جدول المحتويات

مجلة جامعة كربلاء

ISSN: 18130410
الجامعة: جامعة كربلاء
الكلية: رئاسة الجامعة او مراكز
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

أن مجلة رئاسة الجامعة هي مجلة علمية محكمة تصدر بشكل فصلي لأغراض الترقيات العلمية وهي مجلة علمية رصينة في مختلف الاختصاصات تأسست في عام 2003 حاصلة على الترميز الدولي ISSN-1813-0410 تستقبل المجلة بما يقارب 500 بحث في السنة وعليه يبلغ عدد البحوث المنشورة بما يقارب 300 بحث منشور في السنة وبما يقارب 200 بحث قيد النشر وتخضع البحوث المقدمة للتقويم العلمي من قبل أساتذة اختصاصين وتنشر البحوث باللغتين العربية والانكليزية اما أعمال المجلة هي :-

1- استقبال البحوث الخاصة بالسادة التدريسيين الراغبين بنشرها في المجلة .
2- عرضها على السادة المقيمين .
3- تزويد الباحثين بكتاب قبول نشر بعد حصول الموافقة على النشر .
4- تنضيد البحوث وفق السياق الخاص بالمجلة والمرفق نسخة منه طياً .
5- استنساخ العدد الخاص بالمجلة بمعدل 50 نسخة لكل مجلد (علمي عربي + علمي انكليزي + انساني )

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معلومات الاتصال

phone Number :07814214835
E_mail :Journal@uokerbala.edu.iq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2008 المجلد: 6 العدد: 4

Article
Prevalence of bad oral habits and it،s relation with age in a sample of school students in Al-Mahmoodia city

المؤلفون: Wael AI-Waely
الصفحات: 1-4
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الخلاصة

Background Oral habits should be of primary clinical concern to orthodontist because they may cause malocclusion and interfere with treatment progress. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were selected from students of relatively fair socioeconomic status background taken from primary, secondary and high schools of which a questionnaire and clinical examination to certify he presence of oral habits and examination of the types of malocclusion. Results Gender differences was shown between males and females were females show greater number than males in digit sucking, lip biting, while males were greater in tonque thrust, mouth breathing, bad oral habits seen most likely of all kinds in any age range of (12-18),and most common type is lip biting then mouth breathing then digit sucking. Conclusion Digit sucking continued to decrease with age, tonque thrust increased with age until the age of 12 years where it start to decrease.

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Article
المناظرات اللغوية في مجالس العلماء للزجاجي (ت 340 هـ) مفهومها وأسباب نشوئها ومميزاتها المنهجية

المؤلفون: مؤيد جاسم محمد حسين
الصفحات: 1-10
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الخلاصة

The Linguistic Debates in the Courts Of Scholars by Abi Al – Qassim Abdul – Rahman Bin Al Zajaji (430 A.H.) A research where the notion of debate is studied and what bases it relies on and what prestige the scholars of debate were committed to. The research studied as well the reasons that were conductive to the emergence of linguistic debates and the most eminent methodological aspects.

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Article
The Grammatical Categories of Literary Prose Texts: A Study in Corpus Linguistics

المؤلفون: Chassib Fanukh Abbas Al-Jubouri
الصفحات: 1-14
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الخلاصة

This study is one in corpus linguistics. It examines the frequency of the grammatical categories used in six prose texts .This aspect is studied through the variables of prose text type and writer's sex. The model used to analyze the corpus is adapted with modification from Ball (1993) and Burrows (1993). The study proves that the text type and the writer's sex, in addition to the text theme determine the grammatical category used. Thus, it accepts its alternative hypothesis

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Article
تأثير محلول الليكول المخفف والأوكسي تتراسايكلين في علاج حالات تكرار الصراف ( مع التأكيد على التهاب بطانة الرحم ) خلال الفترة المفتوحة على نسبة الخصوبة في الأبقار

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الخلاصة

This study examined (30) fresien cows about (3-6) years of age as Individual cases. Which had reproductive problems (retained placenta, metritis) and breeder more than three services during open period (120) days. Cows divided into three groups,(10)cows every one,1st group exposure for treatment by oxy tetracycline antibiotic(oxy) (20%),(10 ml,2 gm/cow I/m) and (50 ml,1gm/cow I/U) of diluted solution oxy tetracycline(DL-oxy) to (1000ml) with condition as first step after examination, after than at the 1st time of next heat , cows treated by(10) ml , oxy , I/M and (25) ML , 0.2gm/cow ( DL-oxy) , I/U after 1-2hr of service). 2nd group exposure for diluted lugol’s solution (1%) , (50 ml,0.5gm/cow, IU) and (25 ml, 0.25gm/cow IU) like 1st group rout. 3rd group (control) and exposure massage during clinical examination only. Repeated route of treatment during next heating period and services due to results.We conclusion from this study, the illness cow can returned for it’s fertility when we visited and treated it , where the results explained that pregnant ratio 100% from two services for logul’s solution and three services for antibiotic treatment, than 50% for control.

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Article
Dimeric Schiff Bases : Preparation, Characterization and Donor Properties

المؤلفون: Ammar K.M.Al-Ba'aj
الصفحات: 5-13
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الخلاصة

The bis (P-substituted-2-methoxy aniline benzylidene-4-oxy) Octamethane was prepared and used as a donor to form 1:2 complexes with (2, 3-Dichloro-5, 6-dicyanobenzoquinone) (DDQ), respectively. The equilibrium constants (K), molar absorptive extinction coefficients (ε ) and the dissociation energies of the charge transfer complexes excited states (w) have been calculated and discussed. The ionization potentials of Schiff bases have been determined and has been concluded that these complexes are predominantly of the (n → π) type.

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Article
تأثير الملوحة والأصل في محتوى أوراق شتلات الكمثرى المطعمة على الأصل البذري من العناصر الغذائية

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الخلاصة

This experiment was carried out at the station of Horticulture and Forestry – Al-Mahaweel- Babil.During the period from 22-9-2006 till Oct .2007 to find out the effect of salinity and rootstock on growth and performance of young pear seedling, using seedling rootstock and Callareyana rootstock. RCBD with 3 replications was followed in afactorial experiment with two factors . Results emerged from this studies can be summarized as follow:- Soil salinity had a significant effect on leaf content of (N ,P and K). Minimum leaf content ( 1.35 ,0.06 and 0.50 % ) respectively was associated with the treatment where the soil salinity was ( 10 ds /m ) as compared with ( 2.70, 0.16 and 1.05 %) respectively with the treatment where soil salinity was(2ds /m) .Rootstock on the other hand had an noted impact on the above-mentioned parameter. The seedling rootstock , howere , resulted in means reached ( 2.16 ,0.10 and 0.81%) respectively whereas callarryna rootstock resulted in the lower values(2.04 , 0.09 and 0.73 % ) respectively .

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Article
دراسة في ديوان ( أعشاش الملائكة) للشاعر جاسم الصحيّح قصيدة ( رحلة في جرح الحسين) نموذجاً

المؤلفون: سها صاحب القريشي
الصفحات: 11-22
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الخلاصة

The saudain poet ( Jasim Al Sahaeh) illustrates a distinguished poetic voice that has its presence in the Arabic literature arena . this poetic voice is brought to light through his many published books of poetry and the prizes he has got . his poetic language and his objectives and his wonderful works . one of the most prominent aspects of his poetry is his fluent loyalty to the prophet and his house this appears in the elegizing and praise and commendation , for this reason , he deserves to be presented to the ideological and literary arena through an academic study as he is concerned an approach towards the one Arab nation.

