جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2012 المجلد: 43 العدد: 5

Article
EFFECT OF SEED STIMULATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOME RICE CULTIVARS
تأثير تحفيز البذور في نمو وحاصل بعض اصناف الرز

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الخلاصة

A field trial carried out factorial experiment at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station. Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate during the summer season of 2008 and 2009. The aim was to investigate the effect of seed enhancement on , growth and grain yield of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. The design of lab. Experiment was R.C.B.D with four replicates. Each experiment consisted of two factors : seed enhancement treatments (T1 = un soaked dry seeds) , (T2 = seeds soaked only with water) , (T3 = seeds soaked with gibberellic acid (GA3) 300 mg. litre-1) , (T4 = seeds soaked with 600 mg.litre-1 GA3) , (T5 = seeds soaked with 900 mg.litre-1 GA3) , (T6 = seeds soaked with 10 g.litre-1 KCl) , (T7 = seeds soaked with 20 g.litre-1 KCl) , (T8 = seeds soaked with 10 mg.litre-1 Ascorbic acid) , T9 = seeds soaked with 20 mg.litre-1 Ascorbic acid) , and (T10 = seeds soaked with 30 mg.litre-1 Ascorbic acid). The second factor was three rice cultivars (Anber -33 , Yasamin and Furata-1 (Al-Fawwah). Results of the field trial revealed that T3 treatment gave the highest values of the flag leaf area , plant height , number of bearing – panicles tillers , number of grains . panicle-1 , grain yield and harvest index (30.4 cm2 , 104 cm , 332 , 167 , 6.2 t.ha-1 , 51% and 31.5 cm2 , 99 cm , 342 , 171 , 6.3 t.ha-1 and 49 %) in both seasons , respectively . . Anber -33 gave the highest averages of flag leaf area , plant height (35.3 , 39.4 cm2 , 131 , 125 cm) in both seasons , respectively. While Furat-1 gave the highest average of number of bearing – panicles tillers , 1000 grain weight , grain yield and ultimately harvest index (344 , 344 , 24.2 , 23.6 gm , 6.1 , 6.2 t.ha-1 , 48and 49% in both seasons , respectively . The results also showed a significant interaction between seed enhancement treatments and cultivars in the most studied characters. It can be concluded from this study that , in general, seed enhancement treatments increased for all cultivars and improved the growth characters and ultimately the grain yield via the increase of most its components. Also rice seeds soaked with gibberellic acid (GA3) 300 mg. litre-1 may increase grain yield .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SEED STIMULATION ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING VIGOUR OF SOME RICE CULTIVARS
تأثير تحفيز البذور في الانبات وقوة البادرة لبعض اصناف الرز

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الخلاصة

A factorial experiment was conducted at the laboratories of the State Board for Seed Testing and Certification – Ministry of Agriculture – Karbala branch during 2009. The aim was to investigate the effect of seed enhancement on germination percentage , field emergence and its relationship with the field establishment , growth and grain yield of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. The design of lab. Experiment was CRD while for the field trial was R.C.B.D with four replicates. Each experiment consisted of two factors : seed enhancement treatments (T1 = un soaked dry seeds) , (T2 = seeds soaked only with water) , (T3 = seeds soaked with gibberellic acid (GA3) 300 mg. litre-1) , (T4 = seeds soaked with 600 mg.litre-1 GA3) , (T5 = seeds soaked with 900 mg.litre-1 GA3) , (T6 = seeds soaked with 10 g.litre-1 KCl) , (T7 = seeds soaked with 20 g.litre-1 KCl) , (T8 = seeds soaked with 10 mg.litre-1 Ascorbic acid) , T9 = seeds soaked with 20 mg.litre-1 Ascorbic acid) , and (T10 = seeds soaked with 30 mg.litre-1 Ascorbic acid). The second factor was three rice cultivars (Anber -33 , Yasamin and Furata-1 (Al-Fawwah). Results of Lab. Experiment indicated that T7 , T4 and T3 treatments significantly increased the germination speed (92.83 , 89.67 and 82.00%) and standard germination percentage (95.50 , 95.33 and 94.67%) , respectively compared with the T1 treatment (control) which gave the lowest values of germination speed and standard germination parentage (20.67% and 75.50%), respectively . The T3 treatment was superior in giving the higher average of seedling vigour in the standard germination percentage (2280) compared with 1162 for T1 treatment (control) . Yasamin cultivar significantly gave the highest average of germination speed and standard germination percentage (52.52 and 88.30%) , respectively , while Furat-1 gave the lowest values (32.25 and 82.25%) respectively . The results also showed a significant interaction between seed enhancement treatments and cultivars in the most studied characters.It can be concluded from this study that , in general, seed enhancement treatments increased both standard germination percentage for all cultivars and improved the seedling characters.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MAGNETIZED IRRIGATION WATER AND WEED CONTROL WITH ATRAZINE AND THEIR IMPACT ON MAIZE GROWTH ANALYSIS PARAMETERS
مياه الري الممغنطة ومكافحة الادغال بمبيد الاترازين وأثرها في معايير نمو محصول الذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental Farm, Department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad, during spring and autumn seasons of 2010 to investigate the response of maize (Buhoth106) to magnetized irrigation water and atrazine for weed control, and their impacts on growth analysis parameters. A randomized complete block design arranged according to split-plot was used with four replicates. The study included four levels of magnetized irrigation water strength 0 (normal irrigation water), 500, 1000 and 2000 Gauss as main plot treatments, while four levels of weed control treatments (weedy, 2kg.h-1 atrazine, 4kg.h-1 atrazine, and weed free) as subplot treatments. The results showed a significant positive effect of magnetized irrigation water on most growth characters studied. Magnetized irrigation water at 2000 Gauss caused highest reduction of weed densities in both seasons at 60 days after sowing and recorded 56.25 plant. m-2 at spring and 30.50 plant. m-2 at autumn compared with 67.38 and 39.94 plant.m-2 with normal irrigation water at both seasons, respectively, thereby achieved greater percentage of weed control of 43.62 and 55.51 % compared with 32.25 and 42.15 % with normal irrigation water at both seasons, respectively. Magnetized irrigation water at 2000 gauss also affected crop growth parameters such as crop growth rate, and recorded 18.63 and 21.04 g.m-2.day-1 compared with 13.85 and 15.23 g.m-2.day-1with normal irrigation water at both seasons, respectively. However magnetized irrigation water caused no significant effects on net assimilation rat, relative growth rate although greater increased value was observed for both growth parameters. Results also showed the weed control treatment of weed free and 2 and 4 kg.h-1atrazine affected significantly crop growth rat and gave 19.82,15.83 and 17.50 g.m-2.day-1respectively compared with 12.44g.m-2.day-1of weedy treatment at spring season, and 23.27,17.47 and 17.42 g.m-2.day-1respectively compared with 14.24 g.m-2.day-1of weedy treatment at autumn season. Weed free treatment at both seasons, however, It gave greatest value of net assimilation rat and relative growth rat.Conclusion could be drawn from the present study that magnetized irrigation water and weed control treatment may improve some maize growth analysis parameters.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE AND POTASSIUM ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BARLEY
تأثير معدل البذار والسماد البوتاسي في نمو وحاصل الشعير

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted during the two winter seasons of 2009 - 2010 and 2010 - 2011 at the Experimental Field of Crop Science Dept/College of Agriculture-Abu Ghraib/University of Baghdad to determine the effect of seeding rate and potassium on growth and yield of barley IPA-99. A split-plot design with four replications was used. Rates of seeding occupied 100, 150 and 200 kg. h-1 were the main plot. Potassium sulphate rates 0,83, 166 and 249 kg k.h-1 were sub plot. The rate of seeding 150 kg.ha-1 gave highest means of grain yield (6.25, 6.30 ton.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively. While treatment of fertilizer 249 kg k.h-1 gave the highest biological yield (20.12 , 21.54 t.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively. Interactions between the two factors caused significant effects. The combination of seed rate 150 kg.ha-1 with 249 kg k.ha-1 gave the highest mean of grain yield (6.73, 6.69 t.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively. While the combination of rate seeding 200 kg.ha-1 with 249 kg k.ha-1 gave highest mean for biological yield (24.65, 25.92 t.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively. We recommend using the rate seeding 150 kg.ha-1 and potassium level 249 kg k.ha-1 for they gave highest means of grain yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
RESPONS OF SOME GROWTH TRAITS BREAD WHEAT FOR SOWING DATES AND IRRIGATION INTERVALS
استجابة بعض صفات نمو حنطة الخبز لمواعيد الزراعة وفترات الري

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Dept. of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. That was to study performance of some growth traits of bread wheat under sowing dates and irrigation intervals for IPA 99 variety. A randomized complete block design with three replicates with a split-plot arrangement was used. The sowing dates (November20, December5 and December 20) occupied the main plots, while irrigation intervals (2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks) occupied the sub plots. Results showed superiority of the sowing date November 20 in giving the highest averages of number of tillers/m2 422.00 and 413.88 , plant height(100.79 and 98.12 )cm, flag leaf area (42.88 and 39.83) cm2, biological yield (14.82 and 14.63) t.ha-1, and harvest index (33.81 and 32.89)% during the two seasons respectively . The treatment of 2 – weeks irrigation was superior by giving the highest averages number of tillers/m2 (429.85 and 415.21), flag leaf area (44.54 and 41.56) cm2, biological yield (15.37 and 14.95t.ha-1 and harvest index (33.81 and 33.28%) during the two seasons respectively. There was a significant interaction between irrigation intervals and sowing dates with the impact on some growth traits. The combination of 2-weeks irrigation interval with sowing date November 20 gave the highest biological yield (16.24 and 16.02) t.ha-1 , number of tiller.m-2 (461.66 and 439.99) , harvest index (35.16 and 34.38) %during the two seasons , respectively. The treatment of 5 – weeks irrigation intervals with sowing date December 20 gave less averages of number of tillers.m-2, biological yield , harvest index% during the two seasons, respectively. Can be conclude that delay of planting with increase irrigation intervals led to decreased biological yield and harvest index. Therefore can be recommend to grow wheat in 20 Nov. under 2-weeks irrigation interval to obtain higher biological yield and harvest index.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS DAMPING OFF CAUSED BY PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM
المكافحة الاحيائية لمرض موت بادرات الطماطة المتسبب عن الفطر Pythium aphanidermatum

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الخلاصة

اجريت هذه الدراسة لتقويم كفاءة الخميرتين Saccharomyces cerevisiae و Kluyveromyces marxianus ضد الفطر Pythium aphanidermatum المسبب لمرض سقوط البادرات في الطماطة . عزل الفطر من بادرات طماطة مصابة وشخص واختبرت مقدرة عزلاته الامراضية على بادرات طماطة واختيرت العزلة الاكثر امراضية في هذه الدراسة . اختبرت فعالية الخميرتين S. cerevisiae و K. marxianus ضد الفطر الممرض على الوسط الزرعي مستخلص البطاطا والدكتروز والاكر (PDA) في اطباق بتري . عمل خط من مزرعة للخميرة على الوسط الزرعي بمسافة 2 سم من حافة الطبق ووضع في الجانب المقابل قرص قطر 0.5 سم من مزرعة حديثة للفطر على بعد 3.5 سم من حافة الطبق . حضنت الاطباق بدرجة 25 ْم + 2 وحسبت نسبة التثبيط . اختبر تأثير راشح الخميرتين في وزن الكتلة الحيوية للفطر في الوسط الزرع السائل . جرى تقييم لكفاءة الخميرتين في مقاومة مرض موت البادرات تحت ظروف البيت الزجاجي باضافة 50 مل / كغم تربة في اصص بلاستيكية بحجم لقاح 2 × 108 وحدة تكوين مستعمرة / مل للخميرة S. cerevisiae و3 × 106 وحدة تكوين مستعمرة / مل للخميرة K. marxianus قبل ستة ايام من الزراعة وعند الزراعة بالحجم نفسه . غمرت البذور بعالق الخميرة S. cerevisiae بحجم لقاح 5 × 104 وحدة تكوين مستعمرة / بذرة وبعالق الخميرة K. marxianus بحجم لقاح2 × 104 وحدة ملوثة بالفطر الممرض بمعدل 10 بذور / اصيص . بلغت فعالية الخميرتين S. cerevisiae و K. marxianus ضد الفطر P. aphanidermatum على الوسط الزرعي 36.39 و 32.8 % على الترتيب بعد ثلاثة ايام من التحضين في . ادت الخميرة S. cerevisiae بالتراكيز 0.1 و 0.2 و 0.3 و 0.4 و 0.5 غم / لتر والخميرة K. marxianus بحجم لقاح 9 × 105 خلية/مل الى تثبيط كامل لنمو الفطر الممرض . اظهر راشح الخميرتين تأثيرا في خفض وزن الكتلة الحيوية للفطر الممرض اذ بلغ 41.3و 60.1 ملغم للخميرتين S. cerevisiae و K. marxianus على الترتيب قياسا بـ 76.3 ملغم في المقارنة . تفوقت معاملة التربة والبذور بعالق الخميرة K. marxianus بالتركيــــز 3 × 106 خلية / مل و 2 × 104 خلية / بذرة على الترتيب على بقية المعاملات في خفض نسبة موت بادرات الطماطة قبل البزوغ وبعده ، اذ بلغت صفرا قياساً مع 50 % و 16.67 % في معاملة المقارنة على الترتيب تحت ظروف البيت الزجاجي ، رافقتها زيادة في فعالية انزيم البيروكسيديز.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CONTAMINATION OF BEE HONY WITH Cd AND Pb
تلوث عسل النحل بالرصاص والكادميوم

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الخلاصة

Twenty samples of honey were collected from different location of Governments Baghdad and Babylon goverment . The Contaminate ion by Cd and Pb was Carried out in honey Samples by Central Organization for Standardization and Quality Control in Baghdad. 0The results showed that all samples were contaminated by Pb (0.032_0.349 mgkg) The concentration of Pb in honey of Baghdad samples and Babylon/Mussiab (0.032_0.336 mgkg) (0.150_0.314 mgkg) respectively. And different results frm all region, and one region Abu-Ghraib concentratin of Pb (0.336 – 0.18 mg/kg). The sample from college of agriculture Abu-Graib was high while Kadmiya of region was much lower Pb little concentration Pb 0.032 mg/kg. The imported honey samples (0.146_0.349 mg/kg ).also showed high of samples contaminated by Cd in honey Baghdad (0.019_0.032 mgkg).The concentration of Cd in BabylonMussiab (0.023_0.058 mgkg) .The imported honey had contamination of (0.021_0.051 mgkg) . The region of Abu-Ghraib is showed concentration of Cd 0.032 g/kg but the Kadmiya sample was alower 0.019 mg/kg. The result of this work my help to set standerd for Pb and Cd in Iraqi honey (0.0-0.5 mgkg) and Cd (0.0-0.05 mgkg.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
POPULATION DENSITY AND PERCENT OF INFESTATION BY THE ERIOPHYID MITE ACERIA FICUS (COTTE) (ACARIFORMES: ERIOPHYIDAE) ON FIG AND ITS CONTROL BY PLANT EXTRACT
الكثافة السكانية ونسبة الإصابة للحلم رباعي الأرجل Aceriaficus (Cotte) (Acariformes : Eriophyidae)على التين ومكافحته بالمستخلصات النباتية مختبريا

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to follow the development of Population density of Aceriaficus (Cotte) on Fig trees and evaluate the efficancy ofCitrulluscolocynthsis , Dianthus carphyllus and Lantana camara water extracts against Fig bud mites .Five Identical Fig trees (Brown turkey) were selected at AL-Etafia – Baghdad , Five leaves of each tree representing different parts of the tree were taken at intervals of two weeks for the period of 3/4- 2/10/2011. Apart of each leaf was Submitted to microscopic observation by stereomicroscope. Infected Fig leaves were sprayed by each of 3 concentration of each extract , in Petri plates at 2ml/plate The plates were incubated at 27 ± 1 ْc and the dead Mites were calculated after 48 hr. Result showed that Fig bud mites have 2 peaks , spring one started from beginning of April until the end of June with maximum means number 244.0 moving mite/10cm²/leaf. And autum one started from the beginning of July until middle of September with maximum number 489.7 moving mite/10cm²/leaf. Results of statistical analysis showed a significant differences in Population density and infection percentage between the different times of leaf Samples Collection. It has been found that the water extract ofCitrulluscolocynthsis fruits, and clove fruits , exhibited high activity against Fig bud mites with mortality percentage 100 and 85.5% respectively at 2gm/L compared to 23.2%with Dianthus carphylluswater extract, at the same concentrate . These result leads to conclude that Using of natural Compounds of plants origins effective against mites, safe to ecosystem and human health may be premising in the integrated pest management of this pest.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MEASUREMENT OF BEEF PRODUCTION PROFITABILITY IN IRAQ
قياس ربح انتاج لحم البقر في العراق

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الخلاصة

Livestock production generally and beef production in particular is characterized by the underdevelopment.Of the modes of its production and the low productivity of factors of production in addition to the lack.Of farmers skills which all of them affected on the size of beef production in Iraq. This was reflected on the need for the beef import to fill the gap between domestic demand and domestic production. The objective of this study is to calculate private and social profitability coefficients and comparative advantage coefficient for beef in Iraq. This was achieved by using policy analysis matrix, PAM, technique through which the efficiency, profitability and the competitiveness of domestic beef production on world level can be determined. By estimation of policy analysis matrix elements, revenue transfers I, tradable input transfers J, factors transfers K, were calculated which were 3276.11 dinars/1kg.beef, -465.91 dinars/1kg beef and -101.02 dinars /1kg beef consecutively. Net transfers L, was about 3843.04 dinars/1kg. beef which could be explained that government intervention was in favor of beef producers in short run, The results also showed that domestic producer gets economic profits by investing in beef projects and Iraq does not achieve a comparative advantage in beef production in spite of positive protection for domestic beef producer and subsidiesfor tradable inputs , The study concluded some recommendations most important of which is to adopt tradable input subsidy in short run in the hope that producer performance will improve and becomes competitive on the world level in the medium and on the long run.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
A MODEL FOR ECONOMIC REFORM PROGRAM
أنموذج لبرنامج اصلاح اقتصادي

المؤلفون: Fatimah J. Al-Azzawi فاطمة جاسم محمد العزاوي
الصفحات: 89-109
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الخلاصة

Macroeconomic adjustment for any country is basedon the adjustment of the imbalances in its economy,which is defined as the differences between aggregate supply and demand.The adjustment is followed by applying a group ofpolicies to improve the outcome of macroeconomic variables such as inflation or current account balance and changes in existing polici . The importance of this research appears as it will clarify the concept and importance of financial programming in terms of its important role in removing economic imbalances through a set of measures and economic policies, targeting to eliminate the imbalance between domestic demand and aggregate supply in the economy. The financial programs will be prepared by targeting ambitious economic targets but at the same time realistic, accompanied by a package of macroeconomic policies , must be followed for attaining these goals including monetary policy, fiscal policy, exchange rate policy, tax policy,trade policy. The application of that, program of economic reform to the economy was through choosing Jordan as it has long experience in dealing with the international monetary fund (IMF) . To benefit of this experience in Iraq , which resorted recently to borrow from abroad, which is required to resort to the work program of economic reform and this is facing the views of the contradictory between support and opposition to it,being atouchsupport programs,particularly the ration card.Excel program used for working the economic reform program. According to the research results: the rate of growth (GDP) high bit,stability of prices and the balance of payments...,etc.We recommend the work of the model for the reform program of the Iraqi economy.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MOLD BOARD AND DISC PLOW IN SOILS OF CENTRAL IRAQ
تقييم ومقارنة أداء المحراثين المطرحي والقرصي في ترب وسط العراق

المؤلفون: Ahmed Abe Ali Hamid احمد عبد علي حامد
الصفحات: 110-121
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted to evaluate and performance comparison for moldboard and disk plows in central of Iraq in 2011. Three factor were used in this study included Two types of plows included moldboard and disk plows which represented main plot, three forward speeds of the tillage was second factor included 1.85, 3.75 and 5.62 km/h which represented sup plot, and three levels of soil moisture was third factor included 21, 18 and 14 % to determined data actual plow depth, Practical productivity, Volume of disturbed soil, Field efficiency, Slippage percentagein silt clay loam soil with depth 22 cm were studied in the experimentSplit – split plot design under randomized complete block design with three replications using Least Significant Design was used. Mold board plough recorded best practical productivity was 0.3118 ha/hr, volume of disturbed soil was 629.77 m3/hr and field efficiency was 59.85 %, while disc plough recorded higher actual plow depth 21.02 cm and slippage percentage was9.71 %.Increasing forward speeds of the tillage from 1.85 to 3.75 then to 5.62 increasing slippage percentage from 6.39 to 8.26 then to 12.22 %, practical productivity from 0.1421 to 0.2845 then to o.4180 ha/hr and volume of disturbed soil from 299.89 to 592.38 then to 838.24 m3/hr, while decreased actual plow depth from 21.13 to 20.86 then to 20.08 cm and field efficiency from 58.98 to 58.21 then to 57.07 %. with decrease soil moisture from 21 to 18 % decrease actual plow depth from 20.92 to 20.70 cm and slippage percentage from 10.58 to 7.29 %, and increase practical productivity from 0.2712 to 0.2923 ha/hr, volume of disturbed soil from 562.01 to 598.98 m3/hrand field efficiency from 55.94 to 60.31 %. While continues decrease from 18 to 14 % decrease actual plow depth from 20.70 to 20.46 cm, practical productivity from 0.2923 to 0.2811,volume of disturbed soil from 598.98 to 569.52 m3/hr andfield efficiency from 60.31 to 58.01 %, and increase slippage percentage from 7.29 to 9.00 %.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
TRACTOR SPEED,TILLAGE DEPTH AND EVALUATION OF PERFRORMANCE POWER REQUIREMENTS AND THE PULLING EFFICIENCY OF THE LOCALLY MODIFIED PLOW
سرعة الجرار وعمق الحراثة وتقييم أداء متطلبات القدرة وكفاءة السحب لمحراث محور محليا

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted on a field of the college of Agriculture/University of Baghdad in 2011 to study tractor speed, tillage depth and evaluation of performance power requirements and the pulling efficiency of the locally modified plow with two tractors Massey Ferguson MF 650 and New Howland TD80 as a machine unit till plow silty clay loam soil with depths 10-15 and 15-20 cm. The advantage of the plow infrastructure offer big implement width from 85 to 150 cm for the one frame. the advantage of plow also being cut off the roots of plants, stalks and leaves of plants above the ground the previous component of the cover so-called vegetarian coverage plow, and also used to prevent water and wind erosion and called maintenance plow. In this study, three levels of tillage speeds included 2.458, 5.298 and 6.654 km/h and two levels of tillage depth included 10 and 15 cm. were study in this experimentincluded: pulling force, drawbar horse power, horse power losses due to slippage and pulling efficiency. were measured in this study under randomized complete block design with three replications were used in this study. The results were as following: The interaction between tillage speed 2.458 km/h with depth of plowing 10-15 cm was superior in getting less pulling force 4.794 kn and less drawbar horse power 3.303 kw, and less horse power losses due to slippage 0.236 kw.The interaction between tillage speed 2.458 km/h with depth of plowing 15-20 cm was superior in getting highest pulling efficiency 71.152 % . conclusion of the research superior using of the tractor speed of 2.458 km / h and depth of tillage 10-15 cm in getting less pulling force, drawbar horse power and horse power losses due to slippage , the interaction between tractor speed 2.458 km / h and the depth of plowing 15-20 cm superior the highest percentage of the pulling efficiency, we recommend to work at speed 2.458 km / h and the depth of tillage 10-15 cm to get less pulling force, drawbar horse power and horse power losses due to slippage.

الكلمات الدلالية

جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: