جدول المحتويات

مجلة جامعة كربلاء

ISSN: 18130410
الجامعة: جامعة كربلاء
الكلية: رئاسة الجامعة او مراكز
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

أن مجلة رئاسة الجامعة هي مجلة علمية محكمة تصدر بشكل فصلي لأغراض الترقيات العلمية وهي مجلة علمية رصينة في مختلف الاختصاصات تأسست في عام 2003 حاصلة على الترميز الدولي ISSN-1813-0410 تستقبل المجلة بما يقارب 500 بحث في السنة وعليه يبلغ عدد البحوث المنشورة بما يقارب 300 بحث منشور في السنة وبما يقارب 200 بحث قيد النشر وتخضع البحوث المقدمة للتقويم العلمي من قبل أساتذة اختصاصين وتنشر البحوث باللغتين العربية والانكليزية اما أعمال المجلة هي :-

1- استقبال البحوث الخاصة بالسادة التدريسيين الراغبين بنشرها في المجلة .
2- عرضها على السادة المقيمين .
3- تزويد الباحثين بكتاب قبول نشر بعد حصول الموافقة على النشر .
4- تنضيد البحوث وفق السياق الخاص بالمجلة والمرفق نسخة منه طياً .
5- استنساخ العدد الخاص بالمجلة بمعدل 50 نسخة لكل مجلد (علمي عربي + علمي انكليزي + انساني )

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معلومات الاتصال

phone Number :07814214835
E_mail :Journal@uokerbala.edu.iq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2008 المجلد: 6 العدد: 1

Article
اكتساب الجنسية العراقية دراسة تحليلية في ضوء قانون الجنسية النافذ رقم 26 لسنة 2006

المؤلفون: أياد مطشر صيهود
الصفحات: 1-17
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الخلاصة

The enactment of the new Iraqi nationality law no 26 dated2006 has changed a considerable number of rules concerning t he acquiring of the Iraqi nationality, since this law invents many criteria for acquiring the nationality that were un known by the previous Iraqi nationality law nor by some comparative nationality law.These criteria has caused many legal problem, so that the main objective of this research is to answer them according to scientific work plan that got its fruits by some results and recommendations mentioned at the end of this research.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Cole –Cole diagrams of gold doped germanium films

المؤلفون: Bushra A.Hasan
الصفحات: 1-11
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الخلاصة

The gold doped germanium films with different gold concentration CAE(0,0.08,0.15, 0.2,0.3) weight %have been prepared by thermal evaporation under vacuum of (10 -5 Toor) with thickness (1 µm ) at substrates temperature (553K)and annealed at( 793K)to achieve good diffusion of gold in the germanium films texture. Measurements of The dielectric measurements were carried out over frequency range (102-107 Hz) for all pure and doped Ge films .It was found that all samples displayed dielectric dispersion thus the curves log (ε1 )versus log (w),log (ε2 ) versus log (w)gave direct evidence of the existence of Debye-type relaxation have a wide distribution of relaxation times. Cole –Cole diagrams had been used to determine the distribution parameters (α ) and the relaxation time (τ ).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
دراسة تشقق ثمار السدر Ziziphus Spp. وأثر كلوريد الكالسيوم وبعض الصفات الكيميائية والفسلجية في هذه الظاهرة

المؤلفون: منال زباري سبتي المياحي
الصفحات: 1-6
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الخلاصة

The present work was conducted during the growth season 2004 - 2005 in a private orchard at Abu-Al-Khaseeb-Basrah. to Study the fruits cracking of Ziziphus Spp. and the effect of spraying CaCl2 in three levels ( 0 , 1000 , 2000 mg.l-1 ) and some chemical and physiological characters in this phenomenon .The results showed that using the concentration 2000 mg.l-1 significantly increased the percentage of water content , titratable acidity and calcium pictate by ( 15.0 and 7.85 ) % , ( 48.0 and 48.0 ) % and ( 79.92 and 31.48 ) % respectively in the two variety Zaitony and Bambawi respectively compared with control ( without spraying CaCl2 ) . The same concentration (2000 mg.l-1 CaCl2) decreased the percentage of dry matter , total soluble solid and rate of respiration by (11.58 ,10.67 ) % ,(10.76 ,10.76 )% and (17.20 ,22.60) % in both cultivars respectively compared with control treatment .These changes in some chemical and physiological characters correlated directly and constructively with cracking characters (percentage of cracking ,Length and width of crack and number of crack in fruit ) and these changes reduced fruit cracking in both cultivars

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Anomalous Diffusion in Turbulent plasma

المؤلفون: Qusay A. Al-obidy --- , Mohammed A. Hameed --- Amer.A. Ramadan
الصفحات: 12-20
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الخلاصة

The semi-empirical equation of Bohm (DB) doesn’t take into the account the fluctuation properties of plasma parameters in the plasma. So, the Bohm formula did not explain the diffusion behavior caused by instability. The 1/16 factor in Bohm formula represent the relation between the diffusion and the instability that causing it. Therefore, the Bohm factor studied as instability factor (C), this factor derived into two turbulence cases (strong and weak turbulence).The results of this factor was tested with experimental results in Q-machine and shown good results. The diffusion coefficients are drived according to this instability factor for strong and weak turbulence cases.

الكلمات الدلالية

Plasma diffusion --- Bohm diffusion --- Plasma Instability


Article
مساهمة المرأة في التنمية الاقتصادية

المؤلفون: الهام وحيد دحام
الصفحات: 13-18
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الخلاصة

This study is an attempt to shed to light on the (womens contribution in Economic development)because of womens role in economic and social life Both as contribute actively in the ecomic development process of the countury and the role of the now removed suffer from marginalization in most developing countries so it was not necessary we touched on this subject.....The study has adopted a number of sources relational and ended the search a set of conclusions and recommendations and a list of sources that have been adopted.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Know-How Contracts and Its Warranties
ماهية عقد نقل التكنولوجيا وضمانات نقلها دراسة تأصيلية في القانون المدني

المؤلفون: طارق كاظم عجيل
الصفحات: 18-29
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الخلاصة

The technology researches is one of the characteristics of the twenty one century, since the technology has hold a paramount importance in the economies of all the countries including the underdeveloped countries which are collecting all the efforts to transfer all kinds of technology to the various aspects of its life. Since the technology is a collection of technical information, so the Know –How contracts (the method by which the countries bring the technology to its borders) has raised many legal problems about its legal qualification, and this difficulty stems from the subject matter of these contracts which then reflects upon the specialty of the warrantees given to the importer of technology.So that this research is an intensive attempt to give accurate qualification for the Know-How contracts , by either classifying them as one of the named contracts or contracts having a dual legal nature which then enable us to determine the warrantees of the importer according to the qualification adopted.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
دراسة أمكانية أزالة أيون الكادميوم الثنائي من المياه الصناعية الملوثة بطريقة الامتزاز وباستعمال طين البنتونايت

المؤلفون: مهند حازم ناجي
الصفحات: 19-25
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الخلاصة

In this work a study was carried out to estimate the ability of Bentonite clay as a new adsorbent for adsorption and removal of cadmium ion from aqueous solutions. At first, the batch method was used to determine the best adsorption ratio from the concentration used of cadmium ion between (5.0-0.5 mg/L), and the result show that the best concentration cadmium ion was (0.5 mg/L) and the adsorption ratio was (87.2). The shaking time and found that it equal to (40 min.) and the best pH value that give better adsorption ratio was between (8 – 5). The effect of temperature and thermodynamic functions wear also studied and found that the adsorption ratio was increased with increased the temperature and the reaction was endothermic. After fixing the best conditions for the adsorption, the column method was used and the adsorption ratio was equal to (89.8%). Then, the column method was used on the sample that taken from Al-Dewania factory for textile industry and it treatment to remove cadmium (II) ion from Industrial effluents and the result show that adsorption ratio was (86.1%).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Effects of Levamisole Hydrochloride and LaSota Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus in the Treatment of Cancer
تأ ثير هيدروكلوريد الليفاميزول وعترة لاسوتا لفايروس نيوكاسل في علاج السرطان

المؤلفون: Abdul Ameer Oda Ismail
الصفحات: 21-26
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الخلاصة

This study concluded the effects of levamisole hydrochloride and LaSota strain of Newcastle disease virus in the cancer treatment using seven groups of mice . The first group , which was treated with levamisole hydrochloride orally and multiple injection of LaSota strain of Newcastle disease virus (LS. NDV)Intratumoral, show reduction in the relative tumor volume (R.T.V) and the percentage at the end of treatment (33%) statistically significant compared with the tumor size before treatment,that means (67%) of tumor size was regression. While the relative tumor volume in the group treated with levamisole orally and injection of virus intraperitonealy and group treated with levamisole only show increased in the R.T.V but less than increased will occur in the positive and negative control groups. The relative body weight show increased in the group treated with LS.NDV intratumoral but decrease in the group treated intraperitonealy compared with the body weight before start the treatment.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Heat Treatments on the Impact Toughness and Hardness of (2024) Aluminum alloy
تأثير المعاملات الحرارية على متانة الصدمة والصلادة لسبيكة الألمنيوم(2024)

المؤلفون: Jassim Mohammed Al- Murshdy
الصفحات: 21-26
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الخلاصة

Excellent formability , low weight , Good weldability , Resistance to hot tearing and high tensile and fracture property are among the attractive charactersistics of (2024) aluminum alloy . The effect of solution treatment temperature , Aging time and the aging temperature on the machanical properties have been studied using impact and hardness testing . Microstructural changes were abserved using metallugical microscope .The increase in solution treatment temperature from 525 to 575 Cº resulted in an increase in the hardness and impact toughness was improved from 525 to 550 Cº and decrease at 575 Cº .When the aging time was increased from 3 to 21 hrs. (with an interval of 6 hrs). at 175C , the hardness increased , While the impact toughness decreased . When the aging temperature was increase from 160 to 190 Cº ( with an interval of 15Cº) ,The hardness increased , however the impact toughness decreased . The effect of heat treatments investigated in the present study was attributed to the microstractural change during this treatment , in the light of the results of the microstructral examination and concerned published literature .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
دراسة عدسات مغناطيسية مسقطية مزدوجة بأقطاب متنوعة

المؤلفون: بان علي ناصر الشمري
الصفحات: 26-31
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الخلاصة

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Photocatalytic Purification of Wastewater by Potocatalytic Degradation Reactions

المؤلفون: Fouad F.Mohamed Hussain --- Abbas J.Attia --- Salih H.Kadhim --- Faris H.Mohammed
الصفحات: 27-32
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الخلاصة

