Table of content

Journal of College of Education

مجلة كلية التربية

ISSN: 18120380
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Education
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Scientific Journal issued by College of Education / The University of Musansiriya

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07716816052

Table of content: 2009 volume: issue:3

Article
SEMI‐BOUNDED SET IN BORNOLOGICAL SPACE, SEMIBOUNDED MAP,AND SEMICONVERGENCE

Authors: Anwar Noor Al-deen Al-Salihi
Pages: 1-12
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In this paper we introduce the concept of semi-bounded set in Bornological Spaces, semi bounded linear ffiap, semi convergence in Bornological vector Space and study some of their basic propefties.

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Article
الفهرست+الواجهة+هيأة التحرير

Pages: 1-1
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Article
Design and Implementation Software for Three Dimensional Transformations on Drawings Figures

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This paper includes new software system designed to apply transformation Concept on tirree dime"nsional q.upl,i"f image (gD) consist of height , width and depth.The-proposed system provide two"types of graphics image,,. officinal graphics which draw - by d"esigner, possibility of draw this graphics by window similir to paint window that companion with operating systems. Afterward, apply-the projection, technique to sh-ow the graphics 3D image in two dimensional screen the research execute to kind of projection, orthogonal projection which may be cause loss much information from giaphics image especially depth, perspective transformati"on'which allo may di.stortion the original graphic, so the two previous projections are summation in one projection called perspective projection to get the 3D transformation more precisely and realism. The main objective of this research is to apply the transformation on 3Ii graphics image which c,onsist from set of operations to make cliange on if such as ghqnge in position ,size and direction, this lransformation include translation , rotation , scaling , reflection and shearing. " ヽ

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Article
Information Hiding Technique on Wave Files

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Steganography is the art and science of hiding infonnation into digital media for the purpose of identification, annotation, and copyright. In a way that prevents the outside observer from recognizing the present of hidden information. In the current research, a design and implementation for text's Steganography system based on Least Significant Bits (LSB) mechanism was presented and discussed. The performance of the hiding text system was considered up to 2-bits hiding rates. Adaptive LSB :nethod was suggested, implemented and tested, that based on the idea of the substitution criteria. The results have indicating a good performance to hide message in the wave file.

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Article
Fingerprint Identification Using WAVELET Transform

Authors: Khalida Ali Ahmed
Pages: 56-70
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Biometric identification systems have been developed to achieve automatic identification of a person based on his physiological or behavioral characteristics. Biometric systems are critical in a wide range of applications such as banking system, E-commerce, smart cards, and access control to secure system. Automatic fingerprint identification is one of the most reliable biometric system, which is used for identifying persons. This study, aim is to design a fingerprint identification system, which is capable of identifying a fingerprint with high level of accuracy. Therefore, this system can be applied to a wide range of forensic applications. This study has proposed many algorithms for automatic fingerprint identification . The proposed algorithm based upon wavelet transform (four levels) feature extraction and minimum distance classifier (Euclidean distance ) to make fingerprint identification. The identification accuracy of this algorithm has been found to be 60%

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Article
Design WDM using Pump Coupler Counter-Propogating & uniform Bragg Grating

Authors: Yosra Abdul-Sahib
Pages: 71-97
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b-wsturar"ctt.ngth Division Multiplexing (woM)__i: another way of increasing tf,e bandwidth of a given system . Within this system, various iavelengths are transmitted together on one optical fiber, without any interference. with all wDM techniques, the required characteristics are high selectivity (the ability to separate two adjacent channels), high outof- band iejection in order to guarantee a low cross-talk between channels. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs), and cascaiid-Mach-Zehnder filters are excellent devices ior filtering purposes. ttris paper presents a design idea to build a WOV1 a"riuitipi.*., .o*ponant using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) and Pump Coupler Counter Propagation. The results obtained reveal that the suggested design is powerful in achieving accurate Jemultiplexei- design. W; aim to demonstrate the high level u"ruru"|, the time ind cost saving from using the latest state of art software. The perforrnance was measured using quality factor (Q. Eacto4 and 6it error rate (BER), available via visualizers Component Library, included in Optisystem simulator' Keyrvords- Fiber n.ugg grating, uniform fiber Bragg grating filter, pump coupler counteipropagation, Ideal dispersion compensation.

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Article
Enhancement Of Digital Learning Networks

Authors: Baidaa Abd Alkhaliq
Pages: 98-110
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ln this research we introduce the design and implementation oftechniquc which is suitable for enhancing alld irnproving the perforinance of digital leanling networks. The primary otteCtiVe of the work repo■ ed in this paper was to investigatc advanced technique so as to improve the recognition performance of non‐ dete111linistic data using digital learning networks which ilnplement n… tuplc method of pattern rccognition.In this class of data,unconstraincd hand― written characters were chosen to optiFniZe the techniques which can bc applied to other forrrls of data

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Article
تصميم منظومة المدرسة الالكترونية

Authors: اشوان انور العلي
Pages: 111-132
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Article
Improving Quality of Service of Real Time Traffic in Wireless Local Area Network

Authors: احمد هاشم محمد
Pages: 133-151
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The IEEE 802.11e standard has been introduced recently for providing Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities in the emerging wireless local area networks. Because the performance of EDCA of IEEE802.l le becomes critical when the number of mobile stations increases. In this work an Adaptive Contention Window mechanism is proposed, which dynamically selects the optimal contention window according to the estimate of the number of contending stations for each haffic category. This is done by using two control parameters set differently for each traffic category in successful and collision case respectively. It is compared with other adaptive technique and the results show that the proposed adaptive technique enhances the channel utilization by increasing throughput, decreasing delay and decreasing collision probability in all number of stations.

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Article
Design and Implementation of New Computation Method for Multiwavelets Decomposition as 1't and 2nd Approximations

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One of the important differences between multiwavelets and scalar wavelets is that each channel in the filter bank has a vector-valued output as scalar-valued input signal must somehow be converted into a suitable vector-valued signal .This conversion is called preprocessing[1]. Preprocessing is mapping process which is done by a prefilter. A postfilter just does the opposite. The most obvious way to get two input rows from a given signal to repeat the signal [2]. Two rows go to into the rnultifilter bank. This procedure is called "Repeated row" which introduce over sampling of data by a factor of 212]. Two rows go into the multifilter bank. For data compression , where one is trying to find compact transform representation for a dataset[3], it is imperative to find critically sampled multiwavelet transform schemes which this paper focus on finding a simple and easy to follow algorithm for its computation. One famous multiwavelet filter used here is the GHM filter proposed by Geronimo. The GHM basis offers a combination of orthogonally, symmetry, and compact support, which can not be achieved by any scalar wavelet basis [4]. Using a computer program for the proposed method, an example test on tiger image is verified which shows image properties after a single level decomposition and the reconstructed image after reconstruction'


Article
Comparison between Logic Tools in System Analysis and Design

Authors: سلام شاكر كتاب
Pages: 186-203
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There are three types of logic tools which used by the system analyst to describe the problems or systems in the analyzing, documentation and design phases of the system analysis and design. The logic tools are vary in complexity and have different strict to describe the same system. Therefore it,s essential to compare between the logic tools to reach the best tool to describe the problem that the system analyst wishes to solve in the System Development Life cycle (SDLC). The advantages and drawbacks of each toor wil be cleared by using practicar examples and conclude the results. we will compare between these tools by using the same example to see the differences.

