Table of content

Mustansiriya Medical Journal

مجلة المستنصرية الطبية

ISSN: 20701128 22274081
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Mustansiriya Medical Journal MMJ, a semi-annual peer-reviewed journal, is the official Journal of the College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University. The journal was first published during the academic year 2001 - 2002 as the "Journal of Basic Medical Sciences" . Later on, an in order to expand the scope of publication and attract more scientific articles, the editorial board decided in late 2007 to switch the name from “ The Journal of Basic Medical Sciences” to “Mustansiriya Medical Journal”, the official Journal of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Mustansiriya. The first issue with this new name was published in May 2008.

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Contact info

Iraq, Baghdad, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University, P.o.Box: 14132
Tel: 5413485
Fax: 5410584
email: mmj.mcom@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2012 volume:11 issue:1

Article
A clinicopathological review of amiodarone-induced thyroid disorders

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Abstract

Certain drugs could disturb physiological function and anatomical structure of thyroid gland and; to some instance, the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism as part of their adverse reactions. In fact, commonly prescribed drugs including anti-convulsants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, steroid hormones and heparin may produce an abnormal thyroid function test, albeit an absence of detected clinical features for thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, it is recommended to undertake a routine monitoring of thyroid function test, both at baseline and every 3 to 6 months thereafter, in vulnerable individuals (for example, those with thyroid antibodies or euthyroid goiter) receiving such medication.

Keywords

Thyroid --- Drugs --- Amiodarone


Article
Diagnosis and therapeutic aspects of hematospermia: cross sectional survey

Authors: Ala'a Al-Deen Al-Dabbagh
Pages: 13-15
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Abstract

Aims: to investigate hematospermia & study its clinical significance. Patients & methods: a prospective study was carried out on 31 patients with hematospermia at Al-Yermouk Teaching Hospital between January 2007 & January 2009. All patients were clinically assessed & subjected to urinalysis & seminal fluid analysis. Other investigations were done according to individual cases. More than 90% 0f the patients had no prior genitourinary symptoms or significant factors in their history. Results: The etiology of hematospermia was determined & found to be of inflammatory and infective origin in most men especially the young. In 3 of the 31 patients studied, hematuria occurred with hematospermia & was associated with significant lower urinary tract abnormalities such as bladder tumor, however in none of these a relationship appeared between hematospermia & the disease process. Conclusions: From this study we can conclude that hematospermia is of no importance, does not progress, tend to disappear in the course of time & rarely is associated with any significant urologic pathology.


Article
The role of CT scan in the diagnosis of epilepsy

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Background: Neuroimaging has an important application in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with seizures and epilepsy. Aims: To determine the diagnostic yield of CT scan in children with Epilepsy and recurrent seizures. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients with epilepsy referred for CT scan of the brain in Al-Yarmouk general hospital in Baghdad from November 2008 to January 2010, with an age of patients in between 2 days to 15 years. (M 68: F32). Results: Fifty one (51%) had abnormal neuro imaging of which 13 (13%) were found to have possible treatable causes and lesions requiring intervention. A high yield of positive scans distained in children with the presence of abnormal neurological examination focal EEG abnormalities and a history of neonatal seizures. Conclusions: Computed tomography is the standard clinical practice for a child with recurrent seizures, especially with the presence of abnormal neurologic examination and focal EEG changes.

Keywords

Epilepsy --- CT scans --- children


Article
Epidural Labor Analgesia during the First Stage of Labor: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Authors: Ali Hadi Muslih
Pages: 20-23
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Abstract

Background: although severe pain is not life-threatening in healthy parturient women, it can have neuropsychological consequences. Postnatal depression may be more common when analgesia is not used, and pain during labor has been correlated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition, one study suggested that the impairment of cognitive function in the postpartum period can be mitigated by the use of any form of intrapartum analgesia. Aims: to compare a combination of epidural fentanyl and bupivacaine with bupivacaine alone for epidural analgesia in labor and to evaluate factors in addition to analgesia that may influence maternal satisfaction. Patients and methods: a double blind controlled clinical trial carried on 218 multiparous parturient. The patients were randomly allocated in 2 groups. Group 1 (n=109) had received bupivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl 50µg and group 2 (n=109) (control group) had received bupivacaine 0.1% only. Results: in the bupivacaine group, 40 cases (37.7%) had required 2 top-ups and 26 cases (23.9%) had asked for 3 top-ups. On the other hand 14 (12.8%) cases from bupivacaine fentanyl group had asked for 2 top-ups and no cases had recorded request for 3 doses, which was statistically significant (P<0.0001). Conclusions: maternal satisfactory rate is high in both groups; the bupivacaine fentanyl group had shown a good response to the effect of analgesia with the minimal medical intervention.


