP fertilizer on growth of lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.)
دور حامض الجبرليك وسماد فوسفات الامونيوم الثنائية (DAP) في نمو نبات العدس (Lens culinaris Medic.)

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الخلاصة

Pots experiment was conducted in the green house of Biology Department, College of Education (Ibn Al-Haithum), University of Baghdad, during growing season of 2009, to study the effect the interaction between three concentrations of gibberellins (0, 50, 100) mg/L and three levels of Diamonium phosphate fertilizer (0, 40, 80) kg/ donum this equal (0, 0.16, 0.32) gm/2kg pot respectively, on vegetative growth of lentil cultivar (Baraka). Factorial experiment with in acompletely randomized design with three replications was adopted.Results showed that, the gibberellin concentrations and fertilizer levels increased the above mentioned characteristics namely plant height, number of branches, dry matter weight, absolute growth rate and biomass duration. The interaction between 100 mg/L gibberellin and 80 kg/ donum fertilizer giving the highest values of these characters except the number of branches.

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Article
Effect of Annealing On Some structure Properties and Hall effect of (ZnS0.1Se0.9) Films.
تأثير التلدين على بعض الخصائص التركيبةوتأثير هول لأغشية ZnS0.1Se0.9

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الخلاصة

The effect of annealing (Ta=300,373,423) K on some structural properties and hall effect has been studied (concentration (nH), Hall mobility (µH),and drift velocity (vd)) had been measured for ZnS0.1Se0.9 films with different thickness (t=0.3,0.5, and 0.7 µm) which were prepared at room temperature using thermal evaporation under vacuum . We notice from this study that the films at all thicknesses and tempertures have a negative Hall coefficient (n–type charge carriers).

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Article
Improvement of food Value for chemical poor rations and its effect at efficiency of Awassi Lambs economically
تحسيــــن القيمـــــة الغذائيـــــة للأعلاف الفقيــــــرة كيميائيــــــا وتأثيرهـــــــا على أداء الحملان العواسيــــــة اقتصاديـــــــا

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to determine the economical efficiency and economic return of using a cheap alternative diets. Different levels of yellow corn cobs treated with molasses (30,40,50 and 60%) with different levels of urea (0,1,2 and 3%) on fattening of Awassi lambs . Estimated production function was used to determine the best level of production and investment rate of return at dinar in the diets are also calculated . Simple Regression model was used to estimate the weight gain response to feed consumption . The results that :- Achieved value by second group was 15.25 Kg animal , whereas first , third , and fourth groups were 13.60 , 14.55 and 13.50 Kg animal , respectively . The weight increasing had achieved economic profit were 31213 , 34962 , 34119 and 32188 dinar to the animals groups 1,2,3 and 4 respectively .In conclusion the using 40% of corn cobs which treated by molasses with 1% urea in fattening lambs ration represents the best production level in this study .

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Article
Evaluation The Behaviour of Reinforced Loose Sand under Inclined Loading

المؤلفون: A'amal A. H. Al-Saidi
الصفحات: 98-108
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الخلاصة

This paper presents the results of laboratory models test on the behaviour of a model footing resting on loose sand reinforced by geogrids under inclined load. Several parameters were studied in order to find the general behaviour of improvement in the soil by using the geogrid. These parameters includes depth of the reinforcement layer , vertical spacing of reinforcement layers and the angle of inclination of load.The results show that the optimum ratio of reinforcement for the first layer is (0.5) . The increase of such ratio between vertical spacing layer and footing width above 1 has no effect on soil improvement and an apparent increase is observed in the load carrying capacity for treated soil (200%,170%,156%) for inclined load (25o , 45o, 65o),respectively.

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Article
Response of Broad bean crop to sowing date and boron foliar application.
استجابة محصول الباقلاء لموعد الزراعة والتسميد الورقي بالبورون

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الخلاصة

A Field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, during growing Season 2008 – 2009.The experiment was arranged in split plot design with RCBD. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of three sowing dates (10/ September, 30 / September and 20 / October) assigned in the main plots and 4 concentrations of boron (0,75,150 and 225)mg/ litter assigned in subplots on some agronomic characteristics, yield and its components of ( Vicia faba L.). Results showed that planting in the first sowing date ( 10 / September ) with 225 mg B/litter gave the highest number of pods per plant (12.46) pods , number of seeds per pod (5.00) seeds and biological yield (14533)Kg/h and these were reflected on highest seeds yield (7033) Kg/h . Planting in the third sowing date with control treatment (without foliar fertilizer) gave the highest l00 seeds weight (157.00) gm.