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Article
Nelv Equations for the Calculation of Absorptance and Reflectance of Materials

Authors: Aqeel R, Salih
Pages: 216-224
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Absorptance and reflectance of IRTRAN materials at room lemperature have been calculated for the 0.5-15 pm spectral region by using new approximate equations and compared with original equations. The new equations can be generalized to other materials.

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Article
أنموذج رياضي لحساب قيم عتبة القدرة الليزريةالداخلةالىالعين

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Mathematical relations has been derived to made a model for calculating the values of direct retinal irradiations by a laser ener gy at narrow and far Field of view ( Fov ) , also the mathematical relations for indirect reflections of a laser irradiation has been calculated . The effect of laser power on the human eye for four laser types ( two Ion Argon , Ruby , Nd : YAG) calculated at range of two kilometers .

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Article
On The Classical Groups

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The main object of this work is to calculate the graded characters of classical groups An ,Cn ,Dn by using the basic spin characters .

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Article
فضاءات جزئية من توسيع كاتيتوف

Authors: عطالله ثامر العاني
Pages: 253-261
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Properties of Subspaces of Katetov Extension are given and some Extension theorems are proved.

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Article
On fuzzY SP -continuous In fuzzy topological space onfuzzy sets

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In this paper, we present fttzzy topology on fitzzy sets and ftrzry 13 -open sets on this fuzzy topology' ancl we study fuz:zy SB -continuous on fu:ay topology on fuzzy sets and some theorem and properties related of this subject'

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Article
The use of (PCA) and (FA) to study some of polutants in Baghdad City "Al-Russafa Side "

Authors: Nadia Hashim AL-Noor --- Nada Sabah Karam
Pages: 294-309
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fr]ngifat Components Analysis (pCA) and Factor analysis (FA) " depending on two extraction methods, namely principal component factor anarysis (pcFA) and maximum hlefihood factor analysis (MLFA), are used to study some of porlutants i, atmospheres of some industrial district in Al-Russafa side of Baghdad city.

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Article
Image processing Techniques for study of colon tumors samPles

Authors: We'dad A- Kader --- Ziacl M' Abood --- Salah M- Ali
Pages: 310-320
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In this research, we present many digital image processlng teaohings to a novel upp.ouih to thc aided analysis of digital image for colon Ju.rr", detection. We have the image (which is the study samples in the form of a finite thiclmess tissue sections on slide glass) by using the optical microscopic connect directly u'ith a computer by digital camera. First,usingasupervised-cross-correlation-testing(sccT) method is developed and used to differentiate between normal and abnormal tissue's irnug", of colon cancer, with measurement the mean and standard deviation of these samples' Second, making a comparison clepending on histogram and weightage of RGB iolors between normal and abnormal samples'


Article
corelation test, colon cancer recognition, computcr-aided diaguosis, histograrns, BI, image processing'

Authors: Salwa Salman Abd --- Zena llussein Msbeed
Pages: 321-335
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In this paper, we show that some results about Hutchinson- Barnsley theory fbr finite iterated functions systems may be carried over to the infinite case. In fact, we show that, if {f:i e ! } is a family of Matkowski $-contractions on a complete metric space X such that the sequence ,., is bounded for some x6 in X, then there exists a non-empty bounded and separable invariant set with respcct to this family.

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Article
On the Commutant M - Hyponormal Operators

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Let r be a pure ar-hyponormal operator cornmutator.We show that the unit ball of the compact in the strong operator topology

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Article
TheEffectoftheAirTemperatureonSoil Moisture in the Middle East

Authors: Ahmed S. Hasssn
Pages: 343-351
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Soil moisture and related hydrological process play an important role in regional and global climates' However' largescale and long-term observation of soil moisture is sparse' In this study, the latest European Center for Media-Range Weather F.rrcasts (ECMWF) data ERA-15 Model is used io calculate the monthlymeansofsoilmoistureforfourcitiesintheMiddleEast (Baghdad, Beirut, Dubai' and Riyadh)' Results showed that the soil moisture is inversely proporlional for Baghdad' Beirut' and Riyadh, while it is almost independent of temperature for Dubai city. The results also indicated that Baghdad has the highest soil moisturecomparedwiththeotherthreecities'DtrbaiandBeirut has relatively lorver soil rnoisture'

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Article
تخمين مساحة الغطاءالغيمي فيالغلاف الجوي للصور المرئيةفيالقمرالاصطناعي ميتيوسات : دراسة خاصة

Authors: ياسمين كاظمالتميمي
Pages: 352-363
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T[e area of total clouds cover from visible images of METEOSAI (7) was estimated in this research , by calculating the probability of the ratio taken from digital image classified by the supervised classification wh.ich is depend on maximum likelihood classification ,depending on the value of spatial resolution for visible image 2.5km to each pixel element and the image size of study area (1000 X 1000)pixel. lt was found that the total aroa

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Article
Modify vedio data image comprcssion using adaptive technique for estimation motion

Authors: Ban Abdul Rzzak Abbas
Pages: 364-378
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out:::ntly image compression has been pushed to th.e for front of the image prorJ"i"g field' This was laigely a result of rapid growth in .o*put., p"o*t1 , the corrtspontling growth in the multimedia -*r."i, i"J tnt advent of tht world wide web (www), which rnui.., the internet easily accessiblefor^everyone ' Since the early 1980, digital image "qut"t" processing has been an attractive resear.tt it"u because an image sequence' as a collection of images, may provide much comprission than a single irnage frame. Tho incrlased computational complexity and memory space required for image t"q"n'" processing' has in fact' become more attainable' r ,- In this ,"r.ur"t, "t* modiffing steps have been proposed to ,.Jrr"ih. searching time in DC1 comoression technique' A morliff Three Step-Search Algorithm for searching scheme has been introduc--ed-*li.n contribtites in decreasing -the motion searching time ot- ihe successive inter frames. The method depend on adopting the t""U ,;;;s of .other methods' In our searching ;i;;t;,li; o1 efficlent biocks position is determined'