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Article
تأثير المستخلص الما ئي لطحين فول الصويا في بعض الصفات الفيزيائية والكيمياوية والبكتيرية للحم افخاذ الدجاج المخزونة في التبريد

المؤلفون: سعدية موسى الجميلي
الصفحات: 11-15
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الخلاصة

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of water extract of soybean flower (WESBF ) as antioxidant material and study their effect on some physical , chemical and bacterial changes on leg chicken meat stored in colling for 5 days . Slice of leg meat after fat removed were treated with different concentrations of water extract soybean flower ( WESBF ) ( 5 , 10 , 15 and 20 % ) treated samples were stored after recoating for 5 days .The result indicated that treated chicken meat with different concentrations of WESBF 5 , 10 , 15 and 20 % reduced TBA value to 3.27 , 3.9 , 2.56 and 2.5 mg ,MDA/Kg meat respectively after 5n days storages as compared with control ( 7.44 mg, MDA/Kg meat ) . The results indicated increase in moisture content , protein and ash and fat % was reduced for those treated with in ESBF as compared with control . as a result of this treatment the reduction in water was shown during cooking . Also it was showed that the rediction in total nitrogen and number of total bacterial as result of treatment with WESBF . This can be increased the ability stored for 7 days .

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Article
METHODS OF IMPROVING PERFOMANCE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS IN IRAQ
طرق تحسين أداء أنظمة القدرة الكهربائية في العراق

المؤلفون: . ALI A. AL RAZZAQ AL - TAHIR
الصفحات: 14-32
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الخلاصة

The main purpose in this paper to improve the performance of the electrical power systems in Iraq being developed and thereby add to its value. In recent years, performance evaluation and analysis have become increasingly for any kind of projects and for both personal and equipments safety assessment. This paper presents efficient practical methods for performance improvement and enhancement based on scientific and practical fundamentals. Power stations play important role in performance calculations, the station elements are important factors in improving the quality and security of a power system taking into account the economic problems. Failures originating within a station can create significant electrical power system disturbances. Redundancy principle can be resulted in increasing design complexity through difficult in load distribution equally between redundant systems and increased costs through additional weight and space. Full benefit is resulting of studying the connection bus-bar scheme, if the incoming and outgoing circuits are distributed evenly on the sections of bus - bars. The main reasons for grounding the neutral points to limit over voltages, different types of ground fault currents and to permit the application of suitable ground fault relaying. Transient stability enhancement is the fold of transient stability object that means suggestion of various enhancing methods to improve or augment electrical power system transient stability. Programs and graphics are executed using MATLAB Vol . 7 and Excel programs.


Article
Structural and Linguistic Analysis of SMS Text Messages

المؤلفون: Muayyad Omran Chiad
الصفحات: 15-27
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الخلاصة

The most obvious way in which the communicative behavior has changed is reflected in virtual environments with its different modes of communication.These new modes provide a rich testing ground for theories of language change.In accordance with all the other media, the Mobile technology,in particular SMS,has brought along its own language and culture.The language of the SMS is asynchronous,a single-channel,text-based,technologically mediated discourse.It reflects the unpredictable, unrestricted new communication technology and it evolves at an incredible speed.The following study hopes to provide an understanding of SMS English by analysing interactions in these texts as constituting another form of Computer-Mediated Discourse.The analysis tackles such topics as speech acts, humor ,the dichotomy of speech and writing in relation to SMS texts,and orthography.Based on more than 164 texts messages collected from the Internet and Personal correspondences,the study finds out that correspondents of SMS create new language to suit the restrictions of the media.Expressive speech acts comprise the majority among other acts because personal opinions and emotional state are conveyed in text messages intended mainly to build social relations.Humor is significant in SMS texts messages used as an attempt from correspondents to achieve relational goals.They use the established norms of writing and speaking discourse, in addition to a non-standard orthography.

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Article
دور بنزوات الصوديوم في تحسين القابلية الخزنية لثمار السدر صنف التفاحي

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الخلاصة

Jujube fruits were treated with sodium benzoate on concentrations of 0.06%,0.12% (w/v) in addition to control treatment packed in cardboard boxes (1 kg. wt.) and stored at 5±2º c for five weeks . Results showed that treated fruits with the concentration of 0.12% led to decrease in the decay percentage of fruits ,loss in total soluble solid , total sugars .General features of treated fruits with sodium benzoate(0.12% ) after five weeks of storage was better in outer appearance and good in test as compared with other fruits.

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Article
فكرة عقد المفاوضة

المؤلفون: عبد الله عبد الأمير طه الشمري
الصفحات: 23-29
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الخلاصة

There is no doubt the importance of negotiations Nodal and play a role in the formation of the final contract as technical development and created legal effects of the most important and obvious importance of negotiations preceding the conclusion of a contract as negotiators reconcile the conflicting views and unite them to a particular contract with Important economic importance such as contracts for the transfer of technology. We will take up in this regard by modern legal and important aspects of the negotiations, but the holding of Inclination bargaining as agreed by the parties as to engage in negotiations preceding the conclusion of the contract to discuss terms and determine the final version, before a final contract.

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Article
استعمال الكلايفوسيت والدلابون لمكافحة الادغال المعمرة في العراق

المؤلفون: هاشم ربيع لذيذ
الصفحات: 29-35
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الخلاصة

Control of johnsongrass ,Bermudagrass and Hairy – nodegrass by Glyphosate [N-(Phosphono methyl) glycine] and Delapon [2-2 dichloro proponic acid] in different concentrations ,time of application and their interaction ,were studied in the experimental field of college of Agriculture/ Abu-Ghuraib during the period between 1/4/2001 to 1/12/2002.to eliminate weeds like Johnsongrass ( Sorghum halepense L), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and Hairy- nodegrass (Dicanthium annulatum). The results showed that there was asignificant diferences between treatments on grwoth of perennial weeds Thetreatment where glyphosate (1 kg a.i.e)/ ha plus dalpon (2 kg a.i.e) /ha was applied gave highest of weeds killing rates (94.7%,96.7%,98.3%) and ( 99.3%,100%,100%) after 2 and 4 months of third spray ,least weed dry weight (38),(23.5) ,(18.7) gm/m2 and the least number rate of new growthes (1),(0.7),(0.3), after 12 months of the first spray . It could be concluded that the application of mixed herbicides and seguency have different effects on weeds .The individual uses of the herbicides have less effects on weeds of other applications of Control treatments.

الكلمات الدلالية

Glyphosate --- Dalapon --- Johnsongrass --- Bermuda grass --- Hairy- nodegrass --- Active ingredent


Article
أثر استخدام الامثلة الايجابية والسلبية في اكتسا ب المفاهيم العلمية في مادة العلوم

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الخلاصة

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Synthesis of New type of tetrazoles starting from D-ribose

المؤلفون: Khalid Fahad Ali
الصفحات: 33-36
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الخلاصة

This work includes synthesis of sugar tetrazole derivative, D-ribose reacted with acetone in the presence of sulfuric acid H2SO4 to give 2,3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribose (1). The Aldol condensation of (1) with formaldehyde in methanolic K2CO3 solution gave 2-hydroxymethyl(2,3-O- isopropylidene-D-ribose) (2). Which was tosylated by Tosyl chloride in pyridine to yield compound (3), SN2 reaction of (3) with sodium cyanide in DMSO afforded compound (4). The [2+3] cycloaddition reaction of (4) with sodium azide gave the targeted compound (5). All prepared compounds have been characterized by: TLC, Specific rotation, Microelemental analysis and [FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy]

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Article
تأثير عدد السيقان وتغطية التربة في نمو وحاصل الطماطة Lycoperscon esculantum Mill صنف " نيوتن " المزروعة في البيوت البلاستيكية

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted during winter season of 2006 - 2007 in unheated plastic house at College of Agriculture – Basrah University . The objective of the experiment was to study the effect of stem numbers/plant(one and two.) and soil mulching (with or without black polyethylene). Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replicates . Duncan's, Multiple Range Test was used at probability of 0.05 to compare mean variations . Results can be summarized as follows:- Plants growth with two stems gave significant increases in total leaf number/plant, fresh and dry weights of vegetative growth, flower number/inflorescence , flower number/plant and inflorescence number/plant ,early and total plant yields, production of plastic house and yield /donum, while plant grown with one stem gave significant increase in plant height.The soil mulching gave a significant increases in total leaf number/plant, fresh and dry weight of vegetative growth, flower number/inflorescence , flower number/plant , inflorescence number/plant and early plant yield. Whereas, soil mulching was not significantly influenced plant height, total yield /plant, total production of plastic house and donum production.Interaction between plant training and soil mulching gave a significant effects on all studied parameters.

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Article
Image edges detection using morphological operations

المؤلفون: جعفر صادق جعفر
الصفحات: 37-49
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الخلاصة

Morphological operation consists of two types:- Basic operations and derivative. Basic operations are ,dilation ,erosion and (hit & miss) ,where as the derivative operations are :open ,close , tophat , bothat , skeleton. The process of finding the limits of the image (edge detection) means finding the boundary between the neighboring regions which differ from each other in gray levels value .There are three basic methods for finding limits of images:- linear, non-linear and common approximating methods. An algorithm is applied to identify the image edges of the image, there are generally three stages:- 1-filtering procedure to reduce the noise. 2-improvement operations 3-finding the strong border points which are required. According to the method of change the intensity image there are several types of edges of images such as (line edges, step edge, ramp edge) . Due to the absence of specific suitable method to detect all types of edges ,the present work has been implemented three methods based on the fundamental morphological operations to find the limits and the image terminals by selecting different size and extensions converted to images of grey levels ,results were compared to determine the most suitable and better methods . The present work using matlab functions (version 6.5)

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Article
الحماية الدولية للممتلكات الثقافية في القانون الدولي الإنساني

المؤلفون: محمد ثامر مخاط --- صلاح جبيرالبصيصي
الصفحات: 39-51
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الخلاصة

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Article
التأثير المشترك للجبرلين (GA3) والحرارة في نسبة الإنبات وتطور نمو الرويشة والجذير في نوعي الداتورة Datura innoxia Linnو Datura metel Mill

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of GA3 at concentration of 0.0, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm for germination percentage; length of plumule and length of radical, for two Datura species (Datura innoxia and Datura metel) that their seeds were sown in Petri dish that were covered inside by filter paper.Then, they watered by equal amount of GA3 concentration for 16th days.The experiment was adopted by (C.R.D) with three factors, concentration of GA3, temperature and plant species.Results showed that germination percentage for tested plant gave different response toward the GA3 concentration, temperature and the type of plant and the percentage of germination increase with increase the concentration of GA3 and the 750 ppm GA3 with 30 ºC gave superiority in seed germination compared with same concentration of GA3 in 20 ºC..Meanwhile, tested plants different significantly with temperature and the GA3 replaced the temperature for germination and length of emergence

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Article
تأثير إضافة المعزز الحيوي( بروبايوتك العراق) في الأداء الإنتاجي لفروج اللحم

المؤلفون: علي عبد الحسين السوداني
الصفحات: 49-54
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of adding Iraqi probiotic to the broilers diet on the performance of broilers. the probiotic added at three levels 0, 3 and 6 gm kg ,using 225 day old chicks with three replicates 25 chicks randomly distributed each .The results showed that body weight were significantly increased (p<0.05) (2269.17, 2137.50 gm ( for 3 and 6 g per kg respectively compared with the control group 1951.67 gm . Mortality rate and feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased for2nd and third treatment compared with the control. There was significant improvement in production index . Adding 3 gm kg showed significant increase in feed consumption while there was no significant increase with 6 gm kg .

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Article
Status of Selenium in seminal plasma of Male infertility and their correlation with Various Sperm Parameters.

المؤلفون: Nawal.KH. Hussain
الصفحات: 50-54
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الخلاصة

Background; Human semen contains low concentration of selenium (Se). The presence of abnormal level of this trace element may affect spermatogenesis with regard to production, maturation, motility and fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of Se in seminal plasma in different groups of male infertility and to correlate their concentration with various semen parameters. Subjects and Methods: Forty primary infertile male individuals, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least one year without conception with their partners, aged 25-40 years were involved in the present study. After seminal plasma fluid analysis they were grouped as, azoospermic,oligoasthenozoospermic, and teratozoospermic. Twenty males selected from general population and after seminal fluid investigation they were taken as normospermic control group. Selenium concentration in separated seminal plasma of each infertile male and fertile control subject were determined by HPLC. Results: This study showed significant decrease of seminal plasma Se mean (±SEM) value in azoospermic and in oligoasthenozoospermic infertile males than in infertile male controls(p<0.05),and highly significant decrease in teratozoospermic patients (p<0.005) when compared with that of fertile males. The results also showed that there was no significant correlation between Selenium concentration and sperm count, morphology and motility. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings of this study, it seems that the estimation of seminal plasma levels of selenium may aid in investigation and treatment of infertile males.

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Article
أحكام فضاء العقار في القانون المدني (دراسة مقارنة بالفقه الإسلامي)

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الخلاصة

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Copyright Watermarking in MPEG 1 Files

المؤلفون: Ali Retha Hasoon Al-Moseaway
الصفحات: 55-63
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الخلاصة

We are living in a digital world in that extensive information exchange can be performed quickly and easily in digital format over the Internet or different storing devices in a cost-effective way. Digital data, such as music, image, video, text, e-mail, and so forth, are easily copied and transferred without any degradation. Concerns over ownership protection, data protection, and other security issues have therefore arisen. Digital watermarking is a general solution that can be used to identify illegal copying and ownership, authentication, or other applications by inserting information into the digital data in an imperceptible way. In order for a watermark to be useful, it must be perceptually invisible and have robustness against detecting processing and a variety of possible attacks by those who seek to pirate the material. In this paper we embedding watermark (text, icon) in MPEG1 file by using unused space in MPEG1 files to protect file from illegal copy and the same way could be used in secret communication (Steganography). The information embedded is hidden and the effect on the appearance and function of the work is minimized or invisible. It is supposed to survive even after digital-to-analog conversion, compression, or resizing.

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Article
دراسة نسيجية – وظيفية لكبد وكلى الجرذان المعاملة بجرع مختلفة من كبريتات الصوديوم

المؤلفون: لينا أديب مهدي --- عبدالهادي صلال محمد
الصفحات: 55-62
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الخلاصة

The present study was carried out for determine the toxification effected to sodium Sulfate in liver and kidneys albino rats.The expermintal animals were divided randomly into three groups,each group included(20)animals.the first group administrated sodium sulfate for(30)days at concentration (25)body weight,while the second group injected with sodium sulfate at concentratio(50)milligram/kilogram,while the third group(control group)injected with normal saline at the same prrieod,and the injection was every (48)hours.and the injection was tntraparitonial. The present study reveald: 1_A significant decrease(P<0.05)in the total body weight and in the organs weight at concentration (25) milligram/kilogram of sodium sulfate. 2_A significant increase in the total body weight,liver and kidneys((P<0.05)at concentration (50) milligram/kilogram of sodium sulfate. 3_The histological changes for treated with sodium sulfate at concentration (50) milligram /kilogram was harder than in liver and the medulla of kidney comparison with cortex.dilation in sunsoides of the liver and hypertrophy,conjestion of central vein,as well as degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes.while the cortex of kidney treated with sodium sulfate at concentration (50) milligram/kilogram was lower than in medulla,graduated from conjestion in arteries and veins of kidneys,degeneration and necrosis in hepatocytes that coverd the distal and proximal tubules.and the histological changes was necrosis in cells coverd the tubuled of urine and dilation of kidneys artery and hemorrihage in medulla.

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Article
دراسة بعض المعايير الكيموحيوية لدى المدخنين المصابين بداء السكري في محافظة كربلاء

المؤلفون: رشا عبد الأمير جواد كاظم العبيدي
الصفحات: 63-67
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الخلاصة

This study included two samples ,exemplify the first group was experimental sample (60)men smokers diabetes mellitus infected ,the second group included (15)men non smokers and non diabetes mellitus usd as control sample.Tow groups were classified according to the age to three groups , the first Was(28-38)years, the second was (39-49)years,and third was (up on50)years. The results showed a significant increasing (P<0.05)in total sugar estimation ,cholesterol ,triglycerides ,low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein in experimental sample compared with control ,also a significant decrease (P<0.05) in high density lipoprotein in experimental sample compared with control when some hematological examine were done.The present study noticed an increasing (P<0.05) in the level of total sugar , cholesterol ,triglycerides ,low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein and decrease (P<0.05) ) in high density lipoprotein in the both third group age and two group age compared with group age.

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Article
t γ -Open sets and Separation axioms

المؤلفون: Asaad M.A.Alhosaini
الصفحات: 64-70
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الخلاصة

In this paper by considering two types of operations on a topological space ( X,τ ), t-operation and γ-operation ,the researcher introduce the concept of tγ-open set (which is analogue to the concept of semi open set), and we study the concepts of tγ-Ti spaces (i=0,½,1,2,b,d,g) related to the new concept of tγ-open sets and we study the relations between them.

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Article
التراضي الالكتروني دراسة مقارنة

المؤلفون: زياد طارق جاسم الراوي
الصفحات: 65-73
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Article
تأثير فيتامين E في مستوى الهرمونات الجنسية في دم الاكباش العواسية

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الخلاصة

This trail was conduced in Animal Farm , College of Veterinary Medicine , Baghdad University 1/ 7 to 10 / 8 / 2004 to study the effect of vitamin E on some sexual hormones level (Testosterone , LH, FSH ) in plasma blood , twelve Awassi rams aged one years old were divided into two equal groups randomly as followed : control group were not given vitamin E and other group was supplemented group were given 400 mg / animal – vitamin E . The results showed that giving vitamin E increased significantly (P<0.05) Testosterone and LH level hormone in plasma blood during 2,3,4 and 5weeks of experiment in supplemented group as compared to control group , otherwise there was no significant differences between control and supplemented group in the first week of experiment .The FSH level in plasma blood increased significantly (P<0.05) in supplemented group during 3,4 and 5 weeks of experiment as compared to control ; otherwise there was no significant differences in 1st and 2nd weeks of experiment . In general , Vitamin E 400 mg / Animal caused increased of sexual hormones level Testosterone , LH , FSH in Awassi ram’s plasma blood , Which increased reproductive prolificacy in farm animals .

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Article
Extraction of Cobalt (II) form aqueous solution by use 2- [(4- carboxy methylphenyl) azo ] -4,5- diphenyl imidazole

المؤلفون: Ibtehaj . R. Ali
الصفحات: 71-81
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الخلاصة

2- [(4- Carboxy methylphenyl) azo ] -4,5- diphenyl imidazole (4 – CMePADPI) used as sensetive and selective ligand for extraction cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions and this application shows the optimum conditions for good extractio was (pHex = 11) which was giving higher distribution ratio (D) and need (10minutes) for shaking the two layers to reach good extraction as well as the optimum concentration of Co + 2 ions in aqueous phase was (50μg)( 1.69x10 -4 M) to give higher Distribution ratio (D) . Stoichiometric study shows the structure of ion pair complex extraction for Co+2 ions with (4CMePADPI) ligand was 1:1 (metal :ligand ) [Co(4 – CMePADPI) +2 SO4-2 from other hand organic solvent shows there is not any Linear relation between dielectric constant (E) of orgonic solvent and distribution ratio (D) of extraction ,but there is an effect for the structure of organic solvent .At later the thermodynamic study demonstrate the complexation reaction betweenCo+2ions and ligand(4 –CMePADPI) was exothermic .

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Article
دراسة مدى دقائق ألفا وبيتا في الكادميوم النقي والمطعم ڊ ـ ( Te , Se , S )

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الخلاصة

IN THIS RESEARCHER, A THEORETICAL STUDY WAS APPLIED FOR THE SUBJECT OF NUCLEAR PARTICLES CROSSING THROUGH SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS WITH DIFFERENT VELOCITIES DEPENDING ON THE TYPE AND ENERGY OF THE RADIOACTIVE SOURCE USING THE BRANCH PROGRAM (ZRATIO) WHICH WAS WRITTEN THE MAIN PROGRAM IN FORTRAN LANGUAGE (77).THE RANG FOR CADMIUM HAS BEEN CALCULATED BY SEMIEMPRICAL FORMULA. IT HAS BEEN FOUND THAT DOPING WITH ELEMENTS FROM THE SIX GROUP ( S,Se, eT )OF THE PERIODICAL TABLE HAS REMARKABLE EFFECT ON THE EFFECTIVE RANGE OF ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES. IT IS SHOWN THAT THE INCREASE OF PERCENTAGE WEIGHT ( 0.005, 0.05, 0.5 ) WT% OF EACH DOPANT ELEMENT CAUSES AN INCREASE OF THE EFFECTIVE RANGE FOR BOTH ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES IN CADMIUM. ALSO, IT IS FOUND THAT THE RANGE OF ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES INCREASES WITH THE INCREASE OF THEIR ENERGY.

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Article
المركز القانوني للمرشد البحري

المؤلفون: عقيل فاضل حمد الدهان
الصفحات: 74-81
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Article
المتشابه والمحكم في القرآن الكريم (بحث في دلالة الألفاظ القرآنية)

المؤلفون: حسن عبد الغني الأسدي
الصفحات: 82-91
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Article
“Kinetic and thermodynamic study on the adsorption of Para Anisidine compound by Sepiolite clay”

المؤلفون: Sadiq J. Baqir --- Ayad F.Al-Kiam --- Aseal M.K.
الصفحات: 82-97
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الخلاصة

The removal of para anisidine (PA), with sepiolite clay have been performed investigating the effect of initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact time, on this process.The equilibrium concentration have been determined spectophotometrically using ultra violet- visible technique.The equilibrium data are fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations.The rate constant and activation energy value for the adsorption process was calculated, and the equilibrium time, that’s equal to70minutes. The temperature thermodynamic parameters like , and have been calculated from the effect of temperature. Values of enthalpy showed that the adsorption process is exothermic.

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Article
حساب الانتقالات المغناطيسية الثنائية القطب لنظائر Ba(A=130-136) الزوجية-الزوجية بدلالة مركبتي النظير العددي والاتجاهي باستخدام (IBM-1)

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الخلاصة

In the present work the calculations of magnetic dipole transitions in terms of isoscalar and isovector for one body and two bodies for even-even Ba(A=130-136) isotopes were determined using IBM-1. Our results confirmed the maximum values of and B(M1)for one body and two bodies in Ba=130,132 and 134 were at , , while for Ba-136 was found at , , , for isoscalar only. There is no B(M1) appeared due to forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between them.

