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مجلة علوم ذي قار

ISSN: 19918690
الجامعة: جامعة ذي قار
الكلية: العلوم
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

مجلة علوم ذي قار مجلة نصف سنوية تصدرها كلية العلوم – جامعة ذي قار تضطلع بنشر البحوث الأصيلة والقيمة ضمن مجال العلوم الصرفة
تاريخ اول عدد صدر سنة 2008 .
عدد الاعداد التي تنشر في السنة اثنان.
عدد الاصدارات التي صدرت خلال الفترة بين 2008 - 2013 هو 13 عدد.

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معلومات الاتصال

Email: journalscience@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 1 العدد: 4

Article
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among women with habitual abortion in Thi – Qar Governorate using ELISA test
التشخيص المصلي لداء المقوسات بفحص الاليزا في النساء المجهضات في محافظة ذي قار

المؤلفون: Ahmed H. Al-khafaji أحمد حسن الخفاجي
الصفحات: 3-8
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الخلاصة

Abstract Venous blood had been collected from seventy four women with habitual abortion from Thi – Qar Governorate cities to evaluate the prevalence of the toxoplasmosis and from fifteen healthy looking women as control. The test performed by using ELISA method to detect the IgM and IgG antibodies in patients sample by commercial kit. The result showed that 30 of 74 women (40.5%) had toxoplasmosis, 13 (43.3%) with IgM antibodies, 7 (23.3%) with IgG antibodies and 10 (33.3%) with both IgM and IgG antibodies. Other women (44) although had habitual abortion but they were negative for toxoplasmosis.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Cyprinus carpio L. التغيرات السنوية في نشاط مبايض سمكة الكارب الاعتيادي في هور الحمار – جنوب العراق

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الخلاصة

The present study includes monitoring the development and maturation in females ovaries Cyprinus carpio L.Which were collected from Al-Hammar Marsh south Iraq, from July 2006 to June 2007 , selected environmental factors( such as air and water temperature ,salinity and day light) were measured in the study area . Depending on values of the Gonado Somatic index (G.S.I) through out the reproductive cycle for one year, there are five growth and maturation stages were observed in the ovaries. namely: Resting stage; it was presented in August & September . The averages of GSI values varied from 0.96-2.20. Developing & Maturing stage; it was presented in October, December, January & February. The averages of G.S.I values varied from 3.56-5.45. Prespawning stage; it was presented in March , with an G.S.I values 12.95 . Spawning stage; it was presented in April & May , with an G.S.I values varied from 3.49-5.19. Post spawning stage; it was presented in June & July ,with averages of G.S.I varied from1.92-2.13 The process of oviposition started from April up to May .This indicate that the spawning period of this species dose not suit the same period of annual prevention 15/2-15/4 ,which is issued by Ministry of Agriculture . Eggs were released in batches .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Some of Hematclogical and Biochemical Parameters of Children Infected with Anemia in Samawa City
بعض المعايير الدمويه والكيموحيويه للاطفال المصابين بفقر الدم في مدينة السماوه

المؤلفون: Ihsan Resan Ibraheem احسان ريسان ابراهيم
الصفحات: 9-18
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الخلاصة

Abstract Anemia spreads a widely in many countries in the world particularly the poor and developing countries . Iraq is one of these countries and many of children suffer from bad environmental health , and economic conditions . Samples of blood collected from patients infected with anemia in the hospital of children and delivery in samawah city . Hematological and biochemical parameters were determined , hematological parameters included packed cell volume , hemoglobin concentration , total white blood cells count while biochemical parameters included glucose , cholesterol , billrubin and urea concentrations were measured . Results showed High significant increase (P<0.01) in the number of children infected with iron deficiency anemia in comparison with other types of anemia , so number of children infected with sickle cell anemia and hemolytic anemia . Also there was high significant decrease (p<0.01) in hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in all types of anemia in comparison with a control group Glucose and bilirubin increased significantly (p<0.01). Total white blood count increased significantly (p<0.01) in patients with thallasemia . sickle cell anemia and hemolytic anemia compared with patients with iron deficiency anemia and a control group . Total serum cholesterol high significant decreased (p<0.01) in all types of anemia compared with a control group . Results showed there were non significant differences in urea levels in all types of anemia compared with a control group .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Ecological Assessment of Fish Assemblage For East AL-Hammar Marshe , North of Basrah, Iraq by using Integrated Biological Index (IBI)
التقييم البيئي لتجمعات اسماك شرق هـور الحمار-جنوب العراق وباستخدام دليل التكامل الحياتي.(IBI)

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الخلاصة

The Present study was included the ecological assessment of–East Al-Hammar marsh the period November, 2006 to November, 2007, The samples were collected monthly for two stations study, Al-Nagarah and Burgah fifteen metrics were chosen to calculate Integrated Biological Index (IBI) depending on the following major categories The first category (species richness) is represented by the total number of native, alien and migrations. The second major category (fish species composition) includes seven metrics, the percent of individuals that are considered as sensitive native species (metric one) the second metric represents the percent of individuals of alien species. The percent of individuals that are considered as sensitive migration species was the third metric, while the forth metric was the percentage of tolerant species. The Fifth metric was the percent of individuals of Carassius auratus. The sixth metric represented by the percentage of Liza abu while seventh metric include the diversity index (H). The third major category included fifth of trophic guild metrics which is Composed of the percent of individuals that are considered as omnivores, carnivores, detrivores, herbivorous, and the native top predators. (IBI) values of Al-Hammar marsh of studying stations were evaluated to be impaired (<60). Throughout the study time, except December and May in the first station, June and July in the second station which evaluate to be marginally impaired 60-80 June, July, August, September in the first station and August, September in the second station, evaluated to be accepted (>80).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Determination of the relationship between percentage of hypo-osmotic swelling test scores and antisperm antibody assay in infertile patients after IUI technique
تحديد مستوى العلاقة بين فحص كفاءة انتفاخ الغشاء البلازمي للنطفة البشرية تحت الضغط الازموزي الواطىء مع فحص الاجسام المناعية المضادة للنطف بعد اجراء عملية التلقيح الاصطناعي داخل الرحم لمرضى العقم

المؤلفون: Bassim KH.Kouti باسم خميس كوتي الركابي
الصفحات: 19-26
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الخلاصة

Abstract This study was devised to compare the results of hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and antisperm antibody assay (ASA) for normozoospermic men and infertile patients affected by autoimmune infertility. Thirty semen samples were collected by masturbation and prepared by direct layering technique for IUI procedure. Hypo-osmotic swelling test was performed by mixing 0.1 ml of semen with 1.0 ml of a 150 mOsm/ L NaCl as a hypo-osmotic solution and direct immunobead assay were used to determine the presence of ASA bound on the sperm surface. However, sperm concentration, sperm motility, progressive sperm motility, normal sperm morphology were evaluated according to standard World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and subjected to HOS test and ASA assay. The sperm prepared and incubated for 30 minute in 5% CO2 at 37ºC after in vitro sperm preparation. The results reported that the percentage of HOS test score in ASA positive (55.20 ± 7.1) sperm samples was significantly lower than that noticed in ASA negative (73.32 ± 4.8) sperm samples (P<000.1). As a result, eight clinical pregnancy rates were accounts for normozoospermic men without ASA and normal HOS test after in vitro sperm activation and IUI procedure. Therefore, it was concluded that the use of HOS test as a simple and dependable test to identify successful pregnancy after intra-uterine insemination. Further studies are suggested to assess the effect of ASA on sperm plasma functional integrity after ICSI and IVF-ET.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Preliminary Biochemical Study for Three Extracts of Lycium sp. Plant
دراسة كيموحيوية تمهيدية لثلاث مستخلصات من نبات العوسج

المؤلفون: Layla Jasim Abbas ليلى جاسم عباس
الصفحات: 27-41
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الخلاصة

Abstract An aquous hot , cold and hot ethanolic extracts fraction for Lycium species have been prepared. Qualitative tests have been carried out for detection of their general chemical composition ,and UV-Visible spectra were also obtained .The antibacterial activity of the extracts was tested by the well diffusion method .Human blood cells were used to determine cytotoxicity for the extracts in concentration 500 mg/ml . No cytotoxic effects were observed by this concentration,and this is considered the first step in the work positively and in the continuity of testing the extracts on human by pharmacy and medicine colleges. Key word : Lycium sp. plant, aqueous and ethanolic extracts , antibacterial activity .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
تأثير المركب 2,2-diamino-2.5-di(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-5-thoiureayl-(1,2,4) Oxadizolidine (Oxa.)Oxa. ذو الفعالية البيولوجية المحضر مختبريا على بعض العزلات السريرية

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الخلاصة

The antimicrobial activity of the compound Oxazolidine was studied against some clinical isolates by using disc diffusion method . The Oxa. has broad spectrum of biological activity . It was effective against both gram negative and positive . The percentage of susceptibility of the isolates to Oxa. Was 87 % . The isoletes of Escherichia coli , Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus ( COPS) and Klebsiella sp. Were susceptible to Oxa. By 78.94 % , 90.47 % and 75 % respectivily . While the isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS), Streptococcus pyogenes , Proteus sp. , Salmonella sp. ,Enterococcus faecalis were susceptibility to Oxa. With 100 % . From 100 isoletes used in this study only 13 were resistante to the Oxa. compound As follow : 8 isoletes Escherichia coli , 2 Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus and 3 Klebsiella sp.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Algal Composition and under ground water quality for some artesian wells in Al-Rrehba region - South of Bahr Alnajaf - Iraq
المحتوى الطحلبي ونوعية المياه الجوفية لبئرين من أبار الرحبة / جنوب بحر النجف / العراق

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الخلاصة

Statistical analysis doesn't show any significance differece between physical-Chemical proprieties of studies wells except in electrical conductivity(E.C) in April 2008.About36 Algal taxa has been classified in this study. Diatom(Bacillariophyceae) was the most dominant Algae (86.1%) followed by Blue green (Cyanophyceae) (13.9 %). The present study was conducted about some physical-chemical proprieties and algal composition in two artesian wells in Al-Rehba region south of Bahr Alnajaf Iraq from Novmber-2007 to April-2008. The results showed that water quality of the studied Artesian walls tend to be slightly alkaline, hard, and has overcritical Oxygen.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Seasonal variations in levels of Heavy metals in muscles of crab Sesarma boulengeri collected from Al-Garaf canal at Thi Qar province, Iraq
الاختلافات الفصلية في مستويات العناصر النزرة في عضلات السرطان النهري" أبو الجنيب" Sesarma boulengeri المستجمع من قناة الغراف، في محافظة ذي قار، العراق

المؤلفون: Sadek A. Hussein صادق علي حسين
الصفحات: 42-50
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الخلاصة

Summary The present work is aiming at investigating seasonal variations in levels of some heavy metals (Ni, Cd, and Cu & Zn) in muscles of the crab Sesarma boulengeri. Samples were collected from Al-Garaf canal at Thi Qar governorate. The study extended from March 2004 to February 2005. Specimens were collected from a location supply cities of Basrah, Thi Qar, Shatra and Garaf water's purification boards with crude freshwater for domestic uses. The surrounding areas are affected with sewage and agricultural disposals. It also represent mixing zone of water masses of various compositions. Elements found to vary seasonally in their levels and analyses of muscles indicate that Ni occupied the first position and revealed the highest levels, in general. The minimal recorded accumulative values (200.11 μg/g dry wt) was in Spring and the highest (243.20 μg/g dry wt) in summer. Zinc occupied second accumulation levels and showed the minimal (55.13 μg/g dry wt) in spring, whereas Cd, by no means, exhibited the minimal concentrations and the lowest value (4.82 μg/g dry wt) was in winter. Causes and effects of trace elements were discussed.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Impact of Al-Najebiya thermal energy power plant on aquatic ecosystem of Garmat Ali canal. III. Monthly differences in nutrient budget and TDS
الاختلافات .III تأثير محطة النجيبية للطاقة الحرارية على النظام البيئي المائي لقناة كرمة علي الشهرية في تراكيز العناصر المغذية والمواد الصلبة الذائبة الكلية

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الخلاصة

Monthly variations in concentrations of nutrients (nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicates) along with total dissolved solids (TDS) were investigated in Al-Najebiya electricity power generating station (N.S).The study extended from November 1997 to October 1998. Three sites were selected for sampling, based on intake and discharge points. The lowest nitrite value (0.15 μg at. N/L) was encountered in November and the highest (1.37 μg at. N/L) in January. Nitrate (NO3) revealed considerable rise in concentrations near effluent, as well, and the highest (34.95 μg at. N/L) was in August. Maximum value of phosphate (4.75 μg at. P/L) was encountered near the effluent discharging point. Silicate (SiO3) concentration was also distinctly high in this site, the maximum value (201.1 μg at. Si/L) recorded in August. TDS exhibited higher concentrations in sites closer to thermal discharge as well (1675mg/L). No previous ecological, long or short term, work of the type was recorded for the investigated site or any other similar locations in the country.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Identifying tannin Compounds in black Tea Extract Camellia Sinensis and the Effect of temperature on the amount of protein precipitant tannin
تشخيص مركبات التانين في مستخلصات الشاي الأسود Camellia Sinensis وتأثير درجات الحرارة في محتوى التانين المرسب للبروتين

المؤلفون: Maha Ali Abd-Alameer مها علي عبد الأمير
الصفحات: 51-57
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الخلاصة

this study aims at first identifying the kinds of tannins compounds in tea extract, second specifying the effect of temperature used in extracting tea on the amount of protein precipitant tannin. The amount of tannin has been estimated after being extracted from five pure types of cylanain , Indian, Indonesian tea and other than these ones. Then, it has been revealed that the higher the temperature the more amount of tannin is extracted in most of the extracts of tea. Tannins compounds have been identified in the five extracts ,by using the technique of "thin layer chromatography" (TLC) and the result was that the five extracts ; involve ;Tannic acid, Gallic acid and Ellagic acid; in addition to more four compounds with equal values of relative flow ,these compounds might be Epicatchin (EC), Epigallocatchin(EGC),Epicatchin gallate(ECG) and Epigallocatchin gallate(EGCG).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Effect of Adding Cellulose on the Mechanical and Chemical Properties of the Cement.
دراسة تأثير أضافة السليلوز على الخواص الميكانيكية والكيميائية لخلطة إسمنتية

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الخلاصة

this adding was in form of different ratio and constant size of these additive to the matrix of Iraqi cement ( Om Qasar factory for cement ) .the prepared samples was in form of cubic and evaluated as they were treated different ( water treatment, moisture treatment dry treatment ). All the prepared samples had a proportion of In this study we focused on adding cellulose found in the covers of sun flower and 3/ 1 ) cement to sand ) and in the form of cubes with aside ( 50 mm ) long .they also had the the weight –rate of the added cellulose to the cement which was ( 1% - 5%) . the obtained results showed that the cement mixture that had the weight rate of 5% is the best as it has good mechanical properties ( flexural strength , splitting tensile, compressive strength ) .These properties have been used to study the resistance of the modified cement to the chemical agents that attack cement and concrete

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Phased Linear Array of Circular Aperture Antennas
مصفوفة هوائيات الفتحة الدائرية الخطية الطورية

المؤلفون: Ahmed Hashim Abood احمد هاشم عبود
الصفحات: 60-71
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الخلاصة

In this paper the phased array consist of a circular aperture antennas are arranged in linear array to study the effect of the number of elements on the radiation pattern parameters. The effect of distribution of current on each elements also studied to reduced the side lobe level.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Study of Electrical Properties and Photocurrent of Polyaniline/ fluorescein films.
دراسه الخواص الكهربائية والتيار الكهروضوئي لاغشية بولي انيلين المطعمة بصبغة الفلورسين العضويه

المؤلفون: Hameed A. Hamadi حميد عبد الرزاق حمادي
الصفحات: 72-82
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الخلاصة

Electrical conductivity and visible photo current (PC) measurements have been performed on thick film (10 μm) of polyaniline modified with (1x10-4mole) content of fluorescein organic dye were all measurements have been made using Sandwich structure of aluminum and semitransparent aluminum with area (0.03 cm2) circular electrode. The D.C. conductivity was measured as a function of doping ratio with iodine using the technique of two probes.All current measurements have been made at steady state conditions were the obtained results showed that the domain conduction mechanisms was identified as space charge limited current (SCLC) and the D.C. bulk conductivity of pure films was 6.6x10-9 S.cm-1,and this conductivity is increased by 5.4 times of films with doping ratio equal to 2% . Photocurrent (PC) was measured with specified wave length as a function of applied voltage were the intensity of the incident light was 295 lux/m2 for each case. The obtained results of PC showed that the observed photons form excites, and the caste films have poor photoconductivity while maximum peak of D.C. conductivity under illumination was obtained near Yellow region of visible light were the absorption of incident light is high and free carriers are available. Also the obtained results showed that the cut-off wave length is near red region, and the recombination process is bulk finally Another noticeable remark, that the photocurrent is increased by amount of 800 times & D.C conductivity is increased by 1300 comapred to magnitude at darkness.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
دراسة موسمية لبعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية لمياه ورواسب نهر الغراف

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الخلاصة

The highest conductivity for water recorded 1292 µS/cm but the lowest was 928 µS/cm. While the sediments showed a high rate of conductivity 1793 µs/cm and the lowest was 1221 µS/cm. The high total alkalinity for water recorded 373 mg/l but the lowest was114 mg/l. while the sediments showed a high rate of total alkalinity270mg/l the lowest value123mg/l.The total chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, phosphate ,nitrate, sodium, potassium, and lithium for water ranged between( 265-123) mg/l (112-64)mg/l (93-19)mg/l (167-123)mg/l (0.8-0.1)mg/l (7.5-1.9)mg/l (123-24)mg/l (97-12)mg/l (0.8-0.1) mg/l respectively while for sediment they ranged between(265-140) mg/l (144-65)mg/l (68-23 )mg/l (278 -57)mg/l (5.3-1.2)mg/l (20-10.2)mg/l (117-58)mg/l (77-24)mg/l (2.2-0.1) mg/l respectively . Water temperature ranged between(17 - 34) Co which in accordance with air (18 -37) Co. pH values for the ten locations throughout the year period of study located between (6.9 -8.3),also the sediments recorded low alkalinity, ranged between 7.4- 8.4 The physical and chemical parameters of water and sediments for Garaf river during four seasons from summer 2007 until spring 2008 were studied in ten locations alongside the river starting from The Kut Dam when the river branching from the Tigris to its end in the northern of Nassiria city .The stations were chosen according to population density and pollution probability. The investigated parameters include temperature, pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, nitrate ,sulfate, sodium, potassium and lithium for water and sediment .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
دراسة الخواص الميكانيكية لمنتج من مادة الفولاذ واطئ التسبيك

المؤلفون: ستار عبود عباس
الصفحات: 81-87
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الخلاصة

Purity test have been a chivied by the DIN-characteristic (DIN-5060), which depend on the industrial way (ESR), the low value obtained equal to (K1=5.1) whenever high value obtained equal to (K1=8). As well as the tensile ultimate value (1116-1332 N/mm2) and yield point has been reached which are included with slandered measurement. Also the impact test have been investigated, the results arranged between 63-108 Joule. Also the hardness test has been done under the standard measurement. Mechanical properties have been determined for a low alloy steel sample, which according to it determined acceptance of the sample product comparing with stander characteristics .

الكلمات الدلالية

الفيزياء --- علم المواد --- السبائك --- الفولاذ


Article
Enhancing the LR Parsing Strategy Using Incremental GPLR Parsing Method
بأستخدام طريقة الإعراب LR تحسين ستراتيجية الإعراب GPLR التزايدية

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الخلاصة

Parsers in modern integrated development environments (IDEs) for generalpurpose languages are virtually all of ad hoc, recursive descent variety. While such parsers have many disadvantages when compared with machine-generated LALR(1) parsers but they have two major good qualities: they are not restricted to any finite of lookahead, and in IDE, they can re-parse parts of a file as they change rather than reparsing the entire file. Theoretically, both of these two capabilities can be achieved through variations of the traditional LR parsing techniques, but the traditional LR parsing methods still suffer two irresolvable problems; which are shift-reduce and reduce-reduce conflicts. In this research, we are trying to solve these two drawbacks with preserving the capabilities of the traditional LR parsing techniques. This has been achieved by employing the generalized piecewise LR parsing (GPLR) technique instead of the traditional LR techniques.


Article
معالجة كميّة للتوزيع الإلكتروني لجزيئة الماء باستعمال طريقة الإهمال التام للتداخل التفاضلي CNDO

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الخلاصة

The electronic distribution of water molecule is studied theoretically in this work, using the complete Neglect of differential overlap (CNDO) semi empirical method. The wave functions used to describe this system are of the type STO-3G depends on the Hartree-Fock equations for restricted systems. The calculations contains the geometry optimization, total energy of the molecule in a.u, the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions ( atomic orbital coefficients). A good accuracy appears from comparing the results with respect to numerical methods. In addition that this method is quicker than of the numerical methods.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Simulation of MC-DS-CDMA-System Based on: Wavelet and Slantlet Transforms over Wireless Channel
محاكاة نظام (MC-DS-CDMA ) على اساس تحويلات ( Wavelet ) و ( Slantlet ) لكل قنوات اللاسلكي

المؤلفون: Ahmed Abdel Hadi Fadhel احمد عبد الهادي
الصفحات: 107-117
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الخلاصة

In this paper two proposed schemes for improving the performance form the Bit Error Rate (BER) view point were proposed for Multicarrier-Direct-Sequence- Code Division Multiple Access (MC-DS-CDMA) system in wireless channel. The conventional MC-DS-CDMA-system is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). One of the proposed systems was based on Wavelet transform (WT). The other system was based on Slantlet transform (SLT). Simulation is done in three different types of channels. Simulation results show that the two proposed systems outperform the conventional system. Also the MC-DS-CDMA-system which is based on SLT achieves the same performance with less filter lengths than the MC-DS-CDMA-system based on WT.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Computation of propagation characteristics in complex plane for multilayer optical waveguide
حساب خواص الانتشار في مستوي عقدي لدليل موجة بصري متعدد الطبقات

المؤلفون: Sabah M.M. Ameen صباح مهدي أمين
الصفحات: 118-133
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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT This paper provides a numerical simulation for determining the complex propagation constants of integrated optics waveguide. The waveguide under consideration may consist of any number of layers with complex indices due to gain and loss. A general-purpose mode solver MAPLE program has been developed to implement the transfer matrix method, and then it applied to solving the multilayer waveguide dispersion equation in complex plane. Additionally, our program can be used to determine the electromagnetic mode structure including modal power, spatial distribution, mode size parameters, and the position of the modal peak power. Therefore, all necessary parameters for a wide range of laser devices can be calculated.

الكلمات الدلالية

Optical waveguide --- Transfer matrix --- Mode solver.


Article
Photoexcitation of 13C, 15N, 17O, 17F and 39K in the Framework of Particle-Core Coupling Model (PCM)
39 في أطار نموذج اقتران جسيم- لبُ K 17 و F,17O,15N,13C الأستثارة الفوتونية للنوى Particle-Core Coupling Model (PCM)

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الخلاصة

Photoexcitation of the collective low-lying states in 13C, 15N, 17O, 17F and 39K are studied in the framework of Particle-Core Coupling Model (PCM). According to PCM, the total Hamiltonian is diagonalized in the configuration mixing space of the basis states which consist of the core states that restricted to at most three quadrupole and two octupole phonon excitations and harmonic oscillator single-particle states. The resulting eigenvalues, correspond to the energy levels and the eigenvectors, are used to calculate the magnetic dipole moment μ(n.m.), electric quadrupole moment Q( 2 e  fm ), and reduced transition probability B(M1)↓ 2 (n.m.) and B(E2)↓( ) 2 4 e  fm . The core polarization effects are introduced by giving the odd nucleon an effective charge and effective g-factor to obtain the best description for data.

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