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Article
The Extent of Creative Thinking Skills Availability in the Palestinian First Three Classes Arabic Language Textbooks and Their Acquisition by Students
مدى توافر مهارات التفكير الإبداعي في كتب اللغة العربية للصفوف الثلاثة الأولى ومدى تحققها لدى التلاميذ في فلسطين

المؤلفون: عطا أبو جبين
الصفحات: 103-114
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الخلاصة

This research aimed at knowing the extent to which creative thinking skills (fluency, flexibility, and originality) are available in the first three classes' Arabic Language textbooks of the Palestinian basic education and their acquisition by students. The textbook were firstly analyzed using two analysis cards: one for the reading text, and the other for the questions, exercises, and activities of the three textbooks. Both validity and reliability of the cards were measured following the usual research methods. In addition, a test was prepared to measure these skills acquisition by the students. It was applied on the third basic education class students after assuring its validity and reliability. It was implemented on a stratified random sample of: (males and females), (town, camp, and village); and include (267) students distributed over (8) schools: (4) of which were males', and (4) were females'. These schools also comprised the three population categories: (2) town schools, (1) camp and (1) village schools. Some classroom instructional situations of the (Human and Light) unit were taped-recorded in (8) schools include the pre-mentioned categories in order to observe the extent to which teachers implement the creative thinking skills during their explanations and discussions. The results showed a very low level of these skills in both the analyzed textbooks and in the field test. The sentences that include: direct creative thought in the three textbooks were at (1.3%); those with indirect creative thought were at (6.7%); and with a (4%) ration for both types of sentences. In regard to the availability of skills (fluency, flexibility, originality) in the three textbooks questions, the common ration was (4.1%): (3.7%) for fluency, (0.4%) for originality, and zero for flexibility. For their availability in the three textbooks exercises, the common ration was (1.6%): (0.2%) for fluency, and (1.4%) for flexibility. For their availability in the three textbooks activities, the common ration was (15.5%): (7.5%) for fluency and (8%) for flexibility. In regard to the acquisition of the skills, the test results showed that all of them are not acquired by the students. The least skills to observe was originality with a calculated mean of (0.47) and a theoretical mean of (4.5); followed by flexibility with a calculated mean of (3.69) and a theoretical mean of (6); then fluency with a calculated mean of (6.99) and a theoretical mean of (7.5). Results also showed a statistical significant difference in fluency between male and female students in favor of males. It also showed a statistical significant difference in terms of population categories in favor of camps students. The previously-mentioned results were interpreted in light of posed hypotheses, previous studies, and the literature; conclusion and recommendation were then drawn.

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Article
Study of The Effect of The Reinforced by Rock Wool (Smooth and Rough) For Polyester Composites
دراسة تأثير التدعيم بالصوف الصخري الناعم و الخشن على مقاومة الشد لمتراكبات البولي استر

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الخلاصة

The research study Study of The Effect of The Reinforced by Rock Wool (Smooth and Rough) For Polyester Composites . The main postures of results based upon the structural properties of the fibers rock wool (smooth and rough) .Where find that the tensile strength measurement shows increasing as the Wight fibers of rock wool are increasing .It is also noticed that the most tensile strength which is obtained is for the smoothing rock wool fibers the tensile strength (32.7 Mpa) in the weight(10 gm).

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Article
Studie on Determining Maturity Standard and Harvesting Indices in Eggplant Solanum melongena L.)) in plastic house condition
دراسة لتحديد أهم مقيايس النمو والبلوغ في ثمار الباذنجان تحت ظروف البيوت البلاستيكية

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted under plastic house conditions to determine the harvesting index of Eggplant fruit Solanum melongena at AL –Usoffia District, Baghdad governorate during 2001-2002 and 2002- 2003 seasons.The experiment al results showed an increase in all parametes height, length and weight fruit to the besides it size seed , Ascorbic acid to seasons from first day of flowering until the day19 from flowering.A clers decrease in this parameter after 35days from flowering was noticed , so that eggplpant fruits can be harvested after 19days from flowering

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Article
Sero-Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in pediatric patients in Mid-Euphrates area