Photocatalytic degradation reactions have been done on dyes thats present in the industrial wastewater from Hilla textile factory. Titanium dioxide , and zinc oxide are used as a photocatalysts.Irradiation of reaction mixture was performed by the solar energy. The photcatalytic fragmentation of dyes in the solution has been followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance at λ max = 380 nm by using UV.visible spectrophotometer. The reactions were done at three different temperatures .It has been found that the efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation is increased with reaction time and increasing in temperature of the reaction. The effect of temperature on the reaction is used in the calculation of the activation energy by using Arrehnus plot ,it was about 21 kJ mol-1 . The results showed that titanium dioxide was more active in the photocatalytic degradation of dyes than zinc oxide under the same reaction conditions.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
تطور حقوق الإنسان في الفكر الإسلامي

المؤلفون: صبحي العادلــــي
الصفحات: 30-34
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الخلاصة

This research entitled (The Development of Human Rights in Islamic Thought ), represents a beginning to establish a comprehensive study for the stages of The Development of Islamic Thought and the factor that led to the appetence of these lieges since the beginning of Islam. Prophet Mohammed ( peace be upon him and his household ) had established the basis for them, the household struggled to actives and apply them after the prophet's ( peace be upon him and his household ) death . Hence , section one includes the legislative history of these rights and the obstacles . Section two deals with the properties of those rights and the development of the Islamic dogma . Section three tackles the role of the prophet's household ( peace be upon ) and the obstacles faced in spreading freedom and establishing . The research proved the Islamic realism in laying basis of Islamic legislative history of these rights , duties and the freedom and their activity in the growth and development of the Islamic thought on both levels , the Islamic law ( Sharia'a ) and the historic level .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
study of the optical properties for BDN-I dye solutions which are used to Q-switch the Nd:YAG laser

المؤلفون: Sahib Nimma Abdul-Wahid --- Methaq Mutter Mehdy Al-Sultany
الصفحات: 33-54
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الخلاصة

The Nd:YAG laser system has been mounted and the BDN-I dye was prepared and dissolved in different pure organic solvents such as ( carbon-tetra-chloride , chloroform, Acetone, Dioxane , and pyridine ) and in a mixture of carbon–tetra- chloride with another polar organic solvent at 1:1 and 2:1 mixing ratios. The dye solution was situated in a dye cell ,and modulated inside the laser resonator . The giant laser pulse power , and the dye solution transmittance (T) have been measured. The (T) values are utilized in calculation of the optical properties such as (Reflectance (R ), Absorptance (A) and refractance ( r) ), some indices as optical density (d) , refractive index (n), relative refractive index (nr).The effect of the variation Of the BDN-I molar concentration dye solution and mixing ratios have been studied on the optical properties firstly , the effect of the optical properties on each other secondly ,and finally , the effects of the BDN-I dye solutions optical properties on the giant laser pulse characteristics. It can be concluded that the relative refractive index (nr ) has an important role in controlling the passive Q-switching process by specifying the optical properties of the BDN-I solution. The main conclusion that the mixing method of carbon-tetra-chloride with other organic solvent at different mixing ratios is the best way to improve the giant laser pulse characteristics, where it decreases the optical properties which causes the losses of stimulated photons energy, and increases of that which causes consolidations the saturation absorption process.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Using of rain water into leaching of saline soil and description that by first order equation
استخدام معادلـــة الرتبــة الأولى في وصف تحرر الأمـــلاح عند غسل تربة ملحية بمياه الأمطار

المؤلفون: موفق سالم بربوش --- شيماء يوسف حسن
الصفحات: 33-37
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الخلاصة

using of First order Equation to discreb the Leaching process of saline soil by rain water .so the rain efficiency of leaching had been examined in these area had desert climate for tow seasons. however appearance of the intensity of leached ion was: HCO3- SO4= < K+ < Mg++ < Ca++ < Na+ < Cl- The Leaching efficiency was 86% with Leaching requirement L.R was 0.071 m.m . also The mean of result coefficient( Kd ) were reached on 0.0142 per minute with mean of Correlation factors ( r = 0.96 ) . then ,The Release Salts quantity of area unit 81.8 kg . Dunum per Hour and estimate mean of precipitation for leaching this soil to remove salts from roots zone.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
جهود رجالات الدولة الأموية في الاعتناء باللغة العربية والمحافظة على سلامتها

المؤلفون: صلاح مهدي جابر
الصفحات: 35-47
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الخلاصة

Researches that deal with the development of language and literature are carried out by scholars and in scientific institutions like language schools , the researcher has found out that the government in all its various institutions has a very clear effort in preserving the well for medien of the Arabic language . and this is clearly represented by encouraging their state men to take care of the precise match between utterances and their meaning .for instance , the government orders then to precisely punctuate, and encourages poets and interlocutors to express their ideas , and balancing their words to those used by previous Arab artists and attentively listen to various critic viewpoints . all this lead to the refreshment of the Arabic literature and linguistics in the time under study

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
جهود رجالات الدولة الأموية في الاعتناء باللغة العربية والمحافظة على سلامتها

المؤلفون: صلاح مهدي جابر
الصفحات: 35-47
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الخلاصة

Researches that deal with the development of language and literature are carried out by scholars and in scientific institutions like language schools , the researcher has found out that the government in all its various institutions has a very clear effort in preserving the well for medien of the Arabic language . and this is clearly represented by encouraging their state men to take care of the precise match between utterances and their meaning .for instance , the government orders then to precisely punctuate, and encourages poets and interlocutors to express their ideas , and balancing their words to those used by previous Arab artists and attentively listen to various critic viewpoints . all this lead to the refreshment of the Arabic literature and linguistics in the time under study

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
دراسة تشريحية مقارنة للجنس Viola L. ( Violaceae ) في العراق

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الخلاصة

The present work comprises comparative anatomical study of the genus Viola L. in Iraq . The epidermal characteristics of leaves, stipules, bracts and sepals of Iraqi species of the genus Viola L. were examined , petiole sections were studied also . It was clear that, the stomatal type of all the species were found to be paracytic type and anisocytic type . Leaves , stipules , bracts and sepals were found to be amphistomatic . Each characters and their variation̉s were discussed and their taxonomic importance were determined for isolation and identification the following species . V.arvensis Murr. V.modesta Fenzl. V.odorata L. V.packyrrhiza Boiss.et Hoh. V.tricolor L.

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Article
ابن الحــــداد الوادي آشي شاعر المعتصم بن صمادح

المؤلفون: عدنان محمد آل طعمة
الصفحات: 48-57
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الخلاصة

It is very necessary for a researcher in Andalusian literature to shed light on the features of cultural life in Andalusia during the period of civil wars and territorial conflicts inside the Andalusian community and the estrangement of poetry and the poet's moving from place to another and scholars' immigration to the Islamic east to seek protection and safety, these aspects are not clarified unless every poet is being studied alone according to his own circumstances regardless of the political pressures practiced sometimes by rulers on certain poets and writers. Thus, it is right to follow the poets' moves and travels through the unknown to achieve some of their ambitions and security. And this is what happened with the poet subject to study; all the above mentioned details have been uncovered with a limited penetration in the artistic aspect. After exhibiting Ibn Al-Hadad Al-Wadfi's life and literature, the research included an introduction and a historical, literary and artistic survey, we managed to collect the research material from different sources that we managed to collect (manuscripts as well as material). A light has been shed on the structure as well as the contents of his output.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
الجدارة الوراثية للنسبة المئوية لعدم العودة للشياع في ماشية الهولشتاين

المؤلفون: رشيد رمل عبد الدليمي
الصفحات: 52-57
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الخلاصة

At the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station , and over the period from 2000 to 2004 , 2344 records produced by 580 Holstein cows were analyzed statistically . A genetic evaluation of the Holstein at the Station as to non return rate (NRR) , after the study of adjusted factors of fixed effects and estimate of heritability and repeatability of NRR. The General Linear Model within the SAS(2001) program was used to study the effects of fixed factors and estimate of Components of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model was estimated by the Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure. The Harvey program was also used to estimate of the BLUP values. Overall means of NRR was 66.53 %.The effect of type and season of service on NRR were highly significant , increased of NRR at used of naturally service and service in optimum and cold months(winter&spring) . The effect of parity on NRR was significant (P<0.05). Heritability and repeatability of NRR were 0.29 and 0.38 respectively. The wide range in estimate of PLUB (Pest Linear Unbiased Prediction) values of cows within this study depending on NRR, the indicator of genetic additive variance in this trait , important in selection programs.

الكلمات الدلالية

Holstein cattle --- Genetic evaluation --- non return rate


Article
Synthesis And Photolysis Study of the New Reagent 2-[(6-Nitro-2--benzothiazolyl)azo] – pyrogallol (6-NO2BTAPg)
تحضير ودراسة التحلل الضوئي للكاشف الجديد 2-] (6-نايترو--2-بنزوثيازوليل)ازو[-بايركول (6-NO2BTAPg)

المؤلفون: Ahmed K. A --- Khalid J. AL Adely --- Shaima M. E
الصفحات: 55-66
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الخلاصة

New heterocyclic azo dye 2- [(6-nitro-2־-benzothiazolyl)azo] – Pyrogallol (6- NO2BTAPg) was prepared by coupling reaction a diazonium salt solution of 2-amino-6-nitro benzothiazole with pyrogallol in alkaline ethanolic solution. The organic reagent was characterized by elemental analysis and spectrophotometric method such as infra- red and electronic spectra. The photoreaction of the reagent was occurred under visible light at λmax = 409 nm. Many parameters such as temperature, irradiation time and effect of pH were studied. The experiments showed that the reagent degraded with increasing of irradiation time and the temperature. The optimal pH condition was at pH = 6 in which the reagent possesd highest molar absorpitivity (Є). The order of the photoreaction was of first order and also the kinetic parameters such as the rate reaction constant, half time, activation energy and thermodynamic functions ∆Sо, ∆ Hо and ∆Gо were determind.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
المعنى النحوي عند ابن يعيش

المؤلفون: سلام موجد خلخال
الصفحات: 58-66
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الخلاصة

There are some of syntactical phenomena that didn't come to the imagining of any Of syntaicticaler just who glow in this science like (Ibn – Yaeesh ) who interest and turn to a lot of meaning in the Arabic words and syntactical phrases with his sharp mind and his over looking accuracy . hence all the mays open for him and didn't closed all his like . His santactycal studies came to snug the reality over a long centuries . on the other hand me can't disconnect the Arabic words from the place it was these , because this words have a lot of meaning when taken alone but it take it's perfect mean when it considered with it's place . good example is the meeting of knowledge debutante and itme , and the inacting graces and immemorial .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
A use of Gamma ray spectroscopy analysis technique to measure the radioactivity for samples of underground water
استخدام تقنية تحليل أطياف أشعة كاما لقياس النشاط الإشعاعي لنماذج المياه الجوفية