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Article
دراسة اسباب فشل حدوث اتصالنقطي للموجاتعاليةالتردد HF بين بغداد وأماكنأخرىفيالعراق للأعوام 1994و1995

Authors: عوني أدوارعبد الأحد
Pages: 379-390
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In using FIF band point to point communication at Baghdad, there is a yearly report for estimated critical frequencies which can be forecasted at daytime and nighttime based on Tindex method. In this work hours of high solar and geomagnetic activity have examined to influence the wave returning point from F region and the failure of radio connections, also the effect of sporadic E region occulrence due these hours of disconnections, beside the problems in receiving instruments and manmade errors. Results shown that the ratio of high solar activity hours was 9.2o/o or the whole hours of disconnections and high geomagnetic activity hours ratio made I l.lYo of the total hours, while the occurrence of Es- layer can be 30.5% of the total hours and the ratio of bad use of the frequency report and failure in instruments can be 15.5% of the total hours of disconnection hourly cases. The remaining 33J% is due to the reported extra hours after the lifting of the affect which may need for longer time to be haling.

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Article
Compression Of Aerial Image Data Using Adaptive Discrete Cosine Transform (ADCT,)

Authors: Ebtesam Fadhel Kanger
Pages: 391-405
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Theamountofdataassociatedwithvisualinformationisso large that its storage wourd require_-enonnous capacity. Although the capacities of several storage media' In order to reduce the volume of pictorial data wtrich one may need to store or transmit, the research modifies a method for image datacompressionbasedonthenewalgorithmto-optimizethe "o*pr.rrion performance by DCT classification scheme for the image blocks is aaoptea, u bit allocation matrices them, designed toassignagivennumuerofbitsforeachretainedtransformed coefficients.

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Article
اختبار تأثير رش حامض الساليلك على نباتات مصابة بالعفن الرمادي المتسبب عن الفطر Botrytis cinerea

Authors: دينا يوسف محمد يوسف
Pages: 405-418
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The present study was conducted to study the effect of Salicylic acid on the experimental infection of some plants (eggplant leaves & cucumber) with fungu s Botrytis cinetea ' The fungus was isolated from eggpiant stem infected with Gray mold .we inoculated the fungus as a local spot by scorching small spots of these plants with the aid of hot nail .These spots were then exposed to the spray of 0'5g lL aqueous solution of Salicylic acid before and after the inoculation of fungus. we observed that , Salicylic acid at concentration of 0.5g lL is effectingthefungalinfection.ThesprayingofSalicylicacidbefore 24, 48 hour prevent the development of disease and make a good protection of the mentioned plants from infection with this fungus' While, the ability of fungus to grow after 24,48 hours from Salicylic acid treatment was markedly reduce as compared with control 'such treatment show slow growth of pathogen infect'

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Article
طريقةجديدة لتحضير حامض الكينودي اوكسي كوليك بالمواصفات الدوائية الدستورية ودراسة تأثيره كمضاد بكتيري

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Anervmethodfortlresynthesisofchenodeoxycholicacid(3,7- Dilrydroxy-5B-cholanicacitl)withpharmaceuticalspecification,was esttrblished.ItincludetheconversionofMethyls,T.Diacetoxy.l2. ketocholate to Methyl 3,7-diacetoxy-12-oxocholate tosylhydrazone' Tlriscompoundwasreducedwithpotassiumtetrahydroboratetotlre countermethylester,whichundergoeshydrotysistochenodeoxycholic acid,finaltypurifiedbyrecrysallizationwithacetonitrile(withayield of 60 %). This methoi offer the following advantages: reducing the numberofsynthesisstepsandtheformationofunwantedisomers,as vvell as its suitability for large scale production' The bactericiial effect of chenodeoxycholic acid and its intermediatederivativeswerestudiedbyusinglocallyisolatedstrains of the following bacteria P' aeruginosa ' E' coli 'S' aureusr aud s' epidermidis by following Broth dilution method. The results showed that these compounds posses bactericidal cffect very clear for Gratnpositive bacteria parlicularly in case of S. epidermidis. It was found that Methyl 3,7 - diacetoxy- I 2-oxocholate tosylh y drazone (IV) showed relatively the highest bactericidal effect, probably due to the presence of sulphonyl effect.

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Article
دراسة بعض اخماج بكتريا الزوائف الونجارية Pseudomanus aeruginos ومقاومتها للمضادات الحيوية وتضادها مع عصيات حامض اللاكتيك

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Pseudomonas aeruginoso were obtained and diagnosed according to conventional morphological and biochemical tests, the high prevalence number of samples were urine (23%), (1 8%)burn,(l 2%)wound,(8%) sputum and dialysis fluid,(3%,4o/o,5ya) respectively,( I %)vaginal and nose infection.Antibiotic susceptibi I ity tests were performed .Pscudomonas aeruginr-rsa isolates were after subjecting the isolates to sensitivity test,the isolates exhibited relatively high resistance to ampicillin,amoxicillin and piperacillin when their resistance reached (100%),while highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin (1rJO%),when their susceptibility to amikacin,cefotaxime, cephalixine,gcntamicin and tobramycin werc (6 6,7 7,7 8,87,87 )Yor especti v ely. Seven Lactobacillus isolates were Obtained from (15)vagina.l swabs from healthy women,thc seven isolates were identified according to their morphological and cultural characteristics.Alter subjecting Lactobacillus isolates to the sensitivity test,some isolates exhibited a considerable resistance to ampicillin,rifampicin,and amoxicillin and they were mainiy sensitive to ciprofloxacin and shcwed variable sensitivity to tobramicin and gentamicin. Result showed highly antagonistic activity by Lb4,Lb6 against Pseudomonas aeruginosal3,lS,while Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 showed the lowest antagonisitic activity against lactobacilus isolates. The capability of lactobacilli to adhere to vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) has been found to be an important factor in the formatiorr of a ban'ier to provent colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a slight degree of difference in the adhesion properties observed among vaginal lactobacillus(57% high,2gYomoderat ard 14%low)adhesines. adherence inhibition was tested using four lactobacillus species blocked the adherence of ten Pseudomonas aeruginosa .among others Lb4,Lb3 shou,ed the greater capacity to block attachment from the others(Lbl ,Lb2).pseudomonas 3,8 and l0 were susceptible to block and p,seudontonasT and4 were the rnost resistant.