المؤلفون: HASHIM RAHEEM TARISH --- FUAD MUHSEN JAWAD --- KHAREY DAWOD ABDALA
الصفحات: 109-120
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the mid euphrate region (Al-Qadisya, Najaf and Karbala provices) during the period between 1/June 2004 to 1/ May 2006. Three types of laboratory tests were used in this study for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in suspected patients attending to the pediatric hospitals in these provices. The study included 3 groups : The first group included 150 child (the total patients ) admitted to Al-Qadisya, Najaf and Karbala hospitals and the diagnosis made on serum samples using Dipstick and Elisa tests and the results indicated the sensitivity of these tests to be(71.4 % and 67.4 %), respectively. The second group included 33 child suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis depending on the clinical features and 3 tests (Dipstick, Elisa, and Bone marrow) were used for the diagnosis and the results indicated that the sensitivity of these tests were 21/33 (63.6%), 27/33 (81.8%), and 17/27 (62.9 %), respectively. The third group included 17 patients who proved to be infected with VL by bone marrow test and the sensitivity and specificity by dipstick, Elisa, tests were 15/17 (88.23%), 16/17 (94.1%) respectively. This study proved that dipstick test was the simplest, cheapest, and rapid for the diagnosis of VL. It is a safe, highly sensitive (80.2%) and specific (67.4%) and can detect the disease early. Concerning Elisa test, it was found to be sensitive and specific (94.1% and 100%) for diagnosis but there are some difficulties that may limit its use for the time being. It found in this study that all children are susceptible for the disease but those who are 13-24 month old are the most susceptible age was proved by all applied tests, The present study found also that both sexes are susceptible, but the highest incidence of infection found among males (59.3% and 40.7%) among females respectively. The present study proved that, Visceral leishmaniasis found to be more prevalent in Rural than Urban populations (68.3% and 31.7%) respectively.

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Article
عوامل مساعدة جديدة من الطين المعدني تستخدم كبدائل في عمليات الامتزاز والسحق الحراري فــي مصافـي النفـط

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الخلاصة

Bentonite is asemectite type clay who has aswolling properties of cations ,poly cations and polar compounds.this polars bridging the structure of clay ,that is making an intercalations between layers,an improving of stability thermic and catalytic properties towords the conversions of heavy fuels.

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Article
سمات القيادة الإدارية وعلاقتها بالأداء الوظيفي دراسة تحليلية في مديرية زراعة محافظة كربلاء

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الخلاصة

تناول البحث الحالي تحليل العلاقة بين سمات القيادة الادارية والاداء الوظيفي لمديري الوحدات الادارية لمديرية زراعة محافظة كربلاء وانطلق هذا البحث من مشكلة بحثية تمثلت في تجاهل هذه المؤسسات ( مديرية زراعة كربلاء ) باهمية العلاقة بين القيادة الادارية والاداء الوظيفي لها وعدم تبنيها لهذه العلاقة وقد سعى البحث الى تحقيق مجموعة من الاحداث منها :- - التعرف على السمات القيادية لدى القيادات الادارية في مديرية زراعة محافظة كربلاء 0 - التعرف على مستوى الاداء الوظيفي لدى القيادات الادارية لمديرية زراعة محافظة كربلاء 0 - معرفة العلاقة بين سمات القيادة الادارية ومستوى الاداء الوظيفي وما نوع هذه العلاقة 0 ويهدف تحقيق هذه العلاقة فقد تبنى البحث انموذجاً فرضياً يعبر عن العلاقة المنطقية بين متغيرات البحث اذ عدتها سمات القيادة الادارية متغيراً مستقلاً يؤثر في الاداء الوظيفي بوصفه متغيراً معتمداً0 ولغرض تطبيق هذا البحث ميدانياً واختبار فروضها تم اختيار(مديرية زراعـــة محافظة كربلاء ) كونها واحدة من اقدم المديريات في المحافظة واكثرها خبرة بالاضافة الى امتلاكها عدداً كبيراً من المدراء والقادة الاداريين 0 وقد تم استخدام استمارة الاستبيان اداة رئيسة في جمع البيانات المتعلقة بالجانب الميداني ولغرض الحصول على النتائج فقد تم استخدام الاساليب الاحصائية المناسبة وتوصلت الدراسة الى مجموعة من الاستنتاجات من اهمها ان سمات القيادة الادارية له علاقة ارتباط في مستوى الاداء الوظيفي 0

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Article
Study of two types of parasitic-intestinal cestoda In Streptopelia decaocta
دراسة نوعين من الديدان الشريطيةالمعوية المتطفلة في الفاختة المطوقة Streptopelia decaocto في مدينة الديوانية

المؤلفون: عاصفة مطرود ياسين
الصفحات: 116-121
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الخلاصة

In the present study and during the period from November 2007tillfebruray2008, 38 birds are Streptopelia decaocta collected which in AL-Dywania city . where anatomized this birds. They have been notes that these birds infection with two types of cestoda in the intestine that are Cotugina sp. and Raillietina sp. Most of the birds where infected with 2_8 worms form both genus while each host contains more than one types of worms, and as it has appeared that the presentage of infection during the months of study reached 2-55 % which increased during November to presentage of 60% . In addition, the male birds was more infected with a present age of 9- 61%while the female birds reached the present age of 47%. In addition to being infected with Cotugina sp. reached 42.1% while infected with Raillietina sp. reached 13.1%

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Article
Optimum selection of truss joints coordinates

المؤلفون: SALAH NOORI ABBOOD
الصفحات: 121-126
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الخلاصة

The overall stiffness of trusses can be improved by increasing external supports along the trusses length. In this paper, an improvement in truss stiffness was satisfied by minimizing the strain energy of the loaded truss without adding any external supports or change in elements material or cross sectional areas. This was done by changing some joints coordinates and makes an optimum selection to the angle of the truss model’s free end which was found as (61.46o)

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Article
المجموعة الرابطة في الزمرة التبولوجية

المؤلفون: ايناس يحيى
الصفحات: 122-126
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الخلاصة

In this paper has been studied the syndetic set ,she is one of four sets that called Gottschak admissible set,and we show relation the syndetic and sub group syndetic with strongly replete and strongly semi replete from side and relation left translation and biletral to syndetic set with syndetic set other side and as a result of this relation we found numbers of results and new theorems.

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Article
Bringing on proportionable mechanisim by using target programming for cities development
إستخدام البرمجة الهدفية في إيجاد آلية نسبية لتطوير المدن العراقية من الناحية العمرانية

المؤلفون: Ali Asghar Jomah Jobore --- Meeras Salman Juwad --- Azhar Ali Abbas
الصفحات: 127-133
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الخلاصة

The research aimed to finding a relative ideal Mechanism to achieve fiscal balance in the development aspects of life in urban. We have been using more than one technique to conduct this balance have been using algorithms and many recall the most important Khorzmih Dijstra as well as using Artificial Intelligence techniques optimal path foundation associated with techniques developed to solve math equations proper first-class Liner - Iinteger programming and operations research techniques to collect reports and statistical tables required to complete Draft users so how best path search application as one of the traditional methods that were used for some time period for the above goal has been compared with other methods, where he was to use Artificial Iintelligence techniques are the best ways to implement the theme "We discussed this. Action has been implemented using Visual Basic programming language and the calculator compliant specifications.

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Article
Measuring MDA & GSH as Biomarkers for Oxidative Stress in Bladder Cancer Patients
قياس المالون داي الديهايد والكلوتاثيون المختزل كدوال حيوية للإجهاد التاكسدي لدى مرضى سرطان المثانة

المؤلفون: Dafer A. Faysel Al-Kufy
الصفحات: 127-131
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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in bladder cancer. Thirty bladder cancer patients of ages 66.4±14.2 years and, 33 healthy individuals of ages 61±3.8 years used as a control group were enrolled. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in sera of patients and the control group. The results analyzed by ANOVA analysis don’t exhibit a significant elevation for MDA concentration, while seen a significant (P<0.005) decrease for GSH concentration were indicated in the group of patients when compared with those of the control group. Smoking was found to increase significantly (P<0.005) the levels of MDA and decrease significantly (P<0.005) the levels of GSH in the group of patients when compared with healthy individuals. MDA levels were illustrated to increase significantly (P<0.001) in patients of current smoking and significant (P<0.005) decrease for GSH levels when compared with control group.