Article
The Accuracy of Blood Pressure Device

Authors: Najla Ayoub --- Hana Alsaeed --- Lamya Ayoub
Pages: 24-26
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Abstract

Background: One of the factors affecting the accuracy of readings of blood pressure is the equipment used. Defects or inaccuracy of the sphygmomanometer may be source of error in blood pressure measurement. Aims: This study had two objectives. Firstly, to assess the accuracy of sphygmomanometer used in general practice and secondly to assess the physical condition. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers were tested for accuracy and physical condition. Results: The results were that of the mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers tested, 30% were inaccurate, of these, 10% recorded an error greater than 10 mmHg. Both types of sphygmomanometers were evaluated for conditions of cuff/bladder, pump bulb, and valve. Air leaks / holes in the pump bulb was found in 4% and bladder damage in 6% and indicator needles not pointing to the zero. Conclusions: It is necessary that all equipment used for blood pressure measurement should be checked for accuracy on regular period.


Article
Plateletpheresis concentrate produced with Fresenius cell separator Iraqi experience

Authors: Nidal Karim Al-Rahal
Pages: 27-32
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Abstract

Background: Various types of plateletpheresis instruments are available for single donor plateletpheresis. In plateletpheresis blood is withdrawn from the donor in anticoagulant solution and separated into components. Platelets are retained and the remaining components are returned to the individuals. Aims: Evaluation of Fresenius COM.TEC; apheresis machine in regard to processing time, platelet (plt) yield efficiency, white blood cell (WBC) content and safety. Patients and Methods: Twenty two healthy male donors included in single donor plateletpheresis by Fresenius COM.TEC between February 2006 and July 2006 at bone marrow transplantation Center, Medical City Hospital, Baghdad / Iraq. The donor’s age, height, weight, complete blood count, blood group &Rh & vital signs were recorded and they were observed throughout the procedure. Plateletpheresis operational variables and the product variables were assessed. Results: The plateletpheresis product data which includes, donor platelet count with mean 229.424 x10³/cmm (range 185-336 x10³/cmm), product platelet count x10³/cmm mean 1268.5 x10³/cmm (range 604-2525 x10³/cmm), Platelet yield with mean 3.39 x10¹¹/cmm (range 2.51-7.57 x10¹¹/cmm), 90.90%of the product >3x10¹¹plt. No. of yield with WBC <1x106 18 out of 22 donors (81.18%), collection efficiency the mean 48,85% (range 32.18-60.28), the collection efficiency >50% was seen in 13 out of 22 donors (59.09%). Few donors exhibited adverse reactions mainly circumoral paresthesia in two donors (9.09%) mild pain at the phlebotomy site in three donors (13.63%). Only one had dizziness which account for 4.54%. Conclusions: Fresenius COM.TEC; apheresis instrument collected platelets safely, efficiently, with consistent leukoreduction product according to the AABB (American Association of Blood Banks) & with short time.


Article
Femoral neck anteversion & hip rotation range in healthy Iraqi children: A clinical anatomical study

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Background: Femoral neck anteversion (FNA) is a physiological torsion of the femur that plays an important role in the stability & function of the hip joint and has a great impact on the rotational movements of the hip. Abnormal development of the FNA may be associated with a number of orthopaedic problems affecting the hip joint & gait ranging from in-toing gait to disabling osteoarthritis. The assessment of the angle is therefore important in assessing such problems & determining the best course of action in their management. Aims: this study aims at measuring the FNA angle in healthy Iraqi children & examining its impact on hip rotational movements at different age groups. Patients and methods: 36 healthy Iraqi male children divided into 3 age groups were examined clinically for the range of hip rotation & were then subjected to X-ray estimation of the FNA angle of their hips using Ogata’s Biplanar method. Results & conclusions: all the children had FNA angles & hip rotational movements within the normal range for their age with a significant regression in FNA angle with increasing age that may be related to muscular torsional forces applied to growing epiphyses. The FNA angle was inversely proportional to lateral rotation of the hip but directly proportional to medial rotation. Sides to side differences were noticed in tested subjects and were statistically significant in the (8-9 years) age group. This bilateral disparity may normally result from cerebral lateralization or prolonged postural dynamic factors affecting the joints & soft tissues.


Article
Studying the Effect of Montelukast in the Treatment of Dysmenorrhea: A single-Blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

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Background: In the field of gynecology, studies have found high levels of leukotriene in the endometrium and uterine smooth muscles of patients with dysmenorrheal and menstrual pain. Aim: to evaluate the effectiveness of montelukast in relieving the symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Patients and methods: A randomized, single-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study was designed. Seventy patients suffering from dysmenorrhea complete this study, divided randomly into two groups: montelukast group (34 patients) and placebo group (36 patients).Values before and after treatment were compared over two menstrual cycles, using visual analog scale (VAS) score and NSAID usage per menstrual cycle. Results: Post-treatment VAS score and NSAID usage decreased significantly in both montelukast and placebo group, compared to their pre-treatment values (P<0.05). The mean decreases in VAS score and NSAID usage were more in the montelukast group than in the placebo group, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The ratio of the highly effective cases, for both VAS score and NSAID usage, was significantly higher in the montelukast group than placebo group (P<0.05). Means of VAS score and NSAID usage didn't change in all of endometriosis patients after administration of montelukast or placebo therapy. Conclusions: For some women, montelukast may be effective in relieving symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea. It's safe and has no serious adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a good option for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea before starting with hormonal therapy.

Keywords

Montelukast --- NSAIDs --- Dysmenorrhea


Article
Effect of Viola odorata extract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa produce β-lactamase enzyme

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Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a classic opportunist pathogen with innate antibiotics and disinfectant. It is physiologically versatile and flourishes as a saprophyte in warm moist situation within human environment, including sinks, drains, respirators, humidifiers and disinfectant solutions. Aims: investigate the antibacterial activity of Viola odorata extract in vitro. Patients and methods: alcohol solvent was mainly utilized for such extraction procedure with subsequent application of the extract against resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolating from different body sites. Twenty two isolates, out of 222 samples, produced Beta lactamase (β-lactamase) and such isolated bacteria was examined for antibiotic sensitivity test toward ten antibiotics namely ampicillin, Augmentin, cefotaxime, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, tobramycin, and imipenem. Results: it was revealed that the alcohol extracts of Viola Odorata; range with half concentration (500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, 15.7 mg/ml); exhibited broader spectrum as well as greater activity against resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa among those with/without tested extracts with inhibition zone vary between (10-30 mm). Conclusions: These data suggest that Viola odorata extract could inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in vitro and this activity may contribute to its chemopreventive effect.


Article
The incidence of stress hyperglycemia in acute ischemic stroke patients (in Al-Yarmouk teaching hospital)

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Aims: Stress hyperglycemia represents a transient increase in blood glucose in reaction to acute illness. Cases with stress hyperglycemia have higher mortality rates and worse functional outcomes than the ones with known diabetes or normoglycemia. This study evaluated the incidence of stress hyperglycemia in acute ischemic stroke patients and its relationship with stroke risk factors. Patients and Methods: WHO criteria is used to confirm hyperglycemia and HbA1c test to detect stress hyperglycemia in a sample of 220 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted to Al-Yarmouk teaching hospital in Baghdad from 1 April to 31 December 2010. Results: thirty nine patients with acute ischemic stroke had stress hyperglycemia. There is significant effect of gender, hypertension, atrial fibrillation and dyslipidemia on patients with stress hyperglycemia while this is not found with obesity and smoking. Conclusions: stress hyperglycemia is a common phenomenon in patients who develop acute ischemic stroke.


Article
Effect of hawthorn extract on blood pressure and lipid profile in patients with stage I hypertension: A placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial

Authors: Ali Ismail A. Al-Gareeb
Pages: 52-57
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Aims: To investigate the possible effects of hawthorn extract on blood pressure & blood lipid profile in patients with stage I hypertension. Patients and Methods: This 12 week randomized, double -blind, placebo controlled study was conducted on newly diagnosed patients with stage I hypertension (n=60). Patients were selected from outpatient clinic in Al-Yarmuk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad and were divided into two groups each comprising of 30 patients, they were given hawthorn extract capsule 450 mg (Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) twice daily and identical placebo capsule respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded and fasting lipid profile was done initially and at the end of 4th, 8th and 12th week of treatment. Both of hawthorn and placebo treated group were given diet and exercise plan. Results: After 12 weeks the hawthorn treated group had a significant reduction in both of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01), serum total cholesterol (p<0.001) and low density lipoprotein (p<0.001), while the placebo treated group had a non-significant decrease in their blood pressure (p>0.05), serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (p>0.05). High density lipoprotein was significantly increased in patients treated with hawthorn (3.01 mg/dl, 8.13% P= <0.05) compared with placebo group (1.06 mg/dl, 2.8 % P= > 0.05) but there was no significant difference in triglyceride detected between two groups. Conclusions: The study suggests that hawthorn does have an effective antihypertensive ability, as well as lipid lowering effects.


Article
The Role of Leptin and Insulin like Growth factor-1 in patients with Thyroid dysfunction

Authors: Huda H. Hassan
Pages: 58-62
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the relationship between serum Leptin, Growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and untreated thyroid dysfunction patients. Patients and Methods: A study was made on 50 untreated goiterous patients (female and males) with range between (25-55) years; and25 controls subjects (females and males) with range between (14-55) years. Serum T3, T4 &TSH were by Radio immune assay (RIA) method. Serum Leptin and Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was measured by ELISA method. Results: The mean Serum Leptin level was significantly lowest in hyperthyroidism than control subjects. While Insulin growth factor level was significantly highest in hyperthyroidism than control subjects (3.82 vs. 2.49) Conclusions: the objective of the study was to provide new data on the relationship between serum Leptin, Insulin like Growth Factor-1 levels and thyroid dysfunction.


Article
Chromium and Vanadium level in children with Type 1 diabetes

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Aims: To measure the level of Chromium and Vanadium in the serum of Iraqi children with Type 1 diabetes in an effort to evaluate the status of these elements. Patients and Methods: Thirty – five children with type 1 diabetes were involved in the study. They were all out- patients attending the National Diabetes Center. Thirty seven non- diabetic apparently healthy children were included in the study to compare these controls for age and sex with the diabetics patients. Plasma glucose was measured using PAP – Enzymatic method. HbA1c was estimated by using non–ion exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Trace elements including chromium and vanadium were determined by flameless atomic absorption. Results: All diabetics showed a significantly decrease in both element (Cr and V.) studied as compared with their controls matched for age and sex. [(17.35 ± 1.81 ng/ml) (18.76 ± 2.9 ng/ml) and (43.47 ± 0.26 ng/ml) (26.20 ± 0.97 ng/ml) (P< 0.0001)] respectively. In addition to that, there was a significant positive correlation between age and both plasma glucose and HbA1c levels for those patients with type 1 diabetes (r=0.37, 0.33) (p<0.05) respectively, while there was a significant negative correlation between age and both serum Cr and V levels (r= 0.45, 0.52) (p<0.05) respectively. Results from controls, showed a significant positive correlation between both plasma glucose and HbA1c with serum Cr level (r= 0.39, r= 0.35) (p<0.05) respectively, while there was a significant negative correlation between age and serum Cr level (r= 0.40) (p<0.05). Conclusions: Due to deficiency of these trace elements, supplementation is indicated to diabetics especially to those with diabetic complications. Things such as eating a better daily diet, in which elements content is optimal, is .considered few of the major controllable areas of our lives.


Article
Histopathological effects of exogenous melatonin on connective tissues of thymus gland in male rats

Authors: Basim Sh. Ahmed
Pages: 69-74
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Background: The neurohormone namely melatonin is secreted by the pineal body in brain. It could reach all the bodily tissues and cells; affecting their function, depending on its biological level. Thymus gland is well known to be the main central immunity director, and its wellness is rather proportional to melatonin level. Aims: This work was done to study the histopathological effect of exogenous melatonin on thymic connective tissue bulk. Materials and Methods: Dietary melatonin was supplied to adult rats, for successive 30 days. Rats were divided 6 groups. Group 1 was the control, group I was the control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplied with a daily measured quantity of melatonin as 125, 250, 500, and 1000 µm/kg body wt, respectively. After the last day of treatment all animals were killed then the left thymic lobe was removed under anesthesia for histopathological study. Results: No noteworthy effect of melatonin was seen on the thymic connective tissue on its normal doses, whilst it had significant effect on the connective tissue bulk with its large doses. Conclusions: The treatment of dietary melatonin had no important effects on the rat thymic connected tissues, on its little doses, but it has considerable effects when administrated in large doses.


Article
Superficial Fungal infections

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Background: This work aimed to isolate and identify fungi from different superficial fungal infection since these infections are widely distributed among low socioeconomic level people. Patients and Methods: All clinical specimens from skin, hair, scalp and feet were diagnosed as dermatophytes or other fungi according to well-known established mycological methods for isolation and identification of certain fungi. Results: This study was undertaken at AL-Yarmook Teaching Hospital during the period January 2008-December 2009 in which 55 clinically diagnosed as fungal infection were the source of clinical specimens. Out of 55 cases it has been found that 45 specimens (81.8%) were positive for fungi from which 21 (46.6%) were dermatophytes, 16 (35.5%) pityriases versicolor, 8(18.2%) candida albicans. Conclusion: It is concluded that dermatophytes are the major cause of mycotic superficial infections and that skin is the predominant area of the body which is invaded by fungi.


Article
Non-opioid analgesia with Regional block: The effect of ketamine as adjuvant with 0.5% bupivacaine in infraclavicular brachial plexus block

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Aims: To determine the effect of the addition of 25 µg/kg body weight ketamine to 0.5% bupivacaine in infra-clavicular brachial plexus block. Patients and Methods: In a randomized double blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial, Forty patients, from the age of 20-60 years, with ASA I, II and III, undergoing upper limb (below elbow) surgery, had been chosen to be enrolled in the study. They had been divided randomly, into 2 groups. Group 1 will receive 30 ml of solution 1 (25 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with 5 ml of normal saline) as placebo or control group. Group 2 will receive 30 ml of solution 2 (25 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with 25 µg/kg body weight ketamine) as ketamine group. A nerve stimulator (B/Braun Stimuplex® HNS 11) had been connected to 22G-10 cm length insulated needle. Time of motor impairment was assessed by lack of muscular coordination and heaviness feeling of the limb. Time of parasthesia was assessed by loss of pin brick sensation. Results: There was a quite noticeable prolonged time of analgesia in the ketamine group. The mean ± SD was 698 ± 139 minutes in ketamine group while the mean ± SD in placebo group was 140 ± 40 minutes (p<0.05). Twelve patients out of 20 had recorded 800 minutes of analgesia (60%) in ketamine group. There were no other clinical differences in side effects or motoric latency in between both groups. Conclusions: Low dose of ketamine added as an adjuvant to 0.5% bupivacaine in infra-clavicular brachial plexus block, will prolong the time of post-operative analgesia without any side effects.


Article
Study of the growth and puberty in Iraqi children with nephrotic syndrome

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Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a chronic disease with frequent relapses and the accumulative dose of steroid play an important role in developing growth retardation. Aims: To detect the degree of growth retardation in long standing nephrotic syndrome and frequent relapsing nephrotic syndrome, and to identify the effect of nephrotic syndrome and steroid therapy on puberty. Patient and methods: A cross sectional study conducted in Child Central Teaching Hospital from the first of January to first of July 2008, on 108 patients with steroid responding nephrotic syndrome, 60 of them were males and 48 were females. All had anthropometric measurement of height and the assessment depend on Tanner growth centile for age and sex, so as the puberty staging according to Tanner staging. The ranges of the patients ages were 2-17y and the mean age was 11.5+4 y. 59.25% (64) were having steroid toxicity; no patient was on cytotoxic drug. Results: The results were shown that 52/ 108 (48.18%) of the patients have got growth retardation (2SD below the mean) Fifty of the patients were at pubertal age, 30 were males and 20 were females. 39 patients had delayed puberty (78%), 36 patients with delayed puberty had steroid toxicity (94.73%). There is a significant relationship between frequency of relapses, duration of illness and steroid toxicity with incidence of delayed puberty and growth retardation. Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between the growth retardation and the development of steroid toxicity. With frequent relapses and long standing nephrosis, there is a chance to develop growth retardation. Delayed puberty is more with steroid toxicity and it is more in males than females.


Article
The role of pre-operative investigations in deciding the outcome of thyroid surgery

Authors: Hussein Hadi --- Haqqi I. Razzouki
Pages: 90-93
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Background: Patients undergoing surgery for solitary thyroid nodules or multinodular goiter are investigated preoperatively. These investigations may define or possible cases of thyroid malignancy and so help in planning the surgical approach and affect the outcome of the management of the patient in general. Aims: To evaluate the roles played by preoperative investigations in cases of thyroid enlargement in deciding the probable outcome of the operative procedure with emphasis on cases of thyroid malignancies. Patients and Methods: All patients admitted for thyroid gland surgery at Al-Yarmouk teaching hospital for the period from Oct.1 2008 to Oct.1 2009 were fully evaluated preoperatively. Clinical, radiological, hormonal and FNA cytological findings were recorded. Operative findings were reported. Histopathological diagnosis followed and reported. Results: During the period of the study (102) patients were admitted with management, the majority were females (82) in the fourth decade of life (35 cases). The main clinical presentation was multinodular goiter (84) ultrasonography revealed (78) cystic lesions and (24) solid lesions. The main pre-operative investigation was F.N.A cytology. The majority of the reports were normal (78) with four reports of malignancy. The main finding at surgery was multinodular goiter (94 cases). The most common operative procedure was sub-total thyroidectomy (59). Histopathological examination revealed (85) benign pathology and (17) malignant all of them papillary carcinoma. Conclusions: F.N.A cytology is the most important pre-operative diagnosis and because of the reported low sensitivity further experience and training is recommended.

Keywords

Pre-0peration --- Thyroid


Article
Use of Anethum graveolens in the management of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Imad Hashim Mohammad
Pages: 94-98
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Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder affect quality of life for patients. Recently due to low level of satisfaction with the available treatment, high percent of IBS patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine especially herbal medicine. Aims: To examine the effectiveness of Anethum graveolens in the Management of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Patients and Methods: Thirty two patients with IBS who diagnosed according to Rome criteria were allocated into 2 groups: group A, treated with the standard pharmacological agent mebeverine 135mg tid; group B, treated with capsules containing powder of crude plant of Anethum graveolens tid, for two weeks. The IBS symptoms were assessed before therapy and after two weeks, the symptoms evaluated were: pain severity, pain frequency, stool frequency, stool consistency, abdominal distension, incomplete evacuation, urgency and passing of mucus. Results: Treatment of IBS patients with the tested herbal agents show improvement in all IBS symptoms after two weeks in both of individual symptom score or total score percent, treatment with Anethum graveolens show significant P≤0.05 improvement in total score percent 78.13%, compared to mebeverine 53.13%. Conclusions: Patients with IBS may benefit from two weeks treatment with Anethum graveolens, administered as a capsule containing powder of crude plant, the improving effect occur in all IBS symptomed without any side effect reported indicating the efficacy and safety of Anethum graveolens in the management of IBS symptoms.


Article
Serotonin and obesity

Authors: Ali Ismail A. Al-Gareeb --- Ammar W. Ashor
Pages: 99-99
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The central mechanisms which control food intake involve many CNS regions and including different neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Of these neurotransmitters, is serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)

Table of content: volume:11 issue:1