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الخلاصة

A measure had been of radioactivity for samples of the underground water by use the germanium detector of high purity (HPGe). Sample of underground water were collected in different region of Babylon governorate relying on the administrative map of the governorate . twenty samples of the underground water were collected for two stage where ten samples were collected in 1st step therefore determined radioactivity regions & relying on that the ten samples were collected of 2nd stage. A measure prove found natural radioactivity for some samples of underground water for different regions of Babylon governorate with found some isotopes of Uranium-238 decay series (Radium-226,Lead-214&Bismuth-214) , And the presence of Lead-212 isotope which belongs to Thorium-232 series in one sample. The concentration of the Radium-226 was found under the sensitivity level & 16.4±8.6 Bq/L in Al-Kifl region whereas the concentration of Bismuth-214 & Lead-214 have range between the sensitivity level & 6.72±2.4 & 9.8±2.1 Bq/L respectively in Al-Kifl & Al-Kasim regions . Lead-212 isotope has the concentration of 3.2±1.1 Bq/L in one sample only in Al-Kifl region. All obtained results referred to the fact that all the concentration were within the allowed limits to agricultural & domestic use at comparing the results in this work with those published by international atomic energy agency & universal researches.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
دراسة تحليلية في شعر الخليع

المؤلفون: عقيل العذاري
الصفحات: 67-84
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الخلاصة

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CALCULATION OF THE LONGITUDINAL ELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING FORM FACTORS FOR SOME LIGHT NUCLEI
حساب عوامل التشكل للاستطارة الالكترونية الطولية المرنة لبعض النوى الخفيفة

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الخلاصة

The effects of the two-body short range correlation (SRC's) and the occupation probability ( ) of higher states on the elastic electron scattering longitudinal form factors F(q)'s are investigated. Considering the effect of higher occupation probabilities and the effect of SRC's are important in getting good agreement between the calculated elastic longitudinal electron scattering F(q)'s and those of experimental data for 4He, 12C, 16O, 28Si, 32S and 40Ca nuclei.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
عزل المسببات الجرثوميةالهوائية المسببة للاسهال في العجول الرضيعة وعلاقتها بالاخماج التنفسية

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الخلاصة

This study include collection of (150) samples from suckling calves one to two months of age suffering from digestive and respiratory infection. Two methods were used for culturing the samples (nasal swabs, fecal samples, blood samples). Which include direct and indirect method. In both methods bacterial colonies were identified on blood agar and MacConkey agar after that differntial media was used for bacterial purification, various biochemical tests were used to study the properties of each bacteria by using primary biochemical tests. Also specific & complete differential biochemical study were used for identification of Enterobacteraciae by using Enterosystem 18 R to confirm the primary biochemical tests for such type of some Enterobacteraciae.Bacteriological result showed (144) bacterial isolate belong to (9) different generea, which include Escherchia coli represent high percent (38.3%) and klebsiella pneumonia and enterobacter (10.9%) were considered the most predominant bacteria in comparisn to other isolated bacteria which include, Salmonella spp, Pasterurella haemolytica, P. multocida, Corynebacterium pyogenes , Staph. aureus , Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonase spp. This study was also concered with number and percentage of bacterial isolates which obtained from nasal swabs,fecal samples and blood samples during the primary isolate in addition to one genus , two genus, and three differents genuses of bacteria from infected nasal swab and lung. However one samples gives two genuses bacteria was isolated from fecal samples.

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Article
اختبار حساسية بعض أصناف الخيار لمرض البياض الدقيقي ودراسة كفاءة عدد من المبيدات الفطرية في السيطرة على المرض تحت ظروف البيت الزجاجي

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الخلاصة

This Study included test sensitivity of some cucumber cultivars to infect by powdery mildew disease caused by Sphaerotheca fuliginea and evaluated effeciency of some chemical fungicide in control powdery mildew disease. Results of Study has shown that Medina cultivar had high ability to resistance powdery mildew disease which infection severity reached to 8% under green house conditions compared with infection severity of Beit alpha cultivar that reached to 47%, Medina cultivar gave highest product reached to 4.8Kg/plant. Pupirmit fungicide had best center by its ability in reduce infection severity rate of powdery mildew disease to 13% in same time this rate increased to 87% in control treatment, the plant which treated with same fungicide gave highest product reached to 2.2 Kg/plant.

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Article
Bayesian Fixed Sample Size Procedures for Selecting the Better of Two Exponential Populations With General Loss Function
أجراءات بيزينية بحجم عينة ثابت مع دالة خسارة مشتركة لأختيار افضل مجتمع من بين مجتمعيين آسيين

المؤلفون: Samira Faisal Hathot
الصفحات: 78-86
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الخلاصة

In this paper an optimal (Bayesian) fixed sample size procedure for selecting the better of two Exponential populations is proposed and studied . Bayesian decision-theoretic approach with general loss function and Gamma priors are used to construct this procedure . A suboptimal procedure that is based on posterior estimate of the parameters and a method of obtaining an approximation to the optimal procedure using stirling’s formula are also presented. Comparisons among these procedures are made using performance characteristics such as Bayes risk .

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Article
A study on the side effect of smoking for a youth age.
دراسة لبعض الإعراض الجانبية المتسببة عن حالة التدخين عند الشباب

المؤلفون: ذكرى عبد عون حسن
الصفحات: 80-85
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الخلاصة

The research was done to study effect of smoking on health of the young ages (18-21) years . The research was done on a number of students so of a smoker students and a similar number of a non smoker students . blood sample were taken from the smoker to study the following :- Heamoglobin(Hb)., Packed cell volume (PCV) ., Differential count of White blood cell (W,B.C.) .It was found that the student were smoking less than 10 cigarette ber day , and most of the smokers have started smoking at early stage of there lives. Also it was found that a (70%) of the smokers have a smoking parents . the smokers weight was less than the normal weight of the other students. The blood analysis show a significant decrease of (Hb) . a significant increase was found on the (PCV) , (WBC)and (RBC) .The lymphocyte percentage was significant increased , on the other side the monocyte percentage was significantly decreased. There was no significant effect on the neutrophile and Eisonophiles

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Article
البطل في شعر عبد الوهاب البياتي

المؤلفون: عبد الأمير مطر --- اثير محسن الهاشمي
الصفحات: 85-97
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Article
التغير في تسلسل الجودة للآباء عند تقديرقيمهم التربوية لمعدل انتاج الحليب اليومي للموسم الأول او لأكثر من موسم

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الخلاصة

A total of 192 records of average daily milk yield in first lactation (AVMF), in addition to 677 records of average daily milk yield through fourth lactations (AVMT) belonged to 192 Holstein cows daughters of 16 sire were analysed over period from 1997 to 1999 , at the Isihaqi dairy cattle station in Iraq.The aim of the research is to estimate sires breeding value of ( AVMF) and (AVMT) and to estimate heritability after adjusting for fixed effects .Data was analayzed using General Linear Model within the SAS program to invistigate the effect of some fixed factors ( season and year of calving,parity,age at first calving and lactation length )on the studied traits .Components of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by the TYPE1 (Henderson method 1), besides to estimating sires breeding value of the two traits and rank correlation between their breeding values.The overall mean for (AVMF) was 10.65 kg , and all the fixed factors were non significant effect on the trait except lactation length which was significant (P< 0.05) .whereas the overall mean for (AVMT) was 11.82 kg which was effected significantly only by lactation length (p< 0.05) and parity (P< 0.01) .Heritability of (AVMF),(AVMT) were 0.24 and 0.13 respectively. Estimated breeding values of sires for (AVMF) ranged between – 1.52 to 2.15 kg and the crossponding estimated breeding values for (AVMT) were – 1.16 to 1.59 kg . Coefficient of sires rank for breeding values between two traits was significant (P<0.01) being 0.71.

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Article
The Module of A-derivations

المؤلفون: Hanan Ali Hussein
الصفحات: 90-99
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الخلاصة

In this work we have dealt with module and produced the arrangement as one of its example.We have also shown some of the basic properties related to it and one of them is the module of the product of two arrangements.

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Article
Experimental infection of broilers with Giardia lamblia parasite isolated from human.
الإصابة التجريبية لطيور فروج اللحم بطفيلي الجيارديا Giardia lamblia المعزولة من الإنسان

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الخلاصة

Twenty of broiler birds, 30 days age were experimentally infected with a dose about 25000 cysts per bird of G. lamblia parasite that isolated from human. This study was ensure the occurrence of the experimental infection with Giardia parasite in broilers for the first time in Iraq. The results exhibited that from a total of 20 birds, experimentally infected with the parasite, 15 birds were found infected (75%), comparison to the control group (20 birds) that not exhibited any case of infection. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection with the parasite between male and female. The prepatent period of infection was 5-8 days and the soft consistency of faces changed to liquid, as well as the results show that the scarping of duodenum mucous membrane was the best to detected the trophozoites of the parasite comparison to flotation method using zinc sulphate and with significant difference was p > 0.001. The excretion of the parasite cysts was continued for 30 days post infection and the rate of cysts excretion about 70 10³ - 190 10³ cyst per gram of faces

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Article
دراسة تشريحية مقارنة لبعض أنواع أجناس عويئلة شوراب الملك Caesalpiniaceae في العراق

المؤلفون: هدى جاسم محمد التميمي
الصفحات: 96-110
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الخلاصة

The present study included a comparative anatomical study of adaxial and abaxial surface of leaves and Cross Section of stem, petiole, and blades, in addition to the Indementum for three species from different genera belong to Caesalpiniaceae grown in Iraq. These are Caesalpinia gilliesii L., Cassia didymobotrya Fres. and Parkinsonia aculeate L. Anatomical characters of Blades, Petioles and Stems have been of diagnostic value in taxonomy to differentiate the species from other under study.

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Article
نقد صورة الحيوان الشعرية عند المعري

المؤلفون: منذر إبراهيم حسين الحلي
الصفحات: 98-103
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Article
THE EFFECT OF TWO-BODY SHORT RANGE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS ON THE CHARGE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOME LIGHT NUCLEI
تأثير دالة ترابط الجسيمين ضمن المدى القصير على توزيعات كثافة الشحنة لبعض النوى الخفيفة

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الخلاصة

The effects of short range correlation are taken into account in an effective way, that is, expressing the ground state wave function in terms of the occupation probabilites of singl particle orbits for various closed and open shell nuclei with N=Z. The effect of the SRC's and the occupation probability ( ) of higher states on the ground state 2BCDD's and the root mean square charge radii are investigated. It is found that the inclusion of SRC's leads to enhance the probability of transferring the protons from the central region of the nucleus towards its surface since this causes to reduce the central part of the 2BCDD's significantly and increases the tail part of them slightly and consequently leads to increase the calculated values of for 4He, 12C, 16O, 28Si, 32S and 40Ca nuclei. Considering the effect of higher occupation probabilities and the effect of SRC's are important in getting good agreement between the calculated 2BCDD's.