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Article
The difficulties that face the students in studying "the literature of latest ages curriculum" for Arabic language departments in Arts colleges from students' point of view.
الصعوبات التي تواجهه الطلبة في دراسة مادة أدب العصور المتأخرة لأقسام اللغة العربية في كليات الآداب من وجهة نظر الطلبة

المؤلفون: يحيى خليفة حسن الشريفي
الصفحات: 129-162
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الخلاصة

Language is the superior mean of communication that human reaches, and the most significant way to understand & communicate. Language is the common factor in forming families, groups, and nations. Arabic language is most eloquent language uttered by a man ever; it is the language of the Holy Koran, the language of poetry, and the days of Arab. It is also one of national unity pillars . Literature is branch of that shady tree (language), and it is so close to it, and from it gets the strength and development . Arabic literature is net preserved the entity of language, and keeps the entity of nation staid. The literature of latest ages left in shade almost invisible. In spite of the beautiful "jewels", but it suffered of the political life that controlled over the era of it. For understanding the difficulties that faced students in studying the literature of latest age's curriculum, this paper prepared . This paper covered a sample of (93 male/female) students, by using liaison coefficient(person), casting medium, percentage weight, percentage, and other statistics means the researcher concluded that the teaching methods and styles scored the first rank; its intensity degree(1.265), and its percentage weight(% 62.843). While the curriculum scored the fifth grade; its intensity degree was the minimum (1.128), and its percentage weight is (% 65.444) . According to the research results, the researcher recommended that: providing students with references that help them to understand the literature of latest age's curriculum. Holding training courses for the lecturers to improve their scientific performance, and adopting modern and varied teaching methods, and paying more attention to libraries and make the lecturers aware of the latest methods of teaching, measuring, and correcting . As completion of this paper, the researcher suggest that conducting similar research to identify the proficient lecturers to teach the literature of latest ages curriculum .

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Article
Two Dimensional Dictionary –Based Lossless Image Compression

المؤلفون: Inas R. Shareef
الصفحات: 132-142
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الخلاصة

Images compression usually considers the minimization of storage space as its main advantage. It is desirable, however, to code images so that the ability to process the resulting representation directly is possible. In this paper, a compression system based on Dictionary-Based compression methods is proposed for compressing images. The design and implementation of novel compression and decompression algorithm are described. Dictionary-Based compression methods are a popular form of data file compression. LZ77, LZ78 and their variants are likely the most famous of these methods. These methods are implemented to reduce the one-dimensional correlation in data, since they are designed to compress text. Therefore, they do not take advantage of the fact that, in images, adjacent pixels are correlated in two dimensions. In this paper, a true two-dimensional dictionary-based lossless image compression scheme for grayscale images is introduced. The proposed compression method and the compression system are examined using different images with different sizes. Good compression ratios have been obtained from the proposed system, and this depends on image nature. Comparisons between the proposed method and different methods is also given and the proposed algorithm gives better results than the other methods. Testing results show that the compression performance of the proposed scheme outperforms and surpasses any other existing dictionary-based compression scheme. The results also show that it slightly outperforms JPEG-2000's compression performance, when it operates in its lossless mode, and it is comparable to JPEG-LS's compression performance, where JPEG-2000 and JPEG-LS are the current image compression standards.

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Article
Chemical , ecological and distribution study of species Atracytils carduus (compositae ) in Iraq .
الدراسة الكيميائية والبيئية والتوزيع الجغرافي للنوع L Atracytils carduus Compositea(ASteraceae) فى العراق

المؤلفون: فاضل كاظم --- احمد عبيس
الصفحات: 134-139
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الخلاصة

The study was carried out in plant laboratory – department of Biology , College of Science , Kufa University . The study aimed to determined the chemical content of plant parts root ,Leaves and Flowers ) of genus Atracytils carduus L.The results there were eleven chemical compounds which were differ in their color and Rf . The first and second compounds were found in root where some color was violet and yellow . The leaves had five chemical compounds ( 3,4,5,6 and 7 ) and their colors was clear violet while the compound ( 8,9,10 and 11 ) appeared in flower extract , with different Rf and the color . the study of ecology show that the species Atracytils carduus L grew at different soil types such as sand , stone and desert . In concern to the distribution study of this genus in dicate that it has been found in sixe region of Iraq .

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Article
Prevalence of brucellosis in human and sheep and goats in Baghdad province
مدى انتشار البر وسيلا في الإنسان والأغنام والماعز في منطقة بغداد

المؤلفون: احمد هادي محمد
الصفحات: 140-147
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الخلاصة

This research had been carried out in order to give epidemiological picture of brucellosis in both animal and human in Baghdad governorate, which was a representative area. Achievement of research including two tests on blood specimens, the first including 1314 patients( males& females) suspected to brucella infection , from Aug. 2006 to end of July 2007 by using rose Bengal test. The second including 336 blood specimens from ewe &goats which are main sources for human infection. Results showed that 95 cases were positive or suspected infection their ratio is 7.23%. 38 positive cases were males their ratio is 4o% ,while 57 positive cases were females their ratio was 60%. On the other hand the examination of 336 blood specimens give 40 positive cases of ewe &goats. Research confirm that Iraq is an endemic area for brucellosis diseases. It is still economic & medical trouble, needs strategic &scientific plane to control the disease.

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Article
Out come of oral Acyclovir& prednisolone therapy versus prednisolone alone for patients with Bell’s palsy ; A randomized clinical trial

المؤلفون: Hayder K. Hassoun
الصفحات: 143-149
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الخلاصة

Background: Bell’s palsy is a common disorder affecting all age groups and both genders, there are a lot of controversy in therapeutic lines. Although this syndrome was first described in 1821 by the Scottish anatomist and surgeon Sir Charles Bell, controversy still surrounds its etiology and management . The viral etiology have been mentioned in many reports and the use of Acyclovir therapy is controversial too. Objective : To assess the out come of antiviral therapy in treatment of Bell’s palsy among our patients. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Methods: One hundred patients with Bell’s palsy who had attended neurology out patient clinic and neurophysiology unit in Al Sadder Teaching Hospital in Najaf during the period from September 2005 to August 2007 . The cases were randomly assigned into two groups of therapy. which were age and sex matched. The first group; included patients who treated with prednisolone and Acyclovir (50 patients) . The second group was treated with prednisolone alone (50 patients). House BrackMann grading system was used to assess the therapeutic response after two weeks of treatment and two months of follow up period .. Results: The bell’s palsy was coming more from urban areas , and male affected more than females .The functional recovery among cases treated with prednisolone- Acyclovir and those treated with prednisolone alone was similar (P>0.05) . . The only difference was that recovery time taken for the patients received oral Acyclovir was more rapid than the other group . conclusion : Both treatments ended with same response but adding Acyclovir shortened the duration of therapy.

الكلمات الدلالية

bell’s palsy --- treatment --- antiviral therapy


Article
تحضير وتشخيص مع دراسة طيفية للمركب (MBTANP) ومعقده

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الخلاصة

In the present work, synthesis of new ligand 2-(6-Methyl-2-benzothiazolylazo)-4-nitro phenol and its complex with (Ni+2) was described mole ratio formation complex with this ligand (6-MBTANP) is ligand:metal (2:1) and suggest figure and formula of complex by using (Uv-visible) spectra, I.R. Spectra, (C.H.N.) analyzer, flame atomic absorption .

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Article
A method for finding the general solution of the LODEs and a system of two LODEs via two integral transforms

المؤلفون: Amal Khalaf Haydar
الصفحات: 150-160
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الخلاصة

In this paper we prove three theorems to introduce a new method for finding the general solution ( without using any initial conditions ) of the linear ordinary differential equations ( LODEs ) and for the systems of two linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients using the integral transform Laplace transform with the aid of the residues and then we prove another two theorems to show that the integral transform Sumudu transform can be used exactly equivalently to Laplace transform in finding the general solutions for these two types of differential equations .

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Article
دراسة حوادث الدراجات النارية في مدينة كربلاء

المؤلفون: زهير عبد الوهاب محمد حسن
الصفحات: 154-168
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الخلاصة

This study motorcycle accidents suffered by the drivers of these bikes in the city of Karbala, as he had been collecting information on these incidents through a meeting with the motorcycle drivers and distribution of the questionnaires they's (300) individual. In addition to the use of records revealed Traffic accidents are available in the Statistics Division of the Directorate of the passage of Karbala and the proportion admitted to the Statistics Division of fractures in the hospital, al-Husseini (the main hospital in the province) of total sleep in this Division. We have adopted a researcher in this study the working age drivers for these bikes (as the main factor in the granting of leave the market) were classified as age groups to find out which groups are more caused the accident on the one hand and to know the nature and type of incidents committed by each age group on the other hand, where found that the age group (15-17) and (12-14) year in a row are two more categories caused the incidents. And explains why the researcher to the lack of awareness of the experience wa adequate for these categories

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Article
Structure and piezoelectricity in blends of PVDF films
دراسة التركيب و البيزوكهربائية لأغشية من مخلوطات بوليمر PVDF

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الخلاصة

The crystalline structure, band vibration and piezoelectric properties of PVDF (neat and blend) oriented in the -phase have been investigated utilizing X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and piezoelectric measurements respectively. The -phase and -phase always exist in the solvent cast films, but with fading orientation caused by the blending content of PMMA and PVAc. Miscibility in the PVDF-PVAc blend was confirmed by vibrational band shift. It was found that the piezoelectricity of PVDF blends might strongly be affected by the final crystal structure of PVDF resulted from blending process and on the nature of blending polymer. However, the magnitude of piezoelectric constant d33 was found to be decreasing with the content of blending polymer for both PVDF-PMMA and PVDF-PVAc blends.

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Article
توظيف أسلوب التحليل المفكك في تحسين قيمة المنتج في ظل تقنية التكاليف المستهدفة

المؤلفون: صلاح مهدي جواد
الصفحات: 163-179
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الخلاصة

This research aims at employing the teardown analysis approach in improving of the Product Value Through reducing its Costs and increasing its Quality Under the Target Costing Technique That regarded as the most important modern techniques For Managerial Accounting that aim to consolidate the competitive position through creating suitable approachs to improve its products value. In order to reach the goal of the research, the basic hypotheses has been formed stating that employing the teardown analysis approach under the target Costing technique in the State company of the Electerical Industries that face up the highest Competitive that lead to improve of the product value and achieve competitive advantages for company . Finally,agroup of recommendation has been put on the light of conclusions reached

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Article
Propagation of ( Gladiolus hybrida ) cv. Priscilla by shoots production and multiplication in vitro
إكثار الكلاديولاس ( Gladiolus hybrida ) صنف Priscilla بإنتاج الأفرع وتضاعفها خارج الجسم الحي

المؤلفون: عبدالرزاق عثمان حسن --- زينب أحمد علي
الصفحات: 169-174
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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at tissue culture laboratory belong to private sector company which located at Abu-Alkhasib Basrah Iraq, from September 2003 to December 2004 .The objectives of the experiment were to test the effect of many treatments on response of gladiolus corm slices cv. Priscilla in vitro culture .The experiment included 14 treatments which were a combination between ammonium nitrate at 0.825 gm/l and 1.65 gm/l with coconut milk 10% and 20% and Benzyl adenine 0.5 mg/l .A combination also made between Naphthalene acetic acid 1 mg/l and ammonium nitrate and coconut milk .Treatments of shoot multiplication medium included four concentrations of Benzyl adenine which were : 0 , 0.5 , 1 , 1.5 , mg/l . It could be suggested. Best response of corm slices was to that cultured on MS medium supplemented with coconut milk 10% and Benzyl adenine at 0.5 mg/l , its response was 80%. The response was the production of adventitious bud on slice. Benzyl adenine treatment of 1 mg/l caused the highest multiplication rate which were 5.2 shoots after six weeks and 17.2 shoots after twelve weeks.The lowest concentration of benzyl adenine ( 0.5 mg/l ) increased shoot length after 6 and 12 weeks of culture which was 10.25 cm and 15.81 cm respectively, whereas , The highest concentration of benzyl adenine ( 1.5 mg/l ) reduced shoot length.

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Article
Variation of Soil Temperature with Time and Depth in Karbala Region
تغير درجة حرارة التربة مع الوقت والعمق في منطقة كربلاء

المؤلفون: Talib R. Abbas --- Rajaa R. Abbas
الصفحات: 170-175
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الخلاصة

A theoretical investigation of factors affecting soil temperature variation with time and depth is presented. Annual soil temperature variation with time and depth declares that there is a considerable temperature variation in the upper few meters that is necessary to several application fields include agriculture, civil engineering, and environmental engineering. One-dimensional mathematical model is used to study the annual soil temperature variation. The model solution was calibrated with soil temperature measurements at Karbala region. The calibrated mathematical expression is a useful mean to describe the soil temperature variation with time and depth in Karbala region. Results show that at depth below about six meter the soil temperature is approximately constant.

الكلمات الدلالية

Soil temperature --- Karbala region --- Mathematical model --- Heat transfer


Article
Effect of - rays on some electrical & optical properties of P. V. C. solved in dimethyl formamide
تأثير إشعاع كاما على بعض الخواص الكهربائية والضوئية لمحلول بولي كلوريد الفاينيل (P. V. C)

المؤلفون: حمد حميد حسين
الصفحات: 175-181
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الخلاصة

This study, was explained the effect of Gamma radiation on the some optical and electrical properties for Poly Vinyl Chloride liquid which solve in dimethyl formamide with (1% - 14%). The results show the effect of decrease conductivity at dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss angle by increase of constriction after and before irradiation. As its explained the effect of decreasing reflectance on transmittance and coefficient finesse by increase of constriction after and before irradiation.

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Article
Visual Acuity as a Function of Age and Sex
العمـر والجنـس وتأثيره علــى حــدة الإبصــار

المؤلفون: Eman Abdul Al Malik Al Hilo --- Ahmed Jumah Mhaws --- Runak Taher Ali
الصفحات: 176-185
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الخلاصة

A total of (607) normal subjects (289 males& 318 females ) where tested for visual acuity by using Snellen charts. The subjects are divided into five age groups at (10) years intervals. They showed a marked decreasing in a percent visual acuity of right and left eye with advancing age for both sexes. The decreasing began obvious at E-chart line (6/12) especially at old age groups (40-49) and (50-59) years. Statistical analysis by using chi tests showed no significant difference in the percent visual acuity between right and left eyes and between males and females in all E-chart line for all age groups. Also it appears no significant difference between age groups [(10-19) & (20-29)], [(10-19) & (30-39)], [(30-39) & (40-49)] & [(20-29) & (30-39)] years for all E-chart line for both sexes, but a significant difference has been found between age groups [(10-19) & (40-49)] ,[(20-29) & (40-49)],[(10-19) & (50-59)] ,[(20-29) & (50-59)], [(30-39) & (50-59)] & [(40-49) & (50-59)] years for different E-chart line for right & left eye and for both sexes.

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Article
Abandoned women (characteristics and problems
خصائص النساء المهجورات و مشكلاتهن في الأردن

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الخلاصة

This study aims to identify the problems and characteristics of abandoned women, whether economic problems, psychological, or social. Ones , in addition to identify the most important reasons and effects for abandon and . This study applied to all abandoned women beneficiaries of the National Aid Fund in the governorate of Jarash using the questionnaire , personal interview as tools to collect data and was applied on survey sample consisted of 40 abandoned women ,One of the findings of the study that there are social problems facing women abandoned but it has no significant impact on the relations and dealings in their society to a certain extent and there are many economic problems suffered by abandoned women regarding securing the main needs for family which affects them greatly and psychological problems with greatest impact on them and on their children. The study suggested a set of recommendations including: 1. Educate Muslim societies in general and Jordanian society, in particular regarding the concept of abandoned women and their rights and duties of their socites towards them . 2.Paying Full attention to women's issues in general and abandoned women in particular

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Article
Supplementary Vitamin C in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

المؤلفون: Fizel Al-Himyari
الصفحات: 186-188
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الخلاصة

Background: Parkinson's Disease(PD) is a slowly progressive, age related neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, postural instability and gait dysfunction. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy, of Vitamin C as an adjunctive therapy to Levodopa in Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at Mirjan Teaching Hospital, Babylon, Iraq from 1-June-2006 to 1-Dec.-2007. Twenty patients (10 males and 10 females) with insufficient response to Levodopa (motor fluctuations and dyskinesia) and 20 control patients comprised the study groups. The Patients were given an oral vitamin C (200 mg), administered once daily for a period of six months. Vitamin C was taken with Sinmet (l-dopa: Carbidopa) tablet which is of 25/250 concentrations, associated with further followup for 12 months. The UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) Part 11 and 111 were used for assessment. Results:There was a short term (one week) and long term (6 months) clinical benefit to the Vitamin C therapy, [ P-value<0.05]). . The dyskinesia was not increased in the PD patients. Gastric upset was seen in 25% of the PD patients and in 10% of the control group. Conclusion: Vitamin C in a dose of 200 mg once daily is effective as an adjunctive treatment in patients with PD. We recommend that Vitamin C is added to Levodopa in a dose of 100-200 daily. Further studies are needed to determine whether Vitamin C is effective and tolerated if administered for periods longer than 6 months. Key Words: Parkinson's disease, Vitamin C.

الكلمات الدلالية

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