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Article
تحليل واقع الخصخصة في الاقتصاد العراقي

المؤلفون: خالد حيدر
الصفحات: 92-106
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Article
التقييم الوراثي والمظهري لإنتاج الحليب الجزئي في ماشية الهولشتاين بوسط العراق

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الخلاصة

Statistical analysis was taken for 3660 , 3020 , 2735 and 2086 records which belong to partial milk yields in the production period of 60 , 120 , 180 and 270 days respectively, between 1997 to 2000 in AL-Nasar Dairy Cattle Station. This station contain a herd of Holstein cattle. General Linear Model within the SAS program was used to estimate fixed effects and to estimate variance component for random factors by using Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) for genetic parameters evaluation.Harvey program was also used to evaluate Best Linear Unbised Prediction (BLUP) for studied traits. Least – squares mean  SE for partial milk yields in 60 , 120 , 180 and 270 days were 1185.9  29.4 , 2311.0  26.0 , 3328.8  23.7 and 4559.3  21.6 kg respectively. Season and year of calving have a highly significant effect for all studied traits. And there are significant effect (p0.01) for parity in all triats studied.The highest milk yield in 60 , 120 , 180 and 270 days were 1151.8 , 2259.9 , 3247.5 and 4517.1 kg respectively in the 3 rd production season. The heritability estimates for the characters that mentioned before were 0.10 , 0.20 , 0.12 and 0.06 respectively. The highest value of the best linear unbiased prediction for sires for partial milk yield in 60 , 120, 180 and 270 days were 17.13 , 65.52 , 39.52 and 8.73 kg while the lowest were -16.52 , -42.90 , -58.44 and -10.29 kg respectively.

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Article
DETERMINATION OF MERCURY IN WATER AND SEDIMENT FROM QARMAT – ALI AND PAPER FACTORY ALONG SHATT AL-ARAB RIVER

المؤلفون: A.Z.Raheem
الصفحات: 98-102
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الخلاصة

The determination of mercury achieved by means of Cold Hg Vapor Atomic Absorption (CVAAS ) was determined in the water and sediment samples from 7 locations at Qarmat –Ali and paper factory along shatt Al-Arab river during 2006 ,also some physical and chemical parameters were obtained during this study. The results showed low Hg content of water at station (2) (0.06 μg/ml), whereas high content of Hg has been found (0.083 μg/ml) at station (1). Another hand the lower conc. of mercury in the sediment samples recorded at station (3)(0.32 μg/g) and higher conc. observed at station (5)(0.39 μg/g). The main source of Hg in the discharge of paper factory is expected from electric cells of chlorine unit. The result also shown that conc. of mercury in sediment higher than in the water samples; This is the first study carried out in this region, and could serve as a baseline in this important area.

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Article
التنبؤ بمكونات الحليب الرئيسة في ضوء تحليل صفات الخطوط الجلدية على المخطم لدى أبقار الهولشتاين

المؤلفون: نصر نوري الانباري
الصفحات: 100-111
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الخلاصة

At the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station, United Company for Animal Resources Ltd., Al-Soueira (50 km south of Baghdad), 70 Holstein cows were randomly picked out from the herd through 2007. The aim of this study was to recognize the dermatoglyphics on the muzzle, the photography and a special computer programs were used to analyse the dermatoglyphics, were Simple Arch, Fork, Enclosure, Islands , Short Ridges and Muzzle Width were recorded.A relationship prediction between dermatoglyphics and major milk contents (fat, protein, lactose) .The Statistical Analysis System program was used to study the estimation of regression coefficient. Regression coefficient of some productional and reproductional traits on dermatoglyphics, were important significantly (positive or negative). The linear equation estimates displayed a utmost importance for selection programs aiming at reducing and curtailing the dermatoglyphics parameters among dairy cows in early time.

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Article
Solving Eulers Equation by Using New Transformation

المؤلفون: Ali Hassan Mohammed --- Athera Nema kathem
الصفحات: 103-109
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الخلاصة

In this paper, we introduce definition of new transformation which we call it Temimi transformation .Also, we introduce properties ,theorems, proofs and transformations of the polynomials functions ,logarithms functions and other functions .Also ,we introduce how we can use this transformation and it's inverse to solve the Euler's equation [2 ] .

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Article
النحو في قراءة أبي السمّال العدوي

المؤلفون: عباس علي إسماعيل
الصفحات: 107-120
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الخلاصة

Abu al - Samal Al - adawi was Qa'nab ibn Hilal ibn Abi Qa'nab al Basri al –adawi,Some works that were written about him made errors about his nickname for they called him "Abi al - Samak. The information that reached us about him was very little and limited and was almost inadequate. The writer al - Thahubi was considered the best who wrote about him, for he mentioned information related with his life and was never mentioned before.He had a doctrine in reading the Quran. He did not follow other readers as abu Zaid al - Ansari narrated about him. They returned his method to the second calipha Omar ibn al Khatab. He lived during the period of brilliant names in the aspects of grammar and reading. He was well - aquainted with the frequent grammatical questions in his age. He died about 160 for al -hijra. His reading was identical with that of the public in prominent aspects as moulding, while the variation between them was in parsing.A quick glance in the two readings made clear to me that the variation was restricted in al Rafu' and al Nasb. I did not find for him Reading in al Kasr. There is only one word in Sura of al - Ahzab , read by Abu al Samal with al Kasr on the intention of Jazim, while it came with al Fath in the reading of most people.His variation in reading does not depend on the syntactical movements, nut his non confirming is represented in a prominent side in names, verbs and grammar words. The variation between both readings on two things: changing the method progressively and regressively and making what is a noun of the letter a verb.What includes in changing the verb in his reading some verbs in passive or active forms that differs from the reading of most people. This variation in reading led to three forms:confirming various words in the people's reading and sometimes by adding a further letters not included others writes

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Article
Effects of crude oil on the growth of horsetail tree (Casuarina equisetifolia)
تأثير النفط الخام في نمو الكازورينا Casuarina equisetifolia

المؤلفون: Hassan. H. Ali --- Basim A. Abd Ali
الصفحات: 110-116
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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted between March, 2005 and December 2007 to study the effects of different levels of crude oil ( 0.0 , 0.5 , 1.0 , 2.0 , 3.0 liter/ seedling ) on the growth of ( Casuarina equisetifolia ) under Baghdad district /Iraq environmental conditions. The results showed the adverse effects of crude oil on the plant growth. Seedlings of the experiment showed various symptoms of effects after exposing to crude oil pollution ranging from leaf paleness, yellowing, browning and drying to death depending on the level of crude oil used and period of exposure. These symptoms reflected interruption in the plant growth as a result of pollution effects on physiological processes carried out by plants. The plant growth was reduced significantly in low levels (0.5 and 1.0 liter/seedling) while the result with high levels was the death of 75% and 100% of seedlings polluted with 2.0 and 3.0 liter/seedling respectively. The present study approved that ( Casuarina equisetifolia ) could tolerate a specific levels of crude oil pollution, therefore it was suggested that this tree could be served as a plant bioremediation for soil polluted by crude oil.

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Article
Study the anti-Bacterial &Fungal activity of Junchus Arabica on Some Pathogenic isolates Invitro

المؤلفون: Ali Muknes --- Mahdi Murshd --- Mohammed Abdul-Mounther --- Abdulla Khadam
الصفحات: 117-120
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الخلاصة

To demonstrate and investigate in vitro the activity of antibacterial and fungal of fao junchus Arabica fresh and dry seeds obtained from different areas of Basrah especially against (5)isolates of pathogenic bacteria aerobic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria Propinipionibacterium acnesisolated from different skin diseases as well as antifungal activity against (5) Tinea corporis , Tinea pedis, Tinea unquium , Candida albicans ,Tinea cruris dermophytes of skin- hair and nail besides candida albicans.Green and dry seeds showed high activity effect of both antibacterial and fungal.

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Article
الأخلاق الإسلامية وأثرها في توحيد صف المسلمين

المؤلفون: علاوي مزهر مزعل المسعودي
الصفحات: 121-130
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Article
Effect of Using Corrosion Inhibitors on Concrete Properties and Their Activity
تأثير استخدام مثبطات التآكل على خواص الخرسانة ومدى فاعليتها

المؤلفون: Falah K. Matlob --- Abeer Mohammed Abdul Amir --- Nada Flah Hassan
الصفحات: 121-139
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الخلاصة

In this investigation, the effect of using sodium benzoate, potassium dichromate as corrosion inhibitors in concentrations (1%, 2%and 3% by weight of cement) is studied on concrete properties; compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and absorption. Also the activity of these admixtures in their three concentrations were studied to reduce the corrosion rate where the three electrode polarization resistance is used to measure the corrosion rate and by measuring the electrical resistance of concrete. The reinforced concrete samples were immersed partially in 3.5% NaCl solution for three months. Half of these samples were loaded with 10% of the design load after 6 weeks of immersing to make micro cracks in the concrete body. The test results indicate that the use of sodium benzoate, potassium dichromate in 2% concrete. by weight of cement cause a considerable reduction in compressive strength about 15% and 4% at 28 days respectively, but in the later ages the specimens got an increase in compressive strength about 7% and 11% at 90 days respectively, with increasing in; splitting tensile strength about 17% for sodium benzoate and 21% for potassium dichromate, flexural strength about 18% and 20% respectively, also they cased reduction in absorption test with 38% and 42% respectively and inhibitor efficiency about 98% for each one.


Article
Improvement of Durability of Reed in Cement Media
تحسين ديمومة القصب في الوسط السمنتي

المؤلفون: عادل محمود عبد اللطيف
الصفحات: 125-138
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الخلاصة

It is well-known that the durability of vegetable fibres, such as reed , in concrete media is very low because of high PH value of concrete.The improvement of the durability of reed in concrete media is investagated. Many coatings( namely epoxy paint,SBR,PVD, and liquid mastic) were used as wll as many types of salts ( soduim chloride,soduim sulfates and soduim nitrite).It is concluded that epoxy paint is the best coating in this respect. Soduim chloride is the best salt. It is,also, reported that no one of these measures is sufficiently effective in improvement of the durability of reed in concrete media.It seems that using reed with gysum plaster is more practical.

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Article
التباين المكاني للصناعات الصغيرة في العراق لسنة 2005

المؤلفون: عدي فاضل عبد
الصفحات: 131-138
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الخلاصة

Industry is considered one of important human activities, which achieved across multiplying and connected stages, it contained arious techniques for get natural and human resources crediting, at last to build big base of industries led to increase or distribute in national income increasing, for inceasing welfare level of society The industry is divided accrding to its volume large, medium, small, at this research, we took the small industry only. Appearing the residential differences of production values, numbers of workers, number of industrial instiutions throughout the data classification operation which available from official statistic appearing on annual statistical set, which entering to quantity classification stage t obtain on maps appear the residential differences of phenomena above to out with reslt of residential differences image of that phenomena, the considered method create new industrial collections began from small industries to crew up and magnifying . the research appear that, the governorates which considered big urban centre in Iraq like Baghada, Basrah, Ninaa have the big role in small industries which ceedited the large number of residents wich represented and the chances materials which hae the considerable addition n economical policies led by political governments inside of goernorates, Missan- AL- Muthana –Biblion appear on opposite of that which have less value of studying phenomena that the smll industries have wide connection with laws which took by state and limits the nature of that industries and the range of wildness and continuity.

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Article
شعر علي الفتَّال دراسة في أغراضه و لغته الشعرية

المؤلفون: حسين عدنان الحسيني --- خالد عباس السياب
الصفحات: 139-159
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Article
Synthesis of Some New Azo Schiff Bases and Tetrazole Derivatives from 2-Amino -1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol

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الخلاصة

In this paper new azo schiff bases and tetrazole derivatives of 2-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol have been prepared.2-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol [1] was prepared by the reaction of thiosemicarbazide with carbon disulfide in alcoholic sodium carbonate solution .Compound [1] was converted to the diazonium salt which was directly converted to the azo derrivative [2] via a coupling reaction with salicyldehyde.The new azo Schiff bases derivatives [3-6] were prepared by condensation of aldehyde group of the new azo aldehyde derivative [2] with some primary amines ( 3-Amino phenol, 3-Bromo aniline ,2-phenyl ethyl amine ) and with 2,4- Dinitro phenyl hydrazine respectively in absolute ethanol. The resulting imines [3-6] were converted to the corresponding tetrazole derivatives[7-10] through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction with sodium azide in tetrahydrofuran. All new synthesized derivatives were identified by their melting points,elemental analysis and FT-IR spectra. They have long been known to posses hypnotics activities and it is hoped that our compounds would do so.

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Article
Determination of some polyamines in serum of breast cancer patients
تقدير بعض متعدد الأمين في مصل مرضى سرطان الثدي

المؤلفون: Ahmed Fadhil kadhier Al-Sultany
الصفحات: 156-163
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الخلاصة

In this study, serum polyamine (spermidine & spermine) levels were measured in 28 breast cancer patients and compared with 25 healthy controls. Blood samples obtained from two groups (control & patients) and quantitative determination of polyamine were determined by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). It was found that spermidine is significantly increased (p<0.05) in patients levels was observed when breast cancer patient compare with normal subjects, and significantly increase than the healthy control population to the spermine with (p<0.05).

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Article
الأغراض البلاغية للنداء في القرآن الكريم

المؤلفون: سهيلة خطاف عبد الكريم
الصفحات: 160-172
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Article
In vitro effect of gamma radiation on human mononuclear cells compared with that of ordinary light

المؤلفون: Ahmed Juma'a M --- Ali Mansour J --- Ishraq Rasoul Ibrahim --- Zeena Hassan Abbas
الصفحات: 164-170
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الخلاصة

Study design and objective: This is an in vitro experimental study. It was performed to show the effect of gamma radiation on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared with that of ordinary light. Method: First of all, PBMCs were separated and incubated in specialized culture medium to form a cell pool. Tow sample groups were prepared; one containing phytohemaggluttinin (PHA) from which three subgroups; A, B and C each with 30 samples were prepared. The effect of gamma radiation on PBMCs (group A samples) was tested against that of ordinary light (group B) and a control (group C). Another set of samples was prepared similarly, but without PHA. These two groups were incubated under standardized conditions (37°C and 5% CO2). Wet film for direct cell counting 24 hourly and Gemsa staining technique examined by inverted microscope to predict the growth curve, cell count and structural changes induced by irradiation. Results: There was a significant reduction in PBMCs counts in group A, compared to group B and C samples. Furthermore, the growth curve showed prolonged lag phase and delayed and shortened log phase in group A samples. In addition, there were more PBMCs structural changes including anisocytosis, ghost cells and abnormal mitotic figures. These finding were restricted to PHA-containing samples rather than the PHA-free set. Conclusion: The effect of gamma irradiation, represented by reduction in cell count and structural abnormalities, in vitro, was shown to be specific for activated PBMCs (i.e) exhibited on the actively dividing mononuclear cells.

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Article
Antimicrobial Activity Of Lincomycin and Gentamicin delivered from Chitosan and Chitosan-Gelatin Matrices

المؤلفون: Hanaa Jaafer jabaar AL –kabee
الصفحات: 171-180
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الخلاصة

The antimicrobial activity of lincomycin and gentamicin released from chitosan and chitosan-gelatin matrices against gram positive and gram negative bacteria were studied. The inhibition zone diameter were determined After (24,48) hrs of incubation using agar diffusion assay . The results showed that both matrices were very active to deliver the antibiotics.there are significant increasing p<0.05 in inhibition zone after 48 hrs compared with 24 hrs of incubation. Also there is non significant increasing in the antibiotics delivery in chitosan-gelatin matrix. This study suggest to use such matrices in drug delivery system for local (directed) bioavailability of compound antibiotic against gram positive and gram negative bacteria at the same time which is very important in the treatment of some bacterial infections.

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Article
المقدمات الطللية في المعلقات - قراءة في البنية اللغوية والآثار النفسية –

المؤلفون: رجاء عجيل
الصفحات: 173-180
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Article
Behavior, Activity and Pollination Effect of Apis mellifera L. and Native Bees Foraging on Hybrid and Open-Pollinated Varieties of Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.

المؤلفون: Murtadha K. Glaiim --- Siena’a M. Abid --- Ayad K. Al-Sindy --- Ali A. Kareem
الصفحات: 181-191
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الخلاصة

This field study carried out in 2008 at the College of Agriculture, Kerbala University dealt with different aspects of behavior, activity and pollination effect of Apis mellifera L. and native bees foraging on heads of two varieties of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., a hybrid produced in Turkey and called “ Coban ” and an open-pollinated variety called “ Sinn el-Theeb ”. The percentages of total recorded individuals of A.mellifera and all native bees were 52.34 and 47.66%, respectively. The most abundant species of native bees were Megachile sp. and Nomia sp. while Xylocopa fenestrate, X.aestuans and other unidentified species were in fewer numbers. About 72 and 28% of all A.mellifera individuals were nectar-collectors and pollen-collectors, respectively. The displacement behavior practiced by all insect species was very remarkable. About 44% of A.mellifera and 22 to 50% of native bee individuals were forced to leave flowers through physical disturbance committed by other visitors. The study also covered other aspects including seasonal and diurnal visitation patterns and duration of a single visit / insect. The pollinating insects had insignificant effect on the yield of hybrid variety for it was highly self-compatible while they had a great benefit in this regard for the open-pollinated variety which was highly self-incompatible. For instance, mean seed-setting rates of first variety reached 88.1 and 81.4% in open and bagged heads, respectively. The rates of second variety were 79.8 and only 10.1% in open and bagged heads, respectively.

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Article
Statistical Analysis for Autoclave Expansion of Sulphate- Resisting Cement
تحليل إحصائي للتمدد المحمم (أوتوكلاف) لأسمنت مقاوم للكبريتات

المؤلفون: Hussein Ali Ewadh --- Majeed Khudair Jassim
الصفحات: 192-200
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الخلاصة

Excessive volumetric change may have great influence in collapse of hardened cement mortar. Autoclave expansion test provides an index of potential delayed expansion and thereby the soundness of cement mortar. This paper presents an effort to model autoclave expansion in relation with factors affecting soundness of cement mortar. A statistical analysis is performed for a data base of 575 chemical and physical tests obtained from archive of quality control at Kerbala plant for SRC cement. These data sets are refined to 444 by excluding outliers to avoid errors in measurement, recording, and observations. Multiple linear regression by SPSS16 software is used to develop a statistical model relating autoclave expansion with some explanatory variables (MgO %, F. CaO %, C3A %, C3S %). Stepwise regression shows that linear model explains 89.4 % of variation in autoclave expansion by percentage of free lime to 0.05 degree of significance, while excludes other proposed variables. If the degree of significance is changed to 0.1, C3A may be included in the statistical model as second explanatory variable. The low percentage of MgO makes its effect insignificant for inclusion in the developed model. Also, the analysis shows that the restricted percentage of Tricalcium Aluminate C3A in the sulphate resisting cement may serve positively in mitigating the expansion of hardened cement mortar. On the other hand, the developed relation may give indication to control a recommended percentage of free lime in the raw materials to assure allowable soundness of cement.

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Article
Structure and piezoelectricity in blends of PVDF films PVDF
دراسة التركيب و البيزوكهربائية لأغشية من مخلوطات بوليمر

المؤلفون: Rajaa R. Abbas1 --- N. N. Rammo2 --- Ekram A. Al-Ajaj
الصفحات: 201-208
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الخلاصة

The crystalline structure, band vibration and piezoelectric properties of PVDF (neat and blend) oriented in the -phase have been investigated utilizing X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and piezoelectric measurements respectively. The -phase and -phase always exist in the solvent cast films, but with fading orientation caused by the blending content of PMMA and PVAc. Miscibility in the PVDF-PVAc blend was confirmed by vibrational band shift. It was found that the piezoelectricity of PVDF blends might strongly be affected by the final crystal structure of PVDF resulted from blending process and on the nature of blending polymer. However, the magnitude of piezoelectric constant d33 was found to be decreasing with the content of blending polymer for both PVDF-PMMA and PVDF-PVAc blends.

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Article
Distribution of some aerobic bacteria in an infected Cyprinus carpio L. fish farm in Basrah and its resistance to antibiotics

المؤلفون: Eman A. Al-Imarah
الصفحات: 209-215
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الخلاصة

During April 2004, 30- carp male infected fishes and 25 water samples from fish farm ponds in Basrah city were collected. swabs were taken from: under scales , gills , air sac , intestine , spleen , liver , heart , gonads , and kidney. Both samples were tested for bacteria. The following Gram-negative bacterial species were isolated from all samples: Pseudomonas fluorescence (41isolates),Aeromonas hydrophila (28 isolates), Escherichia coli (27 isolates),Klebsiella pneumoniea (21 isolates), Pseudomonas sp.(18 isolates), and Proteus vulgaris(17 isolates). Pseudomonas fluorescence was the dominant among Gram- negative bacterial species isolated from fish samples while Escherichia coli was the dominant among Gram- negative bacterial species isolated from water samples. The Gram- positive bacterial species which isolated from all samples were: Staphylococcus aureus(31 isolates),Sterptococcus faecalis (25 isolates), S.faecium(19 isolates) , Staphylococcus epidermidis(11 isolates), and S.pyogenes(11 isolates). Numbers of Gram- negative bacterial species that isolated from all samples were greater than those of Gram-positive bacterial species. The Minimum Inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 10 isolates of each bacterial species were determined; Gram- negative bacterial species showed more antibiotic resistance than Gram-positive bacterial species

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Article
Effect of Different Acids, Heating Time and Particle Size on Pectin Extraction from Watermelon Rinds

المؤلفون: Asseel Majid Rasheed
الصفحات: 234-243
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الخلاصة

Watermelon cultivation has widely been expanded in Iraq and industrial by-products like watermelon rinds play an important role in pectin manufacture. The objective of this investigation was to determine a practical follow-up to the extraction of pectin from watermelon rinds and to characterize it in a laboratory, on a small scale, aiming at establishing the optimum conditions for acid extraction. The independent variables were citric acid concentration (0.08 – 5 g/ml) and heating time (20 – 110 min). The highest yields were obtained when watermelon rinds was dried and ground to obtain a watermelon flour to be used as raw material, citric or nitric acids were used and when the citric acid concentration was (5 g/100 ml) and the time of reaction was (110 minutes). The watermelon variety in itself was not significant in pectin yield. The degree of esterification (DE = 44.37 %) of the product obtained, as well as its physical looks, show the success of pectin extraction. Results have shown that the generated model adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between the independent variables and the responses, with a correlation coefficient of (0.938) and a (44.9454 %) absolute average percent error.

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Article
Effect of black seed Nigella sativa (L.) seed extract on reproductive organs of male albino rats

المؤلفون: Amal Ali Al-Taee
الصفحات: 244-251
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الخلاصة

This study aimed to evaluate the probable effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NSSE) on reproductive organs of male albino rats .The extract was administrated orally for 30 days at ( 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 ml/100 gm of body weight (b.wt.) .day 1) to adult male rats in addition to control group .Body and reproductive organs weight (testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) for control and treated rats were measured. Histological study were performed in testes and epididymis to calculate the thickness of germinal layer, diameter of seminiferouse tubules and diameter of lumen of seminiferouse tubules in testes and thickness of epithelial layer, diameter of seminiferouse tubules and diameter of lumen of seminiferouse tubules in epididymis .Also the testes used to calculate the number of spermatogenic cell spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocyte ,spermatids , sperms and sterol cells after treatment. Results of experiment indicate that the extract decreased significantly (p>0.05 ) the body weight in all groups in contrast with control group ,while the weight of testes, seminal vesicle and prostate were not changed , the weight of epididymis increased significantly (p<0.05 ) in concentration of 0.4 ml /100 gm b.wt. .In testes, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the diameter of its lumen showed no significant changes when compared with control group, while the thickness of germinal layer of seminiferous tubules increased significantly (p<0.05 ) in concentration of 0.4 ml /100 gm b.wt..In epididymis the diameter of seminiferouse tubules and the diameter of lumen of seminiferouse tubules not changed, but there was significant changes between other groups ,while the thickness of epithelial layer which lying the tubules decreased significantly (p>0.05).The volume density of spermatogonia in concentration of 0.4 ml /100 gm b.wt. and secondary spermatocyte in concentration of 0.1 ,0.3 ,0.4 ml / 100 gm b.wt.increased significantly (p<0.05 ).

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Article
Nonlinear polarization density behaviour simulation in media by electromagnetic wave influence
محاكاة كثافة الاستقطاب في الأوساط اللاخطية بتأثير الموجة الكهرومغناطيسية

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الخلاصة

Bloch's equations have been solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method to evaluate the medium nonlinear polarization density behaviour. The medium has been represented as a two- level system according to the quantum theory. In this representation, matrix density formula describes the two levels coupling, under rotating wave approximation (RWA). The effect of frequency detuning (Δ) on the nonlinear polarization density shows the nonlinear polarization density decreases when the interaction becomes far away from exact resonance interaction. The response of time for nonlinear medium is increase for certain values of  (relative ratio of longitudinal to transverse relaxation time).Then, the responses will be very little as it increase

الكلمات الدلالية

Wave --- Matter interaction --- Nonlinear Optics --- Nonlinear Polarization


Article
The changes in the hatchability & survival of Egg & Larvae of sheep nematode after exposure to Ultraviolet radiation
التغيرات في قابلية الفقس وبقاء بيوض ويرقات ديدان الأغنام الأسطوانية عقب التعرض للأشعة فوق البنفسجية

المؤلفون: Karrar Mohamed Abdul-Sada --- Sundus Nsaif Abd Al-Hucheimi
الصفحات: 260-264
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الخلاصة

The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the hatchability & the activity (survival) of sheep gastrointestinal nematode;Haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis , Oesophagostomum columbianum and Strongyloides papillosus eggs & Larvae were examined. The hatchability decreased with increasing exposure to radiation. The difference in hatchability of eggs irradiated for 15.30 & 60 minutes were highly significant (P< 0.01 dα = 3.08,3.25 and 3.76 respectively) compared with the hatchability of the non-irradiated eggs. The life span of irradiated was shortened , only (19%) of those expose to UV radiation 60 minutes survive for 2 days as against (100%) survival rate in the non-irradiated larvae . Batches of nematode larvae (L1) were irradiated with ultraviolet light for varying time interval to determine the influence of radiation on the transmission potential of the irradiated larvae. There was a decreased in the survival rate of the hatched free-swimming larvae that corresponded with the increasing radiation exposure time .

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Article
Design and Implementation for Intelligent Logic Simplification Program

المؤلفون: Hawrra H.Abbas Al-Rubiae --- Riyadh M. Naife
الصفحات: 265-268
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الخلاصة

Before built any complex logic system we must find all the possible way to establish this system with minimum logic components so, in this paper we design and implement intelligent program (using DELPHE programming language), this program work on simplifying and drawing any logic equation according to knowledge base built from Boolean algebra rules.

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Article
Effect of Iraqi probiotic as an additives feed on carcass characteristics and composition of Awassi lambs

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الخلاصة

Thirty individual Awassi male lambs weighing 25.97 kg and 5-6 months of old were used ,to test the effect of using four levels (0 , 20 ,40 ,and 60 g /kg DM) of Iraqi probiotic in the fattening diets on changes in body weight and carcass gain . At the beginning of the experiment ;Six lambs were randomly allocated to each of the four diets ; the remaining ( six lambs) were slaughtered to provide data to relate empty body weight (EBW), hot and cold carcass weight and physical dissected gain to initial body weight. Lambs in T1 group were fed diet with no probiotic . Lambs in T2 T3 and T4 groups were fed on diets supplemented with 20 , 40 and 60 g/kg DM of Iraqi probiotic respectively .Daily nutrients intake were similar across treatments. Live weight gain slaughter weigh, hot and cold carcass weights , Empty body weight and Killing –out proportions of lambs fed diets supplemented with probiotic were significantly higher (p<0.01) than those fed control diets . However, higher improvement was achieved by lambs fed diet contain 40g/kgDM probiotic (T3). Physically dissected gain ,clearly indicated that supplementation of diets with probiotic approximately doubled the weight of lean gain (p<0.01) and slightly increased the weight of fat and bone gain (p<0.05) as compared with those fed control diets . Physically dissected lean : fat ratio was significantly (p<0.01)greater for lambs fed supplemented diets with probiotic than for those fed control diet (without probiotic) .

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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Ligand type N2O2 and its complexes with (Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions

المؤلفون: Ahmad Thabet Numan --- Issa Omeran Issa --- Leqaa Khalid
الصفحات: 278-285
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الخلاصة

The [2-hydroxy -1,2-diphynel-ethanone oxime] was reacted with 1,2- dichloroethan to give the new ligand [H2L].this ligand was reacted with some metal ions (Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) in methanol as a solvent to give a series of new (1:1)complexes of the general formula [ M(HL)]Cl ,( where : M= Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II)) are isolated All compounds have been characterized by spectroscopic methods [ I.R , U.V -Vis ] atomic absorption . Chloride content along with conductivity measurements. From the above data the proposed molecular structure for (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd) complexes adopting a tetrahedral structure.

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Article
Study of sputtering parameter in D.C. planar magnetron sputtering

المؤلفون: Majid. H. Dwech --- Sarmed. S. AL-Awadi --- Qusay A. Abbes --- Fadhil Yousif Hadi
الصفحات: 286-293
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الخلاصة

In this research used the D.C. planar magnetron sputtering and measurement the some parameter to magnetron sputtering to effect to deposition thin film; this parameters were the pressure, voltage the glow discharge, distance between the target and the substrate, and thickness for thin film. We found the best conditions in the pressure (300mtorr) and distance (4cm) to good thin film.

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