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Article
شِعْريَّة المجاز في البلاغة العربية بين العدول والانزياح

المؤلفون: علي كاظم علي
الصفحات: 104-115
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الخلاصة

The research deals with metaphor and the principles of creativity trying to distinguish between displacement and deviation . This paper arrives at the result that Arabic rhetorical discourse deals with the signifier and its varity from signified . signifier is the origin and it’s the criterion of the truth of deviation . This occurs since the relation between the signifier and signified is established according to the linguistic notion ( = form ) . The technology of deviation is directed to destroy this relation first while the technology of displacement is directed to mix the signifier with the signified and transform them to another or second ( new ) signified that is displacement . Transformation of deviation is mad according to the choice , though rhetoricians and critics state that this occurs due to importance. They saw that the originality is in the meaning which carries it superficially and it does not stop backward unless it is important . This importance means context does not go straight forward , semantics is not complete and therefore there is not distinction in the beauty of texts . This is due to the fact that form (= identical ) does not make distinction in the performance but what makes it is semantics of mind . This goes hard by had with what critics and rhetoricians agree on that metaphor is more rhetoric than truth and metonymy is more rhetoric than what is stated .

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Article
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من السماد الحيواني على كفاءة المبيد الحيوي Bacillin في السيطرة على موت بادرات الطماطة المتسبب عن الفطرRhizoctonia solani

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الخلاصة

The highest germination percentage found in cows manure treatment that was reached to 47% and it was differ significantly with sheeps manure treatment that was 41%, The best concentration in protect tomato seeds from infection by pathogenic fungus was 30 gm/Kg soil that reached to 55.3% and differ significantly with concentrations (50, 100) gm/Kg soil that reached to(50.7, 50.8) respectively and no differ significantly with them. The best interference between using animal manure kind and its concentration in perfect tomato seeds from infection by pathogenic fungus was in cows manure treatment and bio- cidal Bacillin adding to the soil in rat 30 gm/Kg soil that reached to 56.9% and differ significantly compared with other treatments and the same treatment was effected significantly in decrease damping – off percentage to 34% compared with control treatment(pathogenic fungus only) that was 90%. The study has shown the bacteria Bacillus cereus can protect its population density in the tomato root growth region (Rhizospher) in all using concentrations, bacteria cells Log. number of one gram in root growth region reached to(9.100, 9.037, 8.988) in concentrations (30, 50, 100) gm/Kg soil respectively and was no differ significantly with them, the using animal manure kind and interference between using animal manure kind and its concentration no effected significantly in bacteria population density in the tomato root growth region.

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Article
Differential Equation For Higher Frequency Periodic Direction Function

المؤلفون: Hayder Jabbar Abood --- Ahmed Sabah Ahmed
الصفحات: 113-119
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الخلاصة

In this research, we will study an ordinary differential equation (n degree) for higher Frecuency periodic direction function .

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Article
الآثار البيئية لمياه الصرف الصحي على مناطق الساحل الليبي وطرق معالجتها (دراسة في جغرافية البيئة )

المؤلفون: سمير فليح حسن --- أحلام عبد الجبار كاظم
الصفحات: 116-121
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Article
تقييم الأداء المصرفي باعتماد تحليل نسب السيولة والربحية " دراسة مقارنة بين مصارف عراقية وأردنية "

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الخلاصة

Liquidity has always been of central importance by researchers and banks equally. It is a main goal for banks and an active tool to face bank financial commitments. The study deals with evaluating banking performance for the banks under discussion. In order to achieve that, two types of criterion were used; the first is fluidity criterion which includes legal fluidity rate, legal staffing rate, account rate and staffing rate, the second is profitability criterion which includes return on in vest, return on property, return on money and return on deposit.The sample of the study is two Iraqi banks (Rafidain and Rasheed banks) and two Jordanian banks (The Arab and Housing banks). And in order to account for the study variables, the problem is set as such: the unavailability of sufficient finance fluidity in the bank to meet commitment will negatively affect the reputation of the bank and consequently its performance. The aim of the study is evaluating banking performance depending on the analysis of fluidity and profitability criteria. The study hypothesize that the use of fluidity and profitability criteria in the analysis leads to the facilitation of the process of banking performance evaluation.To test the aforementioned hypothesis, equations of fluidity and profitability are used to find out the practical results.The study concludes that the analysis which depends on fluidity and profitability criteria presents a realistic report about the performance of the banks under discussion and determines the problems that the banks meet.The study recommends that the study and analysis of the risk of investment, directing banks to invest stocks and granting loans and bank facilities ensure the utmost return.

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Article
Synthesis and Characterisation of Novel Polydentate Ligand Type N2O6 Derived from Hypophosphinic Acid and Their Metal Complexes

المؤلفون: Ashour Hamoad Dawood
الصفحات: 120-129
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الخلاصة

The synthesis of ligand [H3N2O6] including the preparation of the compound bis-(2Hydroxybenzamide) propane. Then the reaction of this compound with one mole of paraformaldehyde obtained the ligand. The complexes of the ligand with Ni+2 and Cu+2 ions were prepared by reacted the metal salts with ligand in 1:1 ratio. The prepared compounds were characterised by [IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C, 31P NMR spectroscopy] and the physical method. The spectral studies showed the geometry around Ni ion is octahedral, while the geometry around the Cu ion is square planar.

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Article
إعادة الأعمار السياسي في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية بين النظرية و التطبيق 1865-1877م

المؤلفون: حيدر طالب حسين الهاشمي
الصفحات: 122-128
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Article
معرفة أثر أستخدام الأستكشاف الحر في الأختبار التحصيلي لطلبة الصف الخامس العلمي في مادة الكيمياء في ناحية الإسكندرية

المؤلفون: مجيد حميد علوان --- فلاح محمد حسن الصافي
الصفحات: 129-150
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Article
Traffic Conflict Technique: A Tool for Traffic Safety Study at Three-leg Signalized Intersections
تقنية التعارضات المرورية: أداة لدراسة السلامة المرورية على التقاطعات الثلاثية المسيطر عليها بإشارات ضوئية

المؤلفون: Hussein Ali Ewadh --- Sahar Safaa Neham
الصفحات: 130-140
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الخلاصة

Traffic accident data are the principal tool for identifying degree of safety at traffic system. In situation of no reliable accident record, traffic conflict technique TCT is a suitable alternative aid. This paper aims at studying the traffic safety at three-leg signalized intersections using TCT. Three different sites of three-leg signalized intersections are selected according to specified criteria. The data concerning; traffic volume, traffic conflict, are collected using video camera. Spot speed and some of the geometric characteristics (lane width, median width, and availability and length of auxiliary left lane), are determined and measured due to observation at site. A developed model shows that, an extra increase of traffic conflicts can be represented by negative exponential trend in relation with approach traffic volume. That negative exponential model shows a better explanation rather than linear model. On the other hand, developed models are introduced to indicate the traffic conflict rate in relation with some geometric characteristics. Further, a statistical analysis of extracted data of previous works in sites of four-leg signalized intersections reveals that no significant dependency of traffic conflict occurrence, in relation with approach traffic volume, with the type of signalized intersection (three or four legs). In addition, it is found that, linear relation explains increasing variation (97.8%) of total hourly traffic conflict in relation with total stopped delay time. This may reveals that the potential conflict increases when drivers argue from unacceptable delay introduced due to the traffic operation at the intersection.

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Article
دراسة تركيب خصائص الدرجة الحرارية الحرجة لغشاء مادة فائقة التوصيل Y - Ba –Cu –O على قرص من الكاؤولين العراقي

المؤلفون: بهاء حسين صالح
الصفحات: 134-141
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الخلاصة

The superconductivity ceramic material Y - Ba –Cu –O was prepared in mixture of hydrocarbon liquids with basic powders of ceramic material and then deposit as a thin film on Iraqi kaolin which has been product with 5ton pressure and sintered with temperature 373K when the deposition by dip – coating and with pure thickness 100m . The superconductor material was improve critical temperature ( Tc = 96K ) often the sample was tested by quadrupole method and the kaolin and ceramic material with x-ray , the results wave indicated to increase in temperature up to 3K , different of pure disc and without planting of kaolin material

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Article
Determination of 3-dimentional coordinates of Objects from Satellite Images

المؤلفون: Loay E. George --- Najem A. Najem --- Duaa Deyaa
الصفحات: 141-146
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الخلاصة

Mathematical framework of the inverse transform from image coordinates to geographic coordinates was developed and investigated. This transform was utilized to estimate the unknown parameters of the satellite imaging system using some of the data extracted from the raw images that produced by the imaging system. A sequence of determinations based on some geometrical relationships between the angular separation of the satellite projection point (nadir points) and a sequence of uniformly distributed reference points were used for autonomous assignment of the initial values of the imaging system parameters. Also, an estimation procedure is given to assess the value of the satellite distance, and an equation for estimating the value of image scale parameter was derived and implemented. Optimization used to improve the determination accuracy. Through each optimization step the value of one of the imaging parameters is adjusted leads to minimize the overall error. The optimization methods have been implemented as two layers. The suggested system was implemented on two sets of Meteosat and Noaa images, and the results justified the suitability of the proposed system.

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Article
Effect of zinc acetate in reproductive system on the male white rats
دراسة تأثير خلات الخارصين في الجهاز التناسلي الذكري للجرذان البيض نوع Rattus rattus

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الخلاصة

The aim of this study to investigate the effect of different concentrations of zinc acetate on spermatogenesis on male reproductive system of white rats. theerty male of white rats were treated with three concentration 4 , 8 , 16 mg / kg for 45 days (completed spermatogenesis cycle ) and then histological study was conducted by sectioning the testes animals . The data were showed signifigant decrease (p<0.05) in number of Spermatogonia ( 73.222) ; Spermatocyte ( 71.212 ) ; Spermatid ( 73.777) and Spermatozoa ( 70.111 ) for the highest concentration of zinc acetate and the examination of slides showed histological changes in testes such as odema and separation of germ cells .

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Article
دراسة حاسوبية لعدسة التصوير الشيئية

المؤلفون: عبد عون كاظم السعدي
الصفحات: 146-151
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الخلاصة

According to the significance of an objective imaging lens in the electron microscopes which is considered the first lens formed the image of the specimen , so that the theoretical investigation for this lens has been calculated . The single magnetic electron lens with cylindrical polepiece has been chosen as an objective imaging lens operating with telescopic mode . The finite element method used for calculating the magnetic field for this lens with the aid of computer program and also an optical properties such as focal length , spherical aberration and chromatic aberration have been calculated by the computer programs in two opposite directions of entry the electron beam of the lens field under magnetic saturation and non-saturation. The results have shown that there is no a preferable direction of entry the electron beam to obtain of all proper optical properties , but a preferable direction depending on the function of the objective lens and also low aberration and high resolving power have been obtained .

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Article
The Natural Influence on Some Engineering Properties Of Advance Composite

المؤلفون: Mohammed Abdul Hamza Mohammed
الصفحات: 147-151
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الخلاصة

This research studies the effect of thermal shock of (80οc) on some engineering properties of advanced composite with matrix of unsaturated polyester reinforced by the artificial fibers kind of (E glass) and (Kevlar) as a woven roven and continuous fibers, with weight percent of (7%). The results show the heat has a passive effect on the structure of materials. In general the Kevlar reinforced specimens appear better quality than the others which reinforced by glass fiber. The results were discussed.

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Article
الأغلاط الإملائية لدى طالبات الصفوف الأولى في كلية التربية للبنات ومقترحات علاجها من وجهة نظر التدريسيين

المؤلفون: رائد رسم يونس
الصفحات: 151-168
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Article
Generation of Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectra in Polymers
توليد أطياف زمن عمر فناء البوزترونيوم في البوليمرات

المؤلفون: Mohannad H. Al-Budiri --- Bahaa H. Rabee
الصفحات: 152-158
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الخلاصة

Positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is a powerful prope that ia used in the study of free volume in polymers. In this work we study the positronium annihilation lifetime spectra in polymers contain free volume and in pure polymers. The spectra that generated contain single Gaussian component fixed at 400ps convoluted with three lifetime components (τ1,τ2 and τ3) and considering τ1 originated from annihilation of para-positronium, τ2 originated from annihilation of positrons in matter and τ3 originated from annihilation of ortho-positronium in free volume also the background fixed at 0.001% of peak. Also study the effect of mean value of free volume size and its concentrations by study the effect of intensity of long-lived component (I3) the theoretical spectra were compared with experimental spectra for polystyrene sample and we discussed the differences. We notice that as the long-lived component increase the right hand side of the spectrum rise. The difference between the experimental spectrum and the generated spectrum arises from that the background and time-zero channel in the generated spectra considered to be constant, but in experimental spectra, these parameter varied with thermal influences. Moreover the generated spectra described by single Gaussian component. The separating of 0.1 ns difference in lifetime components give specific description for positronium annihilation lifetime in polymers, also the difference of 5% in intensity give distinguished separating in the spectra, and these give distinguished components which have small intensities in experimental spectra . There are clear difference between positronium annihilation lifetime spectrum in pure polymers and positronium annihilation lifetime in defective polymers (contain free volume), this due to the effect of concentration and size of free volume on the spectrum. The small resolution (400ps) give a clear separation in smallest lifetime components (τ1 ,τ2 ) and smallest intensities in the generated spectra.

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Article
تأثير خلطات من دقائق خشب اليوكالبتس كمالديلينسز والصنوبر الحلبي في بعض الصفات الميكانيكية والفيزيائية للألواح الحبيبية المضغوطة

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted in the collge of Agriculture and foresty Mosul Universty.The aim was to study the effect of a maxitures of Eucalyptus cammaldulensis and Pinus halepensis Mill. Woods as afurnish for particleboard . The experimant was carried out to derive manutactured board at target density of 0,60 grams per cubic centimeter from (100% / E , 75% E / 25% P , 50% E / 50% P , 25% E / 75% P , 100% P ) at 10% urea Formaldehyde resin .The following characteristics were measured :Internal Bond ( IB ) , static Bending ( MOE , MOR ) , Water Emersion .The results of this experiment showed that all wood mixtures can be used to manufacture commercially acceptable particleboard panels. The mixtures were significantly superior in same studied characteristics

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Article
Design and Implementation of an Access Control System for a Bank
تصميم وتنفيذ نظام سيطرة على دخول المصارف

المؤلفون: Abbas Fadhil Mohammed Ali --- Bushra Jabber Mohammed Jawad
الصفحات: 159-169
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الخلاصة

The access control system is a system used for protected information in many international companies , there are many ways to protect information , on of then by using the passwords that we use in this research.In this paper , access control system for a bank was presented , the system depended on different password of authorized persons like the manager , the assistant manager and other employees in charge . It consists of two main parts , the first for the customers and the second for the employees . It has many capabilities such as , add , delete , modify , and search for records .Visual Basic 6.0 , Microsoft Access and ADO tool were used to design the system

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Article
A study Intensity and Wave Length TEA-Co2 Laser for sensitivity of Plasma detector
دراسة تغيير الشدة الليزرية والطول الموجي لليزر TEA- Co2 على حساسية الكواشف البلازمية

المؤلفون: حوراء محمد عباس الميالي
الصفحات: 162-167
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الخلاصة

The change of incident laser TEA – Co2 intensity for (109, 1010) W/cm2 values in (10.6,9.6) μm wave length are studied for sensitivity of plasma for many sold target which have (2,3,4) values number . The result appears that the electron density , electron emission current , output voltage and sensitivity of plasma detector are decreasing with increasing of valence number for target , sensitivity of Plasma detector are decreasing with intensity and increasing with wave length of laser. This results also show that the laser intensity is increasing of the target temperature, the density of electrons and ions in plasma state .

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Article
The Effect of Solar Magnetic Field on The Measured Integral Energy Spectra of Solar Electrons , Protons and X– Rays
تأثير المجال المغناطيسي الشمسي على أطياف الطاقة المتكاملة المقاسة للألكترونات والبروتونات والأشعة السينية المنبعثة من الشمس

المؤلفون: رباب سعدون عبدون الدعمي
الصفحات: 168-179
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الخلاصة

Observations provided by the satellites NOAA/GOES [GOES11&12] during November,2006, have been used to study the effect of solar magnetic field on the integral energy spectra of the emitted solar electrons, protons and the generated x – rays in the corona region of the sun. The results indicate that, the increased value of Kp causes great loss in the emitted electrons, due to the shitted back process towards the Sun s chromosphere , which causes also the reduction in the generation of X-rays flux, whiles the spectra of the emitted high energy protons shows an increament with respect to that of the low energy protons , due to the effect of magnetic field. The study shows also that,the relation between Hp and Kp is of random behaviour,and there was no existence for a systematic mathematical relation.

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Article
تقويم فاعلية الدورة التاهيلية للمعلمين في محافظة بغداد 1999

المؤلفون: عبد الستار حمود عداي
الصفحات: 169-183
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الخلاصة

The teaching systems cannot be updated unless reconsidering drastically the system of adopting teachers and train them as the weakness in that effects the process of teaching students in the primary schools later. And that any defect or shortage in adopting and training them will give us insufficient student in items of teaching and directing towards career after graduating.The rehabilitating teaching courses undertook the task of rehabilitate and gaining the individual with the required specifications reaching them to the satisfactory image for who wants to practice teaching. May be one of the most ''important aspects required in the teacher is the aspect concerned with the extent of the love of teacher to his career and believing in its usefulness and desire to practice it.It turned out that the importance of adopting teachers and the necessity of gaining positive aspects towards his work that may help him in performing his duties and as result to the active role which play as conduct motivators. The rehabilitating courses are found to contribute in enriching the teaching process in primary schools with the qualifying personnel to fill the lack in the teachers in schools. The current research aims at evaluating the activeness of these courses through: 1. Revealing the obstacles of making courses and difficulties that face the participation. 2. Revealing the programs of these courses and the extent of benefit of the staff in these programs. The research sample and community were from the participants in the rehabilitating course of Al-Kerkh educational Office II of 210 participants. While the research tool was screening the opinion of the participants about these courses after formulating 3 questions for evaluation process: The first question includes the subject of 17 items. The second question includes the difficulties of 17 items. The third questions suggestions about subjects and other matters of 11 items. The validity of the tool was derived and it was applied on the research sample and the suitable statistic means were used. The participants in the course do not have the seriousness and motivation for the course in general due to their variance in terms of their academic background, and the participants face many problems during courses and there are weaknesses in the management of the course and its capabilities

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Article
Kriging of Groundwater Level - A Case Study of Dibdiba Aquifer in Area of Karballa-Najaf

المؤلفون: Waqed Hameed Al-Mussawi
الصفحات: 170-182
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الخلاصة

The application of the spatial statistical technique (kriging) is used in this research, for the spatial analysis of groundwater levels is shown. The data set consists of groundwater levels measured at about 13 hand dug wells were selected in the studied area for the observation water table (vary for ten month, from June 2002 to March 2003 ) in an area of 20x20 km2 Dibdiba hydrologic basin; which lies between Karbala and Najaf provinces. With the use of measured elevations of the water table, experimental semivariograms were constructed that characterizes the spatial variability of the measured groundwater levels. The experimental semivariograms were fitted into many models as Spherical, exponential and gaussian semivariogram. The finally selected models were used to estimate the groundwater levels and estimation variance (which express the accuracy of the estimated groundwater levels) at the nodes of a square grid of 2.5km x 2.5km and to develop corresponding contour maps .Also, used the Inverse Square Distance (ISD) method in order to interpolate the groundwater levels for the study area. It was found that ISD method resulted in higher errors as compared to kriging method. The groundwater table maps resulted by kriging method were compared with the groundwater table maps prepared using the ISD method.

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Article
STUDY EVALUATION OF WATER TREATMENT IN THE NEW AL- MUSSIAB TREATMENT PLANT
دراسة اعتمادية لتقييم معالجة المياة في محطة اسالة ماء المسيب الجديد

المؤلفون: محسن جاسم ناصر
الصفحات: 180-188
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الخلاصة

This research aim to study the physical and chemical properties of raw water from Euphrates river and treated water from the new Mussiab water treatment plant and compared this properties of a produced water according to the W.H.O and Iraqi standard for drinking water for evaluation the efficiency of treatment plant . The results of this study show that the treatment plant has good efficiency for removal turbidity, the maximum removal of turbidity is (90%) , on the other hand it was found unacceptable efficiency for removal of ions, hardness and dissolved solid, the maximum removal of this parameters are (12.5%, 13.6% , 14%) respectively . Also, the results show that some characteristics for river water were within standards like alkaline, chloride and dissolved solid , but another some like turbidity, hydrogen ion and hardness were exceed .

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Article
Study of some topological concepts in bitopological spaces
دراسة بعض المفاهيم التبولوجية في الفضاء ثنائي التبولوجي

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الخلاصة

Anew definition of bitopological space is introduce in this paper with its separation axiom and continuity . connected and compact set are defined with some theorems and also T1/2,semi T1/2 ,semi T1/3, spaces are defined in this paper .

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Article
ســـــورة الــفـاتــحــة أمّ القرآنِ والسبع المثاني - دراسة معاني ألفاظها و تحليل آياتها وإعرابها -

المؤلفون: علي رحيم هادي الحلو
الصفحات: 184-213
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الخلاصة

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Article
Some Hematological and Histological changes in seminiferous tubules of pigeon (Columba livia) that exposed to different periods of light
بعض التغيرات الدموية والنسيجية في النبيبات الناقلة للمني لطيور حمامColumba livia المتعرضة لفترات إضاءة مختلفة

المؤلفون: Sinaa Al_Bazii
الصفحات: 189-195
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الخلاصة

Sixty two of male pigeon type Columba livia divided into three groups, 24 birds in each group since September to November in 2006 .one of this group exposed to normal period of light,anthor exposed to long- term period of light , the last one exposed to short-term period of light.The results showed that the body weight of birds increased significantly (p<0.05) ,in addition the mean weight of testis , WBC were significantly decreased (P<0.05) when exposure to short period of light in compared with other groups. Histological study carried out on seminiferous tubules to measured the outside diameters and counted the germinal epithelial cells(spermatogonia, Round spermatids and Primary spermatocytes) and sertoli cells , the results revealed that the seminiferous tubules diameters was significantly distended (P<0.05) with significantly decreased (P<0.05) in number of germinal epithelial cell and sertoli cells when exposed to short period of light in compared with other groups.

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Article
Studying the Distortions produced caus from Additive Noise Removing From Digital Images using mode Filter
معالجة التشوهات الناتجة من عملية إزالة الضوضاء الجمعية من الصور الرقمية باستخدام مرشح المنوال

المؤلفون: أوراس موسى عمران
الصفحات: 189-200
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الخلاصة

Noise accompanying to different imaging systems is the most complex Problems that stand agaianast the image analytic and concluding information , so the benefit was few .Imaging systems don't give perfect ideal images , but they often give images with limited clearaness (i-e they don't give images with sharp edges) . The important image information and details are contained in the image edge regions , so the estimation of image quality must not taken generally for all image plane without recognize the important image regions .Most image evaluation measurements don't depend on determining image edges quality and its sharpness , but depend on general evaluation for all image plane . In this paper we shall examine the image quality by calculate the contrast , entropy , and the mean square error in the image edge regions , also find the quantity measurements to evaluate the image goodness and then the efficiency of different processing for digital image .We depend on effects of image smoothing to remove Gaussian noise by using (average filter mode filter) and determine the amount of blurring in the image .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Active Inhibitor as Corrosion Protective of Carbon Steel
مثبط فعّال لحماية الفولاذ الكربوني من التآكل

المؤلفون: Ali Hubi Haleem
الصفحات: 196-207
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الخلاصة

The present study is attempted to find new inhibitors that can to easily be prepared and applied, as well as nontoxic, cheap and available. In this study hibiscus leaves extractor was used to protect carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution (1M, 2M, and 3M). Since the usable inhibitor is considered organic inhibitor, and for evaluating the inhibition performance of this compound, many tests have been conducted which include measuring the corrosion rate through methods known weight loss and microscopic examination test. In losing weight method the inhibitor gives good efficiency in protecting, the carbon steel to be corroded at 1M HCl is 77% while the efficiency is drop to 68% in 3 M HCl at 30 oC. Microscopic examination test shows the clearness of the metals surface which is under the corrosion medium and which contains inhibitor, from any kind of corrosion that can be found on those surface, which are under mediums completely empty from inhibitor, and also shows the clearness of that protect layer on the surface. The data of corrosion rate show that the way of doing this organic inhibitor is adsorbing and the inhibitor molecules are adsorbed on the metal surface according to Langmuir adsorption isotherm.


Article
مقارنة الأداء الإنتاجي لهجين فروج اللحم المستورد بالهجين المحلي الفاوبرو

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted to compare the productive performance between local (Fawbro) and imported strains (Eurbrid and Hubbard) under local conditions. Results showed a significant ( P  0.05 ) decrease in body weight of Fawbro strains as compared to Hubbard or Eurbrid strain at 6 and 8 weeks of age, while there was no significant differences between Hubbard and Eurbrid. Feed consumption was significantly ( P  0.05 ) higher in Fawbro and Hubbard as compared to Eurbrid at 4,6 and 8 weeks of age. Feed conversion of Fawbro strain was significantly ( P  0.05 ) lower as compared to Eurbrid and Hubbrd strains. Dressing percentage was not significantly affected by strains.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The effect of different concentrations of Calcium sulphate in some growth characteristics of shoot and root for six wheat cultivars
تأثير تراكيزمختلفة من كبريتات الكالسيوم في صفات النمو الخضري والجذري لستة اصناف من الحنطة

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الخلاصة

An experiment was carried out in the green house of State Board of Agricultural Research – Abu Ghraib during the winter season of 2004-2005 to study the effect of the different concentrations of calcium sulphate which was 0,5,10 and 15mMol/L on the green covers and roots developments of" six bread wheat cultivars which was Abu-Graib" , "ALfateh", "Sham-4", "Sham-6", "Telafar-2" and "Telafar-3". The experiment design was factorial in C.R.D. with three replications. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of the dry weight , the average growth of the green covers and the root , and the diameter of the roots with the increase of the concentration of the calcium sulphate in the nutrient solution. Howere the variety" Alfateh " was more resistant to the high concentration of the calciun sulphate when compared with all other cultivars whereas the variety "sham- 6" was sensitive to the high concentration of calcium sulphate as it gave the lowest results for all the characters which were studied.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Mineral Filler and Additives Materials on the Adhesion Properties between Asphalt and Aggregate
تاثير المواد المالئة والمضافات على خصائص التلاصق بين الاسفلت والركام

المؤلفون: Abdul Haq H. Alhaddad
الصفحات: 208-217
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الخلاصة

Numerous attempts to study adhesion properties between the coarse aggregate and asphalt and then study effect of additives materials and filler aggregate (fine) by using three types of pure asphalts (according to penetration grade 40/50, 60/70 and 85/100), which obtained from Durah refinery. Low density Polyethylene as additive material in three percent (0%, 2% and 4%) is used too, and limestone filler in two percent (0 % and 4%) are made. The surface tension stress theory between asphalt, aggregate and water is applied at assuming the aggregate which used are hydrophilic type (explain this type as glass plane plate). From the results are obtained, the asphalt viscosity improved by using additives materials (increasing surface tension force between asphalt and aggregate (adhesion forces) greater than using mineral filler materials, then increase ability of mixture asphalt to resist stripping.

الكلمات الدلالية

Adhesion Properties --- Aggregate --- Additives Materials --- Filler Materials


Article
Effect of NAA and Vapor-Gard spraying on infiction percentage disease and quality characters of local pomegranate ( Punica granatum L) after storage
تأثير رش الـ NAA والمادة الشمعية Vapor-Gard في نسبة الإصابات المرضية والصفات النوعية لثمار الرمان المحلي (Punica granatum L. ) بعد الخزن

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الخلاصة

was conducted on a private orchard at AL-Abassyia / Najaf to This study investigate the effect of spraying two concentration of NAA (50 ,100 ) mg/ L and Vapor-Gard ( 2 , 3 )% on 1/10/2006 on local pomegranate trees, the treatment was stored (3) months from 1 /11 /2006 in vaporization storage at the Department of Horticuturel , Kufa Univ to assess what weight loss of fruits , Fungal disease, total decay and some of physical and chemical characters in the end of storage period. Results indicated that fruits of treatment trees with material study gave a significant decrease in percentage of weight loss , injury disease, total decay ,acidity , T.S.S., Anthocyanine and C vitamin in juice and also increased percentage of juice, moisture of peel and pulp compared to control treatment and there was a significant differences between these treatment. The treatment with ( NAA 100 mg / L +Voper-Gard 3% ) gave a significant decrease in percentage of weight loss, fungal disease of Penicillium italicum, Penicillium digitatum , Alternaria tenus, Alternaria- Penicillium expansum, punica, and total decay , acidity, T.S.S. and vitamin c it was ( 3.25, 1.18, 1.39, 0.27, 1.30, 1.62, 5.76, 1.39, 16.12, )% and ( 121.06, 25.66 ) mg / 100 ml juice respectively at the end of storage compared with highest percentage in control treatment. The treatment of hight conc. of NAA and Vapor-Gard gave the highest of percentage of juice and moisture of pell and pulp it was ( 44.46, 52.70, 61.08 ) % with significant differences compared with the lowest percentage ( 41.19, 47.42, 58.50 ) % in control tree fruits

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
الاهداف التنموية لاستصلاح الاراضي في العراق – دراسة لمشاريع الشحيمية والدلمج والثريمة-

المؤلفون: رضا عبد الجبار سلمان الشمري
الصفحات: 214-224
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Article
التقدير الطيفي لايون الكوبلت (II) والنيكل (II) باستخدام الكاشف العضوي 2-](2-كاربوكسي-4-ايودو فنيل ) ازو[-5,4-ثنائي فنيل اميدازول

المؤلفون: صادق جعفر باقر
الصفحات: 216-225
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الخلاصة

The organic reagent 2-[(2-carboxy-4-iodophenyl)azo]-4,5-diphenyl imidazole (CAPAI) was used for spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) and Ni (II), the reagent has λmax = 443 nm, and it reacts with Co2+ to form a pink complex with λmax = 530 nm at pH = 9.5, while it forms a red complex with Ni2+ of λmax = 511 nm at pH= 10.0 . Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range (0.005 – 0.06) ppm and (0.005-0.05) ppm for Co(II) and Ni(II), respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity values of Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes were found to be 4.2x104 , 7.3 x 104 l2.mol-1.cm-1 and 0.0014, 0.0008 μg.cm-2 at 530 , 511 nm, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 0.005, 0.003 ppm for Co(II) and Ni(II) respectively. Stability constant, relative standard deviation, relative error and recovery for this spectrophotometer method were estimated for (0.25), (0.15) ppm standard solution of Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes , respectively. The most important interferences were due to , Cu2+, Cd2+ , Zn2+ , Hg2+, Ag+ , Pd2+, were studied , and suitable masking agents were used . This method was applied for the determination of Co(II) and Ni(II) in samples of wastewater of Hilla Textile factory . The results obtained were compared with flame atomic absorption spectrometry method and results are in conformity.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Rizolex on Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn isolates and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in vitro
تأثير مبيد الرايزولكس على عزلات من الفطر Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn وفطر المكافحة الإحيائية Trichoderma harzianum Rifai مختبرياً

المؤلفون: FAKHIR R. HAMEED
الصفحات: 218-223
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الخلاصة

A study was carry out to detect effect of Rizolex(Tolclofosmethyl ) on growth of some isolates of a pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and growth ,sporulation and spore germination of biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in vitro .Results showed that Rizolex was strongly growth inhibition of R. solani (100%) at all concentrations (0.025 , 0.05,0.25 and 0.5 ppm) ,while it’s less inhibited to T. harzianum (65.60% - 79.66%) compared with R. solani .Result of sporulation of T. harzianum showed that Rizolex reduce number of formed spores about 40.8% - 49.6 % compared with control . Germ tubes length of spores of T. harzianum decreased 30.6% , 34.88% and 43% by effect of fungicide concentrations 0.05, 0.25 and 0.5 ppm respectively .Also the percentage of spores germination were reduced 42% , 40.5% and 36.6% at same concentrations .While ,there are significantly different in spores germination of T. harzianum between concentrations 0.05 and 0.5 ppm (42% and 36.6%) .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE MAXIMUM NUMBER IN WHICH EVERY STRONG TOURNAMENT CONTAINS A TRANSITIVE SUBTOURNAMENTS

المؤلفون: Nihad ABDEL – JALIL
الصفحات: 224-227
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الخلاصة

In this paper , we find the maximum number in which every strong tournament contains a Transitive subtournaments

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
التـعويــض القـانــوني نظرية الفوائد

المؤلفون: عباس علي محمد --- حسن حنتوش رشيد
الصفحات: 225-232
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الكلمات الدلالية


Article
التـعويــض القـانــوني نظرية الفوائد

المؤلفون: عباس علي محمد --- حسن حنتوش رشيد
الصفحات: 225-232
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Article
Improvement of Flame Resistance for Composite Material Consist of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Reinforced by Carbon Fibers by Using Flame Retardant Material Layer
تحسين مقاومة اللّهب لمادة مركبة مكونة من راتنج الفينول فورمالدهيد المقوى بألياف الكاربون بإستخدام طبقة من مادة معيقة للّهب

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الخلاصة

The objective of this study is to investigate effect of flame retardant material addition includes zinc borate as layer thickness (3mm) on composite material surface which consist of phenol formaldehyde resin reinforced by Carbon fiber with (10%,20%,30%) flame retardant material and observes its flame resistance to oxyacetylene flame in different exposed distance as illustrated in the diagrams between surface temperature and time . Keywords : composite material , flame retardant material , flame resistance .

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Article
The General Solution Of the Partial Differential Equation which has The General form

المؤلفون: Ali Hassan Mohammed --- Rehab Ali Kuder
الصفحات: 228-232
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الخلاصة

Our aim in this paper is to find the general solution of the first order linear partial differential quation which has the general form :- by using a new method

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Article
تحليلات شمولية لمؤشرات التضخم في الاقتصاد العراقي للفترة 1986-1996 مع إشارة إلى مجموعة السلع الغذائية

المؤلفون: احمد باهض تقي
الصفحات: 232-238
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الخلاصة

The Iraqi economy has witnessed in the reign of Saddam Hussein sequent increases in the general level of prices. That was standing against the living situation of population. That was illustrated in the reign, which followed 1991 till it reached maximum level in 1995. The Research includes a general analysis to the most important reference of the inflation reference that is the greatest number, Also analysis for the greatest number for group of the food materials. The research take for the important reasons which caused with these indicators for increasing and the role of a wrong economical politics which were taken by the past government for the reaching to this case.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
في التفسير المنسوب للإمام العسكري (ع ) تأليف الشيخ البلاغي (1282هـ- 1352هـ) دراسة وتحقيق

المؤلفون: حكمت عبيد حسين الخفاجي
الصفحات: 233-252
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Article
وبائية الإصابة بفطريات السعفة Dermatophytes

المؤلفون: علي عبد الحسين صادق الجنابي
الصفحات: 239-243
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الخلاصة

The skin of human is often attacked by difference types of microorganisms from varying pollution sources, especially from the soil. Dermatophytoses is usually the most important and widely distributed disease that caused by a specific group of fungi called Dermatophytes. The soil is the natural environment of Dermatophytes as saprophytic fungi. Dermatophytes depend upon keratin materials in the soil for their nutrition.In present review, epidemiological study for this type of pathogenic fungi was illustrated on the bases of various effective factors. These factors are more important to determine the distribution of Dermatophytoses, natural habited of Dermatophytes and pathogenesis. Any possible accessory factors for increasing or decreasing the pathogenic ability of Dermatophytes within the skin of humans or animals was also discussed

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
An Investigation of Kaolin influences on Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Composites

المؤلفون: Zuhair Jabber Al-asade --- Jasem Mohammed Al- Murshdy
الصفحات: 242-247
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الخلاصة

The aim of this work is addition of kaolin powder into unsaturated polyester matrix to prepare particulate composites. Samples with and without kaolin exposed for many tests to determine the effect of kaolin contents on the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester. The results show that, kaolin improved the compression strength by 194% at 7% kaolin, and improved the flexural modulus of unsaturated polyester by 33% at 3% kaolin, and increase the flexural strength by 7% at 5% kaolin, while the impact strength improved by 14% at 9% kaolin and the hardness increased by 4.66% at 3% kaolin. It is concluded that, kaolin acts as binder materials and as particulate reinforcement materials results in improvement in the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester at relatively low kaolin contents.

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Article
Spectrophotometric determination of Cadmium(II) with 2-[(6– Methyl–2- Benzothiazolylazo]-4-Chloro phenol Organic reagent

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الخلاصة

Anew 2-[(6-Methyl-2-Benzothiazolyl)azo]-4-Chloro Phenol (6-MeBTAClP)Organic reagent was re-synthesized. A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method was proposed for the rapid determination of Cd(II) by using (6-MeBTAClP) reagent.The reaction between Cd(II) and (6-MeBTAClP) reagent is instantaneous at pH=6.0, and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The method allows for the determination of Cd(II) over the range (0.05 - 8.0)µg.ml-1,with molar absorptivity of( 1.23 x 104 )l.mol-1.cm-1 and a detection limit of 0.045 µg.ml-1 .Recovery and relative error values of precision and accuracy of method were found to be R.S.D%=0.302,Re%=98.67% ,and Erel=1.33% .Study of complex nature shows that ; (M: R) ratio was 1:2 at pH=6.0 ,and the stability constant of (0.926 x 1010) l2. mol-2 . The interferences of ions (CrO4-2,Pb+2 ,Hg+2 ,Zn+2,Cu+2, Ni+2, MoO4-2,WO4 -2) and masking agents effect on absorbance were studied.

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Article
آثار وفاة الشريك في الشركة وفقا ً للتشريع العراقي

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Article
Effects of Boron and NAA spraying on some characteristics of growth of sour orange ( Citrus aurantium L. )seedlings
تاثير رش البورون والـ NAA في بعض صفات النمو الخضري والجذري لشتلات النارنج ( Citrus aurantium L. )

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted on Najaf governorate at private nursery of seedlings production near Kufa technical institute to study the effect of Boron spraying at four concentrations : ( 0 , 10 , 20 and 30 mg.Lˉ¹ ) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid at four concentrations : ( 0 , 2000 , 4000 and 6000 mg.Lˉ¹ ) . The interactions between spraying of Boron and NAA on 3- month old seedling were also studied. Seedlings height leaves number , leave area, stem diameter and roots length were recorded. The following Results were obtained : Boron spraying at concentration of 30 mg.Lˉ¹ or NAA spraying at concentration of 4000 mg.Lˉ¹ caused an increase in seedling height : leaf number , seedling leaf area , stem diameter and roots length compared with the control treatment that gave the least values for the mentioned parameters. It was found from the interaction between spraying Boron at a concentration of 30 mg.Lˉ¹ and NAA spraying at concentration of 4000 mg.Lˉ¹ results in significant increase in all shoot and root characteristics , their values were 75.35 cm , 81.87 cm , 123.06 cm² , 88.8 mm , 64.6 g/plant , 46.8 cm , for the character of seedling height , leaf number , leaf area , seedling stem diameter , shoot weights and root length , respectively compared with the control treatments that gave the least values for the above mentioned characters , that they were 50.09 cm , 5.76 , 102.96 cm² , 7.14 mm , 15.83 cm respectively.

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Article
Collecting between the Collage Theorem and the optimization method to solve inverse problem of fractal image

المؤلفون: زينب حسن عبود --- مشتاق كريم
الصفحات: 256-259
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الخلاصة

The inverse problem of fractal shapes can be considered as the main difficulty in fractal geometry, because the problem of determining and identifying the parameters of the affine mappings that constitute the Iterated Function System (IFS). Barinsly state the most famous theorem in this subject, which is called The Collage Theorem. Using the optimization method to find inverse problem of fractal set also discussed this problem. The purpose of this paper is to find Collecting between the Collage Theorem and the optimization method, so as to use the results of the Collage theorem as initial values to the optimization method, which is given speed and accuracy to find the parameter of IFS.

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Article
الأثر التخطيطي المتوقع لمترو بغداد المقترح

المؤلفون: زهير عبد الوهاب محمد حسن
الصفحات: 259-273
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الخلاصة

City of Baghdad sustain transportation problem since long time because of its large area and the increasing trips of people in the city.All planning companies that worked for the city of Baghdad in the mid and the end of 1970sof the last century recommended the necessary of performing or carrying out metro network system in order to solve the problem of transportation.Studies and graphs of Baghdad metro were actually prepared by these companies in the beginning of the 1980s in order to start performing the project which has many economical, social and environmental benefits, yet performing the project was delayed because of the circumstances Iraq went through. In order to start performing the project ,certain modification must be done to the studies and graphs prepared since more than a quarter of a century (25years) because of the different social and economical changes took place this period, in order to comply with the present and future needs of transportation in Baghdad.The following main topics were discussed: - Types of using lands inside cities. - General and detailed characteristics of metro system and their benefits. - Discussing several cities experiences for the metro systems - Trips of several people inside cities and the influential factors. - The mathematic models used in the process of planning transportation for the city of Baghdad - A brief comment about the proposed metro project suggested of the city of Baghdad. - Conclusions and recommendations.

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Article
Estimation of surface dose (skin absorbed dose) for the patient undergoing standards radiologic examinations
تخمين جرعة السطح (جرعة الجلد) للمرضى الذين يقومون بإجراء فحوصات شعاعيه اعتيادية

المؤلفون: Hussien Abid Ali Baker
الصفحات: 260-267
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الخلاصة

Estimate surface dose (skin absorbed dose) for the patient who are examined by the X-ray (conventional X-ray)relative to different X-ray examination of the different parts of the body ,also to investigate the methodology used in the determination of the surface absorbed dose in diagnostic radiology. In kV X-rays for low-energy photons (tube potential up to 150 kV).The main parameters that which involved in this projects are ,tube potential(KVp),tube current and the time of exposure (mAs) .Different radiographic examination were enrolled in this project corresponding to different radiographic techniques (KVp & mAs) .Mathematical calculations were done to calculate the surface dose for the patient from the X-ray .The results show that the surface dose (skin dose) was differ from one radiographic examination to another depending on the radiographic technique that which applied .Mean surface dose were found to be within the established international reference doses. The results are useful to be used as a baseline upon which future dose measurements may be compared.