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Article
تصنيع منظومة المجهر ذو الشاشة

Authors: علي عبد الحسين مهدي
Pages: 474-478
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Article
A study of digital dermatoglyphics In poPulation of DYala Province

Authors: AQEEL MAHMOOD ALI AL- LAMI
Pages: 479-486
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Fingerpatternswerecollectedftom(50)unrelated.healthymales and (5-0) un related healthy females (15-50 Y!ar1 o1d)' These finger pl"tt were analyr"i qouiituti"ly by examined finger prints and i"ti"* i,tensity index, the pattern i..qo"n"y were approximately similar. In quantitative analysis TRC(Total Ridge Cou1ls)^ and ARC( (AbsoluteRiclgeCounts)hasbe^encollected,TRCvalueswere if S:.ZZ) in ma-tes ana 1fSO.+5) i, females, while ARC vaiues were izr:.ozi and (206.g7) in males and females respecrively. Frequency distribution of TRC and bimanual difference have been perfonned also. Thepresentresultsgenerallyshowhrrgedifferentresultswhen .o*p*.d with Iraqi populationi , and also this work aims to study the biological structure in this vital regions of Iraq'

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Article
A novel ventilator economical system reduces respiratory problems for uses in poultry house

Authors: Emad Adwar Abdul-Ahad
Pages: 487-497
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A novel ventilator system has been designed for usage in poultry houses in Iraq and Kurdistan region of lraq. The system improved to be effective in pro-viding a proper cooling temperature in summer ranged about (24C"-26C") with the uses of lesser quarrtities of water for the cooling system. Additionally, the system provided to minimize fuel consumption during winter season to about (%60) of the usual total cost. T'he system also chxacterized by providing a uniform air flow inside the '*'hole farm building, that minimize the respiratory tract affection problems in the farm flocks.

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Article
دراسة تأثير الكسر الحجمي على بعض الخواص الميكانيكية الديناميكية لمتراكبات بوليميرية دقائقية

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The study was ca*ied out by rcinrorcing trre resin matrix material which was (unsaturated polyester)Ly using alumna powder (Al2o3)with particle size (75)pm to prepare cornposite materials r,vith different volume fractions(3%,7yo,rT%o) by usi,g hand Lay -up rnethod. Some dynamic mechanical properties was studied of the prepare composite sampres by using urtrasonic technique as a nondestructive testing After that the transite time of the ultrasonic waves which passes through the composites was measured, from this measurernent the compressional and shear velocity was calculated and from these verocities som of trre dynamic mechanical properties was calculated, these properties included dynamic Young's modulus@d),Shear rnodulus(G),dynamic Poisson's ratio(p),The dynamic mechanical properties were studied with respect to volume fraction and denslty .

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Article
Make a Dual Variable DC Power Supply

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A variable DC power supply is one of the most useful tools on the electronics 'una tt""itics Laboratories 'The circuit is simple, reliable, urJ ,non lToof.'Well suited to supply the cir"uits in the experiments in its voltage range' In nsual companies it produce a single variable DC power supply where it proriatt oniy u Variable positive 1o]!Se' While ;;;;;*"t ,uppiy in this research provides a variable negative anO positi". rottug", and hence we cirn rlse it in rnany cases'

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Article
The effect ofttRα SOurce on sollle types ofviscosity for aqucous solution of albulnin at room temperature

Authors: Raouf Maltmood Raouf
Pages: 602-613
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Some types of viscosity for albumin aqueous solution lvith dittbrent concentratiolls were deter■ lined「ortwo kinds of samples,flrst non― raditted&the second,irradiated with ttRα source for a rate of 19。98X104(Rad/min)for 50 minutes. The results show that tlle values of density, sileT, relative,sleCiiC&reduced viscosity were increased Ⅵ′i“ increasing tllc concentration of albulnin in distined water. Also the properties which had been dcternlined in this work,increascd after radiation,this could be attributcd to cross linking ofalbumin chains because ofpenettation β&γ ¨rayS in the polymer structurc exposed the arllino acid lo ionization radiation this】llay prodLICCd the dilner as a rcsult of scission in C―H bond.

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Article
تحضير غشاء لأوكسيد النحاس ودراسة تأثير التشعيع على الخواص البصرية

Authors: وفاء صالح مهدي
Pages: 614-629
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Thin films of Cu2O were prepared by using Thcrmal Evaporation System on glass substrate. The films were exposed 10 a low dose ofl - rays. The optical properties of thin films were studied before and after irradiation in tlie fundamental absorption region tiom their absorption and transmission spectra. The energy gap of direct allowed are measured also the absorption coefficient, the cxtinction coefficient, the index of refraclion and dielectric constant in its two parts and optical conductivity, were calculated.

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Article
Estimation of Cosmic Ray Composition Around the Knee From Cherenhov Radiation Approximation at tlie Y:rLutsk Array

Authors: احمد عزيز احمد
Pages: 630-641
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The sirnulatiol of the Cl'rerepkov light lateral distributiol function (LDF) in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) was performed with the COITSIKA code at the energies 1PeV, 2PeV and 5PeV for configuration of the Yakutsk EAS array. The comparison of the calculated Cherenkov liglrt LDFs with that measured with the Yakutsk array has shorvn an opportutrity of prirnary parlicle identification and definition of its energy around the "knee".

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Article
Dynamics of population distribution of a threc-levcl atom interacting with two coherent fields.

Authors: T. Al-Khoza'i --- A. AL-Hilfi
Pages: 642-656
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The dynarnics of the way in which atomic population is distributed in a three-level atomic system interacting with two external coherent light fields is investigated in the weakcoupling scheme. There are deep differences in the atomic population distributions depending on the atomic initial conditions. The results are compared with the corresponding results of the same atomic systern interacting witli single quantum field exciting the upper atomic level that are available in the literature. Tlrus, they provide a comparison with the quantum theory of atom-fleld interaction.


Article
تأثير اشعة كاما على الخواص البصرية لأغشية (Fe2O3) الرقيقة المحضرة بطريقة الترسيب الكيميائي الحراري

Authors: علي احمد يوسف
Pages: 657-667
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T'hin films of Fe2O3 have been deposited on a borosilicate glass using the chcmical spray pyrolysis technique, where the substrate temperature was (420)oC. By using XRD tecl.urique, it was found the structural of the as deposited thin fihns was polyCrvstallinごThe abSOrptance and tranSmittancc Spectra have becn recorded in the speCtrum range(300-900)nm,befOre and after irradiation bY Y-rays. Ihe optical -"o*t"tt' including' absorption coefftcient' reflectance, extinction coefficient, refractive index' real and ;;;gi;rty part of dielectric constant, all these parameters were calculated as a function of photon energy before and after irradiation, it was found that y-rays affected all these parameters by decreasing them.

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Article
مصادر ومخاطر التلوث النفطي والاجراءات الكفيلة للحد من تأثيراته على البيئة والتربة في العراق

Authors: غازي مالح مطر
Pages: 686-712
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The danger of oil porution is serious because ecosystem in it alters the rivers, affecting Iiving -seas, oceans, and poilutes air and soil organisms-and human health. OiL f;; .xampl", can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water piunir. -- The aim of this work is to focus on thi danger of oil pollution on the environment and on soir in particular and give some suggestions and measures that can hip in limiting this environmental problem in lraq. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wz*s una the aurrug"-- of oil infrastructures and thousands of hectars of agricurturar lands, as 13.11 as.-elgctriciry a3d fi1el shorrages and tr;ffic;u* proUt"*r. Oil ,pollution is quiet clear "urn"in main streeir, t orr., *a gardens due to the residents mismanagement and misuse of oily products.

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Article
General Properties And Statistics Distributions For Speckly Images

Authors: Elham Jasim Mohammad
Pages: 713-732
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This paper demonstrates basic concepts from speckly images like Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Laser imaging. In this paper we study and analysis this images and we prove the multiplicative nature from speckle noise. It has set out to introduce the reader to the information and applications for all types imaging discussed. It has only been possible to scratch the surface and the interested reader is directed to the bibliography to track down more detailed information. . Analysis of objects illuminated by coherent waves is considered an important task in image interpretation for information extraction from data obtained by imaging devices that use coherent-illumination, such as laser, microwave, .....etc. But, the main shortcoming associated with these mentioned imaging system is a kind of signal-dependent noise; called speckle noise, which is due to the coherent nature of the used signals, so in this research we proves that the speckle is a multiplicative noise, and that there is an inverse relationship between Estimated Number Looks (ENL) and speckle visibility for speckle data files. According o this, modeling the speckle noise as multiplicative noise has been done, with mean value equal unity, and of distribution that obeys the chi-square distribution.

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Article
Design of high efficiency multilayer antireflection coatings for visible and infrared substrates

Authors: Mushtak A. jabber
Pages: 733-746
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Multilayer antireflection coatings have been designed in visible region (400-700nm) and IR (3 - 5pm) bands to reduce reflectance of glass, germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) substrates. The Reflectance of bare glass substrate is around (4.2%) per surface, whereas for Ge (36%), Si (30%).These values are reduced reasonably by the application of multilayer films. Starting from a single, double and multilayer. The layers have been added systematically to reduce the reflectance by the addition of each layer. The designed layers are enhanced for their performance by varying their thickness and refractive indices. The results shown that the proposed structures are very effective in reducing the reflectance for all the substrates in two spectra regions.

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Article
تحضير سبيكة من مركب الانديوم انتمنايد (InSb) وانمائها بلورياً

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In this research we prepared an alloy from (InSb) compound in close evacuated tube by using rocking furnace' and ihen a crystal of this compound was grown in the. same ,;b" ty using vertical melting zone method' Compositional pr"p#i"t fir the crystal were studied using X- ray iifiraction method, anielectrical properties using four point probe.

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Article
Simulation of SAR Image Using CHI-Square Distribution

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The intensity SAR Images are highly coruupted by speckle noise, this noise modeled as a multiplicative noise with mean equal to one, and obeys to Chi-Square distribution. So can be adopting, this distribution to generate speckle noise' Then simulate the SAR image by using multiplicative noise modei (i.e multiply point to point incoherent image by generatecl random speckle noise). The results show that the sirnulated SAR image look alike a real SAR image' Also, the results give a high agreement between equivalents number of looks (NL) for the generated speckle file with NL in Chi-square distribution, where (2N represent the degree of frcedom of the distribution). Flence the presented method is an efficient simulation tool for intensity SAR images.


Article
تفاعل ليزر CO2 مع الماء

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Tlrepresentworkisconcernwithtlreinvestigation and determination of the style by which the symmetrical waves are generated during the absorbing CO2 laser energy by the upper layer of water at the absence of the overf,eating (eUuttition).Also this work compromise on studying th1 pressure that generate the reaction and result shape o1 *ur" depended on the wave radius and laser pulse time. The results indicates that increasing the generating wave radius with average value (0'0lcm) request pressure about (3N/m2 ) at absorbed laser power 2000 J/crn'.

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Article
نسب الخلط المتعدد الأقطاب للانتقالات الكامية من النظير 173/70Yb103 المتولدة من تفاعل 173/70Yb103(58/28Ni , 58/28Niy باستخدام طريقة نسبة -a2(a2-Ratio

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a2~ratio FnethOd is used in the present calculation of δ-lnixing ratios of garnina transitions behveen the energy levels of l::yblω iSotope populated from l;:乃 103ぼ7Vi'IM′ /)1::乃I。3 reaCtion.The results of δ―m破ing ratios according to this lncthod had bccn compared with the experirnental data o Most of the results are in very good agreement with experimental dtta except the(二→ ■ ) gaFIma transition of( 100.80 Keヽr )whiCh is accepted within the percentage error ofthe theoretical calculation.

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Article
استخدام تقنيات معالجة الصور لدراسة بعض الخصائص التركيبية لأغشية اوكسيد الخارصين المشوب بالالمنيوم

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Thin flhns ofZnO and ZnO:Al for different conCCntration Of Antimony 、vere prepared utilizing chelnical spray pyrolysis technique.Structural pr6perticsヽvere studicd from during the study of The reSults of digital images Of thesc ■lins, wherc getting on them by using optical nlicroscope and digital cal■ lera connectedヽVith cOmputer,shOヽved clear difference of the co101 of prepared f1lins before and after dopin3. AIso; the different in average grain size for these lillns because doping and anncalingo Where、ve apply lnany ilnage processing techniques to have these results

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Article
دراسة الخواص الميكانيكية والفيزياوية للكاربون الحراري المترسب بطريقة (CVD)

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This research is concerned with a detailed study to determine the effecting of a number of variables on a deposited pyrolytic carbon coating by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gas ( liquid benzene ) at temperatures range (1500"C-1900"C) . That is firstly: from the deterrnination of the depositior-r parameters (Temperature-T,Pressure-P and time-t ) and secondly: study the physical and mechanical properties of the carbon coated especially on graphite substrate duc to its high temperature resistance. An investigation has been carried out to study the effect of substrate temperature (T) and hydrocarbou gas pressure (P) on the deposition process of coated layer formation, its microsh'ucture features and other properties such as apparent porosity, real density, roughness, hardness and adhesion with the substrate - The couclusion of the present work is first, increasing the substrate temperature and hydrocarbon gas pressLlre; resulting in a relative ilcreasing of deposition rate (i.e. ilcrease ip thickness of coating). second, i.creasing in substrate temperatr.rre (at constant P and t); resulting in decreasing the apparent porosity and increasi,g in density, hanlnesJ and adhesion. Third, increasing in hydrocarbon gas pressure (at constant T and t- ); resulting in a decreasing in density, hardness, porosity and increase in porosity. This work shows also results of a nricrostructures and X- Ray Diffraction which confirm the formation of the pyrolytic carbon coated.

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Article
Dieiectric analysis of Poll,styrenc polymer film

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In this work an atternpt has been made to study the various dielectric parameters of polystyrene film. The dielectric constant a', dielectric loss s" and loss tangent tan d have been determined in the frequency range (l -1000)Kt1z at different temperatures- 'fhe frequency dependent conductivity o,, was also rneasured to characterize the polymer. The complex impedance plot (cole-cole plot) was used to calculate the static dielectric constant e., infinitell' large frequency dielectric constant s- and relaxation times. Finall-v the results are analyzed in terrns of clifferent paranreters.


Article
Microstructure of Free MgO powrler

Authors: Mahasin F. Hadi --- Etab F. Hussein --- Fadhil A. chyad
Pages: 863-885
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The aim of this research is to study the Microstructure behavior of pure Mgo free (uncompacted) powders and Mgo added to magnesium chloride(MgCtr)free powders with different doping rates (lolo ,38Yo ,44yo, and50%) . The sintering temperatures were taken from700'c to 1600"c in 100'c steps. The sintering times were taken 3hr,24 hr, and 48 hr. The essential contribution of this work consists of new results in microstructure development . First , increasing the concentration of magnesium chloride (*50%) led to obtain single ultrafine grains at low temperatures . secondly , the formation of a new stmctr_rre that is u the fiber structure at sintering conditions (temperature and time) ; 1100'c,48hr for magnesium oxide added to 44% magnesium chloride powders . while reducing the ratio of the additive material ; magnesium chloride to (-l%) led to decrease the sintering temperature and sintering time to l000"cand 3hr , respectively which is required to the fiber formation . An important structure is recognized at the intermediate stage of sintering, this is the Kelvin's tetrakaidecahedron. This occurred at sintering temperaturelr00"c, 24 hr sintering time for 44% magnesium chloride added with magnesium oxide powders.

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Article
Shell Correction in Bohr and Bethe Formulas

Authors: KHALID A. AHMAD --- RASHA S. AHMAD
Pages: 897-906
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The Shell correction (-ctr,) to elcctronic stopping power determined using kinetic theory of stopping, it was calculated using stopping numbers of Bohr and Bethe formulas, and a comparison between Bohr and Bethe shell corrections for different targets was made together with available experement the results with the experimental evaruation of the shell correction. It is concluded that the Bohr and Bethe shell corrections are not equivalent, Bohr formulation gives larger shell correction and there are some differences in experirnental and theoretical evaluation of shell correction

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Article
Variability of Work of Breathing Upon Change in External Resistance

Authors: Alobaidi Tarek A. A.
Pages: 907-922
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The work of breathing (WOB) of the human respiratory system is not directly measurable. An experimental study has been conducted in to the variation of work of breathing (WOB)with the increments in external resistance for both normal and respiratory disordered using airway occlusion method 'uvhich employed Benedict- Roth spirometer and Statham pressure transducer ( Devices Ltd ) The application will cover disordered respiratory systems and in both normal and disordered systems WOB u'ill be determined at six externally connected resistances, the comparison between institution of load and no load states in ten normal and two patients, results revealed the phenomenon of having the output increasing with rise in external resistance starting from R :0.604 KP. /(l/sec) until a critical resistance is reached. Beyond this resistance declining WOB was observed which was found to diminish to negligible levels towards R: 1.72 KPu /fllsec). This situation implicates that at higher loads (nearly three times normal respiratory resistances) the respiratory muscles tend to refrain gradually from admitting enough air necessary to maintain body needs for oxygen.


Article
P repa natio n of ultra fine Lis.a3Zns.1e5Fe237Oa Lithium Ferrite Powder

Authors: Mohammed T. Abdul Nabi
Pages: 923-929
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Ceramics preparation strongly depend on the features of the starting materials, morphology, particle size distribution, homogenate, and nature of defects. This is particularly true for lithiurn-based ferrites used 'for microwave and magnetic applications. One of the most effective means the powder synthesis process itself. Freeze drying has found application in the production of nanoparticles for electrochemical, environmental, engineered materials, and pharmaceutical industries. The retention of the homogenous propeities typically found in a solution, the small size of particles produced, are the primary reasons for choosing freeze drying. Thus, the present work deals with the preparation by freeze drying of trltra fine particles of Lis.a3Zns.1e5Fe2.37Oa compound.

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Article
Structural characterization of Magnetron Sputtered ZnO:In thin films

Authors: Satah Kaduri Haza'a
Pages: 930-942
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The effects of increasing sputtering time on the structure of ZnO:In films are studied' XRD ray test illustrates the dependence of preferred orientation and the Jiff.u"tion peak intensities on the sputtering time' .From texture coefficient measurements the preferred orientation of ZnO.ln films is (002) plane' SEM photographs are used to calculate films' thiclnesses' Grain sizes and films' thicknesseswerefoundtoincreasedwithincreasing,l' ,p,.rtt".i.,g time. The tensile stresses found in all films were duetodecrementofthec-axisvalues,andthestraininthe ;;;; "i"rch film increases with increasing sputtering time'

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Article
The Growth of KHSO4Single Crystal and its Characterization at Room Temperature

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The growth of KHSO4 single crystal of size l5mmxl2mmx6mm by slow evaporation technique with di- Ammonium hydrogen phosphate DAP morphology is achieved .Its x-ray powder diffraction pattern revealed the prefer orientation. The optical experimental results discard of ih" supetprotonic conductivity of KHSO4 crystal at room temperature due to increase in free electron density'


Article
Radio Waves Propagation Models Simulation

Authors: Sana Rasoul salim
Pages: 968-979
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Article
The effect of substitution Sr at the Ba on the properties of Hg6sTls.2Ba2Ca2CusOs* a suPercondttctors

Authors: K. A. Jussim
Pages: 980-991
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we have reported investigations on the effect of simultaneous substitution Sr at the Ba site of ffgo*fhrga2Ca2Cu3Osa 6 cuprate superconductor' . Bulk p;ly;.y;i^lline sarnples have been.prepared by the.three - ,t"p 'oua state reaction process. Electrical resistivity,four p.oU" technique, is used to find the transition temperature at zero resistiviiy T"1o6..9. The highest Tc(6rrset) were 121 '..:22K' 126Kand l30K foi-Iig6sTls.2Ba2-*Sr*Ca2Cu3Oso 6 with x : 0.0, 0.10, 0.1 5and 0-20 respectively' The optimum lc(orrt of - 130 K and lc(ons'q - 137K . has been found for the comPosition Hgs.seTls.2sBal.sSr6.2CazCurOs.zo' *-Tu, diffraction. (XRD) u"?fyti.- tito*.a a pseudotetragonal structure and the as gro*t I{g6.sTl6.2Baz-*Sr*CazCu3O3+ 6 colTesponds to the "1223 pha{i*ittt un in"t"ut" of the c-axis lattice constant for the samples increase doped of Sr concentration' It was found that the change of the 3r concentrations of all our samples produce a change in the c/a.

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Article
Twisting Effect on thc Mean Spot Raclius out of Optical Fiber

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In this work, the effect of variation of twist angre fi.om (0'- 810") by step of (90") on the mean radius of the output spot from a single modes optical fiber was studied. The twist had been affected at four clifferent positions from (g5-100) cm far from the end of the fiber by step of (5) cm. A comparable study had been made also, when a chopper was used at the entrance of the optical fiber. It was found that twisting the fiber at further distances from the outpr-rt end shows only relatively srnall decrease in the relative diameter of the spot. The relative radius of the spot remained nearly C01lStant for illost t、visting an蒼応s icss than(400。)eξ面 with presence of the chopper. We found that the asymmetry in stress level in the fiber induced by twisting, affects the mode coupling, and with the presence of a chopper, enlarge the relative geometrical diameter ofthe spot.

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Article
ايجاد تراكيز اليورانيوم في ترب لمناطق من جنوب شرق بغداد باستخدام كاشف الاثر النووي (CR-39)

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The aim of research is to determine Uraniunl concentration in soil samples takel from area situated in sontheast of Baghclad (Al-wardia, Al-Twitha ancl Flaiy AI-Ryaid) to detennine tl-re level conccntrations of tlresc areas with Uraniurn this contamination was due to the rnishandeled of the radioactive sources of the Atomic Energy Oganization after the war Iraq in(2003). The research consists the detennination of Uraniurn concetration in soil samples using fissiofl tracks rcgistration in (CR-39) track detcctor obtaincd by the bornbardnreut of U2i8 with fast ucutrons fi'om 12'l Arn-Bc) lleutron source. The results obtained shows that the Uraniurn concentratior.rs in AL-Wardia (5.3 pprn) in ALTwitha (3.45 ppm)and Haiy AL- Ryaid (3.34 ppm) the results shows that Uranium concentration in Al-Wardia is higlier than the other regions.

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Article
The temperature dependence of the Energy Gap of Sn and ZnIn doped GuGeP3 Semiconductor compound

Authors: A.S. Karim --- N.M. Nasier
Pages: 1014-1027
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The Fan and. shockly-Bardeen theoreticar used to metrrod is calculate the temperahrre depend-ence of energy gap in the temperature range ( r 0 - 425 k) for the Sn and ZnIn doped cuGe2p3 Semicondu"to. *-pound. The results are in good agreement with those oi: in. u*irrir"-r"po.r.a experimental work. 'Ihe temperature variation of Eo were discussed in terms of efiects "f ';;-;i;;;i;"" interaction and the rattice d,ation . The effects of rattice tl-"*lt expansion on Eg is smailer than that of the rattice vibration, but both effecti, .orpourd, are found to be linear with.l' f'o: fu temperatur. ,urg" investigated. The varshni's empiricar reLtio, i, utro used to calcurate Eq vTsul T ' It gives good resurts in comparison with these calculated as well as with,t" reported available experimental work- The effects of the hore concentration on both AEg and Eg are also given. tShe"r*moa.l *rt Energy Gap, LuGe2p3, lattice vibration, rattice expansion

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Article
The PrOpagatiOn of】√agnCtOStatiC` VaveS in the Systenl of Multilayer dielcCtric Ferromagnetic material.

Authors: Mohammed A. A. AL-Shareefy
Pages: 1028-1034
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tr-aftc t: " clanrping associated with. magnetostattc waves (MSW) in ,rugn"til"";il involves botl.r linear and nonlinear pro..,'"'' The nonlinear processes are prirnarily associated with the parametric generation of MSW' Such processes wave treatei in many work on MSW' The main pu"po'" in the present paper is to dcrive an accurate way of""uutuuting Aamping pltu*.:t:',.:: magnetostatic *u'"' propftation. through -Oi:f::t:' ferrornagnctic system' The magnetizalion motion equatton ts linking with Landau-Ginzbur[ equation theoreticl]'.:,:"tn ;;;ffirt used extensively in held of magnetostattc waves' Butourgoalis."a"""r"paditferenttreaimerrtofdamping of rnagnetostatic ";;;;iilt"retically' In fact this work also explains the relationship of tnanetostatic lvaves arnplitude *iif, ao,nping irr ferromagnetic laye

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Article
A Modified Block Truncation Coding Algorithm for Image Data ComPression

Authors: ltvloha A. Hameed
Pages: 1035-1042
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In this paper an adaptation was used to improve the block truncation coding GfTC) method, by using the vector quantization (VQ) methocl to represent the binary fonn of tire coded irnage proposed from the first method (BTC)' This paper contains gineiating codebook depended on randomly "nt."n to the codevector from the set of binary image vectors. Cood results have been obtained, using (I{ouse) image, with acceptablc rates oI cornpression between 3-16 times.

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Article
Crystal grolVth Of lli2Se3 and deterntination of lattiCe parameters fOr ingot and thin film deduced by II1111‐ Davey trans10rmation

Authors: A.H. Abd-AL. Kathum --- A.K,AL-Qazaz
Pages: 1056-1066
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The Bi2Se3 coffipound was synthesized by fusing initial component. "onri.tini of extra purl elernents in stoicSiometric from elements "ompoincl, charged insicle quartz ampoule' The "*"i growth of'Bi2Se3 totti"d .ottt using slow cooling techinque process from rnelting of (Bi+Se) at temperatttre of g10 "clbiabout 4gh. Single crystal of Bi2Se3 has been grown in clirection (015) uft". 'tl* cooling rate (1-3) "Cft' The structurat sttidy of the compouncl was determincd by x-ray diffraction technique, which it has guanajuatite structtre and rhombohedralurritcellrvitlrlatticcparametersareag:4.1416I' ilil;:rs.isii x,when a5e'saeiA, and u:24'274o'

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Article
EffectofMetalConcentrationonSomePhysical Properties of Polypropylene-Nickel Composites

Authors: Ghassan Adnan Naeem
Pages: 1067-1087
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Metal-polymer composites based on polypropylene (PP) blend as matrix and dispersed nickel (Ni) as filler have been prepared by hot press, and their electrical propertieq thermal ion?uctivity and- hardness have been investigated. The -effect of filler content on the above properties was studied' The results show that the value of thi electrical resistivity of (PPilD ;;;ses rapidly over several orders of magnitude when the critical content of filler @, (percolation threshold) is reached. The dielectric constant found to increase slowly up to i the percolation concentration and beyond it a sudden increase i" iil value is observed. The thermal conductivity increases ,,noo.r,rywithincreasingtheconcentrationofthenickelfiller. Hardness ir.r"u.., *itli increase in metal concentration' but beyond @, it becomes almost constant'

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Article
معدل الشدة الليزرية لليف البصري الاحادي النمط

Authors: فرج جواد كاظم
Pages: 1088-1100
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دراسة الخصائص البصرية للبولي مثيل ميثاكريلات المشوبة بكرومات الحديد

Authors: خلدون محمود رشيد
Pages: 1111-1122
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In this rcsearch we study the effect of(Fe2C03)Salt On the optical properties of poly metllyl methacrylat(PMMA)that add to this polymer with percentages 40/0, and the redial of the granule of dopants was 18 μl■. ThiS Study has been done by recording thc Absorption and Transllnissioi spectra in the wavelengh range(190-H00)nm.The following optical . :・ lies lt,v`]卜ccn cとll`.:,lal■ (1■ s, Absol,ptioll,Trallsl■ iSSiOn,

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Article
The effect of IIe-Ne Laser on Candida albicans that isolated from the diabetic patients' mouths

Authors: Suha Adel Qasim
Pages: 1123-1133
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This study was conducted to find out the effect of Helium Neon Laser (632.8 nm) on the growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida alb,icans that isolated from the mouth of diabetic patients. Twenty five swabs were taken from the mouth of diabetic patients who were suspected to have a candidiasis. Only (13) (52%) swabs showed positive cultures. The isolates were divided into two groups: group I (one test tube) was remained without irradiation (controlled), and the group II (six test tubes) were exposed to FIe-Ne Laser radiation for different periods of time (5-30) min, and energy densities (9.55-57 .32) J/cmz. Results revealed the clear effect of He-Ne Laser radiation on the percentages of the cells survival and the percentages of colonies diameters of Candida albicans.

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Article
Use Immunoglobulin as a marker in Iraqi Kala-azar patients

Authors: Haidar AL-SHAMRAN
Pages: 1134-1142
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Object: The present study is to investigate the relative levels of specific immunoglobulin IgG,IgM,IgA and IgE in Iraqi Kala-azar patients. Methods: sera were collected from 50 Kala-azat patients ,the age range from 6 month to 8 years before and after treatment with pentostam sodium stiboglycorate and 2l healthy control , Leishmania donovani antigen (LAg) preparation to detect the level of immunoglobulin IgG,IgM,IgA and IgE in Iraqi Kalaazar patients sera during disease by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Results: High titers of anti-LAg IgG and IgE antibodies were observed before treatment ,successfully treatment and decreased of IgG and IgE in all patients, low level of IgM showed in patients and very low level of IgA before treatment with no change after treatment . Conclusion :Immunoglobulin especially IgG and IgE may be used as a marker to identiff the successfully treatment in Kalaazar patients and this is the first study in Iraqi that use specific LAg to detect Immunoglublin in Kala-azat patients


Article
The Electrical conductivity Of Fe‐ Ni‐ Co alloy

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Article
Spectrophotometric determination of Metformin in pharmaceutical preparation using Prussian blue reaction

Authors: Jwan A.Abdul Sattar
Pages: 1157-1170
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The recent study aims to provide a new spectrophotornetric technique for the determination of Metformin (Met) in its local pharmaceutical preparation' This method depends on the reacting of Metformin (Met.) with FeCl3 and hexacyanoferate (III) in acidic medium to yield a colored product measurable spectrophotometrically at 1"n.u*:720 nm'The iffect of various parameters such as nature and amount of acid used, concentration of K3Fe(CN)6 and FeCl3,temperature and time of reaction were investigated. Under optimum conditions tinearity was found in the range (0 1-7) pg.ml-' with detection timit tf (0.01) pg.ml'r and the correlation coefficient (r:0.999).The relative standard deviation was (1.257o) for Metformin which confirmed the reproducibility of the assay technique. For Metformin this method gave significantly more sensitive data compared with other methods.

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Article
التحلل الحراري للمبيد الحشري (الفنفلرايت)

Authors: فضيلة محمد حسين
Pages: 1171-1179
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دراسة بعض مكونات زهرة البابونج وتأثير مستخلصها على نمو الاحياء الدقيقة

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This study was included to knows the active chemical constituents oi the chamomile matricaaria chamom illa leaves.Thisstudyshowedthatthewaterandalcoholicextracts dHl fr*lJil Li';'J* -pslrll tS * O..r.o.i.Ul rP et13* 、vas acidiC and contained inainlv glycolides,phenolic compounds,relin and flavonooids which proteins , alkoloids , and saponing were nof found in above extracts . Also, the effect ofthese extracts on variose microorganism was studies . It has been found that the concentration (50) mg/ml was the most effective on the inhibition of the growh of the intendul microorganism.

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Article
Sy rrth esis of New 4,5-di hydro- 1 H-i m idazole-2-thiol Derivatives

Authors: Redha I. Al-Bayati --- Zaunab Z. M. Ali
Pages: 1190-1200
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In this wOrk, 4,5-dihydro… lI―I_ilnidazole-2-thiol was prcpared from ethylene diarnine and then converted into 2「hydrazino_4,5- dihydro-lH― imidazOle(2),Mannich bases(3-5),4,5-dillydro-lH_ imidaz01e-2-ylamino)thiO]aCedc acid (6), 2-alkyithiO-4,5- dihydro-lH― imidazOles(7 and 8),2-(-4,5‐dihydro-lH_imidaをol_ 2-yl― thiO) aCetalnide (9), 2-[o対ran_2-ylmethy)thiO]- 4,5- dihydro-lH― imidazOle(10),6,7‐ dihydro_5H_iidazO[2,1_c][1,2,4- ]triaZole_3-aminc (11) and azOmethines (12-14). Hc azomethines(12-14)were converted tO [1_aCetyl‐ 2-(4,5- di hydro- 1 H -imidazol-2 -yl) hydrazinel (4 -bromophenyl ) methylacetate (15), 2-(4-aminOphenyl)_3-(4,5-dillydrO_lH_ imidazol -2-yl am ino -2- m ethyl - 1,3 -th iazo I i ne_4 _one( I 6) _a!d_N

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Table of content: volume: issue:3