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Article
Synthesis and Structural Studies of Novel 2,6-Diformyl-p-Cresol Bis-(thiosemicarbazone) Ligand and Their Binuclear Complexes with Ni+2, Pd+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 Metal Ions
تحضير ودراسة تركيبية لليكاند الجديد 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol bis-(thiosemicarbazone) ومعقداتة مع بعض الايونات الفلزية

المؤلفون: Mohamad J. Al-Jeboori --- Ashour Hamoad Dawood
الصفحات: 268-276
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الخلاصة

A new binuclear complexes of Ni+2, Pd+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions with [H3L] {where H3L= 4-Methyl-2,6-bis(formylthiosemicarbazonyl) phenol}. The ligand was prepared from reaction two equivalent of thiosemicarbazide with 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol and then reacted with metal ions to form the title complexes. The ligand and complexes were characterized by {IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C, 1H-13C NMR and mass spectroscopy}, molar conductivity, atomic absorption and the microanalysis of elements (C.H.N). The spectral studies showed the geometry around the Ni+2 and Pd+2 ions are square planar and the Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions are distorted tetrahedral.

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Article
The influence of the interaction between the growth regulator Gibberllin (GA3) and the fertilization on the growth of wheat crop
تأثير التداخل بين منظم النمو (GA3) Gibberellin والتسميد في نمو محصول القمح

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted in Kalar horticulture station / Sulaimania province in growing season 2006-2007 in a soil brought from one of the regional fields to determine the influence of interaction between the increasing concentrations of growth regulator (GA3) Which is (0, 25, 50, 75, 100) ppm and two level of the NPK fertilizers 18- 18- 18 is 40and 80 Kg/d this equals (0.32 , 0.64gm/4kg pot) in some growth characteristics of wheat. The experiment was applied through Completely Randomized Design. Results showed the increase in the value of the studied characteristics with the increase in the concentrations of (GA3) and the level of the NPK fertilizer.The influence of the interaction between concentration (75) ppm with the level of (80) Kg/d was positive giving the highest values of the studied characteristics. These characteristics dry weight, leaf area, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, total chlorophyll content and soluble carbohydrate.

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Article
Synthesis of the new carbohydrate Ibuprofen ester as possible prodrug

المؤلفون: Maha K. Mahmmod *
الصفحات: 277-283
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الخلاصة

Synthesis of new ibuprofen ester (5) is described . Ester formation was achieved by esterification of the ibuprofen carboxylic acid (1) with diacetone fructose (3) The structure of synthesized compounds were characterized by means of FTIR and UV, Preliminary results showed that the prepared fructose-drug conjugates underwent hydrolysis and released the pound ibuprofen and fructose. However, detailed kinetic studies of chemical and potential enzyme hydrolysis still remain to be down.

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Article
تحديد أفضل برنامج لإنشاء شبكة من طرق الغابات الترابية في جبل سنجار شمال العراق

المؤلفون: حسين كاظم عليوي
الصفحات: 283-293
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted on a forest with total area of 1788 Iraqi donam (447 hectares ) located of the Sinjar mountain . The forest area was non uniform is shape with 3300M length and maximum width of 1800M . The dominant tree species in the forest is pinus brutiaTen. Six maps for forest road were prepared with 1/10000 scale and and 20M contour interval , three longitudinal gradients ( 2% , 10% and 16% ) and maximum lateral gradients 50% were used. The measurements were take from the maps using by ordinary ruler then converted to real distance using the map scale . The purpose of this study was to determine the best program for constructing a network of soil roads in forests of Sinjar mountain region which is one of the important mountain region of north western Iraq . Factors included were time , length of roads ,slope and cost . The first design was the optimum design (cost =238.13 dm3 with the same total length for all of the six designs , for suitable comparisons among these designs . The route of forest roads is determined according to the contour map in addition to economic considerations . Results showed that differences exist for the cost of road construction according to the designs and time tables for forest roads construction .The results showed differences in the cost of roads constructed according to the maps prepared using the schedules for forest road construction .

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Article
حساب ثوابت القوى والترددات الاهتزازية وأطوال الأواصر لجزيئة بلوريه سائله موزية الشكل باستخدام طريقة MINDO/3— FORCES

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الخلاصة

We explore studying modes of fundamental vibration, calculation of vibrational frequency and identification both fundamental and unfundamental branches of the 1,3phenylenebis[4-{4- (4-pentenyloxy) -7 -Octenyloxy -phenyliminomethyl}benzoate] (PBFHEB) which provides an important liquid crystal molecule, using Mindo/3-forces program, specially for functional group to this molecule such as(C-O,C=O,C-H,O-H,C=N,N-H,…)in order to using in important industrial applications as colour T.V., Video Display ,Numerical Display, Indicator Display. Data on bond length and force constant of the compound have been obtained theoretical by Mindo/3-forces program calculations, which study vibrational energy level for molecule in vapour state this mean in single state without any hydrogen bonding .

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Article
دراسة التغيرات الوراثية لدى عمال تزييت المحركات و صباغي السيارات في محافظة كربلاء

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الخلاصة

Genetic changes was studied and performed as a result of petroleum exposure and its derivates. For (40) exposed petrol from lubricant oil and Painter workers exposed to 3rd degree level compared with control sample (20) healthy persons. Cytogenetic test for petroleum exposure workers by using the method of tissue Culture compared with control sample. The result of genetic test showed significant increase in Mitotic Index (MI) petroleum exposure workers and significant increase in (MI)In lubricant oil compared with car panting worker .also results showed Significant increase in lympho blast index (BI) on petroleum exposure Worker compared with standard sample, this study showed a presence of positive interference for the job and possibility of what happened to Cell when it exposure to chemical treatment

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Article
Improvement of Al-20%Sn Microstructure by Using New Rheocasting Process
تحسين البنية المجهرية لسبيكة Al-20%Sn باستخدام السباكة التدفقية الحديثة

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الخلاصة

New Rheocasting process is used to produce Al-20%Sn alloy for modernity of this alloy and its potential importance in industry, particularly the parts that need high wear resistance. A casting of dimensions 6x6x12 cm was chosen, having V/A ratio of 1.2 and mould inclination of 75º.The casting produced at different pouring temperatures ranging from Tm+10-50.The cooling was done from different temperatures within the freezing rang of the alloy between liquidus and solidus lines, to study the effect of their variables on the shape and size of grains. The microstructure shows the possibility of producing equiaxial grains along the cross section of the casting when the pouring temperature was 640ºC and cooling at 550ºC. The decreasing in the pouring and cooling temperatures helped to increase the refining degree of the grains to approach the equiaxid shape .The average size of the grains was 45 μm while the average volume fraction for the primary phase was 0.662-0.656 .The hardness test showed the casting produced by new rheocasting achieve higher hardness values of 37HB in comparison with gravity die castings refined by using Al–10Ti. This work appearances the development in ultimate tensile stress and elongation of the castings which achieved by new rheocasting processes (UTS 108 MPa & 13% Elongation) comparing to gravity casting (UTS 95 MPa & 8% Elongation).

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Article
Genetic evaluation of sires due to stillbirth of their daughters in a herd of Holstein cows
التقييم الوراثي للآباء وفق نسبة المواليد الميتة لبناتها في قطيع من أبقار الهولشتاين

المؤلفون: فراس رشاد السامرائي
الصفحات: 320-329
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الخلاصة

A total of 9691 records of borns belonged to 3076 Holstein cow and 58 sire were analyzed over period from 1990 to 1999 , at Nasr Dairy Cattle Station. The aim of the research is to study the effect of some fixed factors on stillbirth and to estimate heritability ,phenotypic trend and best linear unbiased prediction for sires due to the stillbirth of their daughters.Data was analayzed using General Linear Model within the SAS program to study the effects of some fixed factors ( season and year of calving, parity sex of calf )on the stillbirth. Component of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by the Minimum Variance Quadratic Unbiased Estimation (MIVQUE) method. The Harvey program was also used to estimate BLUP values for sires. The overall means for stillbirth was 11.19% in primiparous , 8.69% in multiparous and 9.49% in both of them.The effect of all fixed factors were significant (P < 0.01 ) .Heritability of direct effects estimated for primiparous and multiparous and both of them were 0.03, 0.007, 0.02 respectively ,whereas the corresponding estimates for heritability of maternal effects were 0.04 .0.02 ,0.03 respectively. Phenotypic trend of stillbirth in primiparous was positive and non significant (0.19% / year) whereas nagative and non significant ( P < 0.05 ) (- 0.11%/year) in multiparous and in both of them (- 0.07%/year) , as well as that Minimum and maximum BLUP of sires due to stillbirth ratio were 7.33 and 10.33% respectively.

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Article
المقارنة بين تأثير اليوريا و اليوريا المغلفة بالكبريت وموعد إضافتها في نمو وحاصل الذرة الصفراء (Zea mays L. )

المؤلفون: رزاق لفتة عطية --- صفاء عبد الحسن غضبان
الصفحات: 330-334
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الخلاصة

For testing the response of corn plant (Zea mays L.) (C V. Nelium) to nitrogen fertilization ; in using sulfur –coated urea in comparison with ordinary urea , in the shade of Iraqi saline soil condition , An experiment was conducted in province Babylon at the spring season of year 2006 , in using Randomized Complete Block Design (RBCD) .The experiment was adopted consisted to study the effect of two types of fertilizers ( urea and sulfur –coated urea) which were Applied in three Levels (40,60,80 Kg /N/D)in addition to control , and with two types of Application :the first only one time (at planting operation ) and the second in two times ( at the planting and after 45 days of the first Application). Results indicated that there were significant differences between the control other treatments at (0,05) in the seed yield and in the other characters .the seed yield was (161,5Kg/D) to the control , achieved (561,5 - 756,9,Kg/D) to the treatment(5,7,8,9,10) . the best seed yield was to the treatment of (60Kg/N/D sulfur-coated urea ) added in one time . Significant differences were found between fertilizer treatment sand control characteristics .

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Article
تأثيرالكفاءة التناسلية المقدرة بمعادلة Wilcox كمتغير مستقل وتابع في مدةالحياة والحياة الانتاجية في ماشية الهولشتاين

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الخلاصة

Data analyzed included 17935 Records of 4100 Holstein cows maintained at Nasr Dairy Cattle Station from 1988 to 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of breeding efficiency estimated by Wilcox equation as independent and dependent factor on longevity in order to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations. The General Linear Model within SAS program was used to study the effects of breeding efficiency, season of birth, year of birth and parity on longevity and productive life. Component of variance for the random effects was estimated by MIVQUE method. The heritability of longevity, productive life and breeding efficiency were 0.04, 0.05 and 0.03 respectively. The genetic correlation was negative and significant ( p <0.01 ) between breeding efficiency and each of longevity and productive life , the coefficient being – 0.46 , - 0.40 .The corresponding estimates of phenotypic correlations was – 0.10 for both traits

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Article
المخاطر ألائتمانية وأثرها في القرار الائتماني الصائب

المؤلفون: سلوى عبد الجبار عبد القادر
الصفحات: 341-350
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الخلاصة

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جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: