Table of content

Iraqi journal of mechanical and material engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الميكانيكية وهندسة المواد

ISSN: 20761819
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal for mechanical and material engineering is a refereed scientific journal published quarterly by the engineering college/ university of Babylon. It deals with high quality researches in fields of mechanical and material engineering.

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Contact info

Journal E-mail:
j.mec_mat_eng@yahoo.com
Babylon university/Babylon/Iraq P.O.Box(4)
Tel:++96430245387.(1155)

Table of content: 2010 volume:10 issue:3

Article
DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR MAIZE DRYER

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Abstract

This paper presents the design, construction and performance evaluation of solar drying for maize, the solar drying system consists of V-groove collector of 2.04 m² area, Drying Chamber and blower. It was designed in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize. K-type thermocouples were used for temperature measurement, while solar radiation was measured by (solar meter mod.776). The thermal energy and heat losses from solar collector were calculated for each three angles tilt (30º, 45º, 60º). The results obtained during the test period denoted that the maximum gained energy occurred at 11 o'clock hour and then gradually declined since the maximum solar radiation occurred at this time. The performance of the solar drying system was highly dependent on the solar radiation, angle tilt and ambient temperature.


Article
SIMULATION OF QUENCHING PROCESS BY NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER MODEL

Authors: Bassim Shaheen. Bachy
Pages: 377-390
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Abstract

In quenching process many parameters have an effect on this process such as steel type, quenching medium type, quenching medium temperature and the volume of the workpiece. In order to give a workpiece free of defect, it’s very important to understand the effect of these parameters on this process. In the present work a mathematical heat transfer model have been used to simulate the heat treatment (quenching process). This model used to investigate the temperature distribution in the workpiece at different time. A numerical scheme based on a control volume formulation and a computer program with C++ language was used to solve the set of heat transfer equations. The developed model was used also to evaluate the effect heat treatment parameters such as quenching media, carbon steel type and cross sectional area of the workpiece. The model also can be used to simulate the heat treatment process (quenching process) of various materials and alloys with different conditions. The results of the model were compared with experimental published data give good agreement.


Article
COMPRESSION MODULUS IMPROVEMENT OF HDPE USING SCRAP STAINLESS STEEL POWDER AS A FILLER COMPARING WITH WOOD FLOUR AND BOVINE BONE POWDER

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Abstract

This paper presents study on the effect of addition of different types of fillers such as (wood flour, Bovine bone powder, and fine powder of scrap stainless steel 302) on compression modulus of HDPE. Fine sieving treatment has been used for the fillers before mixing; composites were made at (5%, 10%, 20 %.) by weight filer contents, each filler was added separately to HDPE material. Results indicated that the addition of scrap stainless steel powder gave positive improvement in the compression modulus of HDPE and the improvement increased with increasing stainless steel contents and maximum percentage of improvement was (30%).The addition of bovine bones flour and wood flour decreased the improvement in compression modulus of HDPE in all percents used of Fillers.

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Article
EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF CO EMISSIONS EMITTED FROM SINGLE CYLINDER S. I. ENGINE FUELED WITH DIFFERENT KINDS OF HYDROCARBON FUELS AND HYDROGEN
مقارنة عملية لملوثات CO الناتجة من محرك اشتعال بالشرارة أحادي الاسطوانة يعمل بأنواع مختلفة ن الوقود الهيدروكاربوني والهيدروجين

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Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), Natural gas (NG) and hydrogen were used to operate spark ignition internal combustion engine Ricardo E6, and compare CO emissions emitted from the engine, with emissions emitted from engine fueled with gasoline as a fuel. The study was done when engine operated at higher useful compression ratio (HUCR) for gasoline 8:1, compared with its operation at HUCR for each fuel. Compression ratio, equivalence ratio and spark timing at constant speed 1500 rpm were studied there effects on the emitted emissions. CO concentrations were little at lean ratios; it appeared to be effected a little with equivalence ratio in this side, at rich side its values became higher, and it appeared to be effected by equivalence ratio highly. The results appeared that CO emissions resulted from gasoline engine higher than that resulted from using LPG and NG all the time, while hydrogen engine emitted extremely low CO concentrations.


Article
PREDICTION THE EFFECT OF FLAME CUTTING PARAMETERS ON THE QUALITY OF METAL SURFACE IN CNC FLAME CUTTING MACHINE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
الأستقصاء عن تأثير عوامل القطع بأللهب على نوعية السطح المعدني في ماكنة اللهب المؤتمته بأستخدام الشبكة العصبية الإصطناعية

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Abstract

Many metal-manufacturing industries include oxyfuel cutting among their manufacturing processes because cutting and welding are often required in metal-cutting processes, specifically in the fabrication of pressure vessels and storage tanks. The oxyfuel cutting process uses controlled chemical reactions to remove preheated metal by rapid oxidation in a stream of pure oxygen. Previous research has demonstrated that metal cutting surfaces varied depending on the gas used for the combustion as well as the cutting speed (Vc) used during the process. In this research, ASTM BN1323 carbon steel was cut using CNC flame cutting machine. The study constrained on the effect of cutting parameters (cutting speed Vc, Preheat time, and plate thickness) on the quality of the metal surface being cut. The Different tests, such as surface roughness and hardness were used to analyze the influence of these parameters. . The effect of cutting parameters on the surface quality was studied by implementing the experimental results obtained from cutting a non-Galvanized steel plate ASTM BN 1323 in different cutting parameters (cutting speed, preheat time, and plate thickness) followed by non-destructive (hardness and roughness of a cutting surface) tests to investigate the quality control on the cut specimens. The results showed, in general, better cut surfaces when using the optimum parameters Vc=300 mm/min. and preheat time =20 sec for cutting 20 mm thickness of non–Galvanized steel sheet ASTM BN1323. The experimental results obtained are then processed through the ANN model to control the cutting process and predict the level of quality for different cutting conditions. It has been deduced that the cutting conditions (cutting speed, preheat time, and plate thickness) had a dominant factors that affected the cut quality. Also we found that for certain cutting condition, there was an optimum cutting speed to obtain an optimum cutting quality. The system supports quality control procedures and cutting productivity without doing more periodic destructive mechanical test to dozens of samples.


Article
ESTIMATION THE INFLUENCE OF TOOL GEOMETRY ON THE SURFACE QUALITY AND TOOL WEAR

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Abstract

This study introduced to estimation the influence of cutting tool geometry on the surface roughness and tool wear all have an essential effect on the achievement of desired product quality and acceptable cost. There are seven various parameter (figure 1) such as relief angle (α), rake angle (γ), side cutting edge angle (φ), end cutting edge angle (φ1), nose radius(rε), end relief angle (α1) and back rake angle (γ1) that are known to have a large impact on surface quality and tool wear, thus tool shape have a decided effect upon the cutting efficiency of the tool. The results of experiment allow considering the evaluation of each parameter of tool geometry on the surface roughness and tool wear, and then obtain the optimum shape of turning cutting tool. The goal of this work is to identify a relationship between surface quality of cast iron and tool wear, turning process with tool geometry of high speed steel HSS, then develop tool geometry which is termed the multiple regression model and to evaluate prediction ability of model. Application of new progressive rates of correct shape lathe tools, it is very benefit when using expensive and accurate machines. An attempt was made to minimize the number of experimental run and increase the reliability of experimental results. MINITAB software [2] which is used in this paper can be used for evaluation, with few experimental run and [3, 4, 5].


Article
THE KINETIC OF THERMAL DEGRADATION FOR MANUFACTURED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE).

Authors: Ishmael Moslam Alwaan
Pages: 431-441
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Abstract

The goal of this study is to know how effected the manufactured high density polyethylene ( HDPE) bag during reprocessing with various temperatures and various times. The isothermal weight loss (X%) of manufactured high density polyethylene was investigated at temperature 150, 175, 200, 225 and 250 oC at period of times (10 – 50 min.). The result was the amount of weight loss (X%) of manufactured (HDPE) increases with increasing temperature and time. Calculation of the activation energy of the thermal weight loss process from these experiments was calculated and it was changed between (22-29 kJ/mol) at changing temperatures between ( 150 – 250 oC ) for range 2-6% of weight loss of (HDPE). The rate of reaction constant (K) for temperatures range (150 – 250 oC ) was changed from ( 1E-06 - 6E-06 L.mol-1.S-1 ). The degree of reaction was found 2nd order reaction in all range of temperature (150 – 250 oC).


Article
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER AS HYBRID COMPOSITES
الخواص الميكانيكية للبولي استر الغير مشبع كمادة مركبة هجينة

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Abstract

The aim of this work is to study the effect of zirconia, boron carbide, and their mixture with unsaturated polyester (hybrid composites) on mechanical and thermal properties of unsaturated polyester. Results show an improvement in the hardness by 41, 38, and 21% at 5% ZrO2, B4C, and ZrO2+ B4C respectively, bending increasing by 193, 146, and 121% at 1% additives from ZrO2, B4C, and ZrO2+ B4C respectively. Also results show an increasing in the compression strength when added 5% from above additives and the improvement percent was 29, 22, and 19% respectively. The additives materials show a less effect in thermal conductivity comparing with mechanical properties, this due to that, the reinforcement materials has a low thermal conductivity. An addition 5% of ZrO2+ B4C shows an improvement in the weight loss by 33%. It is concluded that ZrO2 has the ability to improve the general properties of polymer such as, hardness, bending, and compression strength, this mechanical properties which is the highly demanded property in the polymer applications as well as B4C improves the polymer properties less than ZrO2.

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Article
Studying the Effect of Addition Unsaturated Polyester on the Corrosion Behavior of the Low Carbon Steel in Corrosion Solutions
دراسة تأثير إضافة البولي استر غير المشبع في السلوك التاكلي للفولاذ واطئ الكاربون في المحاليل التاكلية

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Abstract

This work included study of the effect of addition the unsaturated polyester on the corrosion behavior of the low carbon steel using the simple immersion method in acid and salt solution at room temperature. The weight loss method used as an indicator to the effect of the solution on the low carbon steel. The microscopic examination with (600 X) is used in this study too. The results showed when added the Hexamine (0.5M in HCl and 0.1M in NaCl) decreased the rate of corrosion while the inhibition efficiency reached (81.5%), (66.3%) for HCl and NaCl solution respectively, and that result improved the rate of corrosion decreased while the inhibition efficiency reached (96.4%), (93.7%) for HCl and NaCl solution respectively when added (1%) from unsaturated polyester on the corrosion solutions which contained Hexamine at room temperature.


Article
Preparation and Studying Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porcelain with Using Feldspar Replacement
تحضير ودراسة بعض الخواص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية للبورسلين المستخدم فيه بديل الفلدسبار

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This research includes preparation of porcelain samples with using local raw materials and without using the feldspar material that consider of basic materials for porcelain formation, that is because the feldspar is not local available and will be imported. Feldspar replaced with using calcium carbonate and this material is local available. Porcelain samples formed from (50% Duekhla Kaolin, 40% Ardima Sand and 10% Calcium Carbonate) have been prepared. Powder technology were used topresent the samples by using different pressing pressures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35) MPa and different sintering temperature (1100, 1150, 1200, 1250 and 1300)°C. The sintering temperature and pressing pressure effect have been studied on some physical properties as (volume shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity and water absorption) and mechanical properties as (Vickers hardness and fracture strength). The results shown possibility used the calcium carbonate as a feldspar replacement material in porcelain samples production. The increasing in sintering temperature and pressing pressure leads to enhance the physical and mechanical properties and then decrease because staying the gases in the porosities and formation the residual stresses.


Article
Production of the Zinc Powder from Zinc Oxide with Sodium Hydroxide Solution by Electro Deposition
إنتاج مسحوق الخارصين من محلول اوكسيدةالخارصين وهيدروكسيد الصوديوم بالترسيب الكهربائي

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In study of the effect of deposition time and voltage in production of zinc powder by using electrochemical cell with zinc electrodes having purity of (97.4%) in electrolytic solution consisting mainly of zinc oxide (ZnO) and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH). the parameters affecting the electro deposition production of zinc powder .The physical test were done on the powder, such as particles shape, purity powder, particle size and size distribution. The results showed that variation in voltage, the weight of zinc powder increased with the increase of voltage and particles size decreased with the increase of voltage. While the results showed that variation in deposition time, the weight of zinc powder increased with the increase of deposition time and particles size of zinc powder increased with the increase of deposition time. The result of electro deposition process showed layers deposition for zinc powder on cathode electrode, and forming shape dendritic particles.

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Article
Preparing (AL_B4C) composite material and study some of their mechanical properties
تحضير مادة متراكبة من نظام (المنيوم – كاربيد البورون) ودراسة بعض خواصها الميكانيكية

Authors: م.م احمد حسين علي
Pages: 491-501
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Abstract

The aim of this research is studying some mechanical properties (i.e. micro hardness and diametrical compression strength) for metal matrix composite material (based aluminum) with ceramic material (boron carbide) as a reinforced material. Different percents (2%, 5%, 10%, 15%) of (B4C) have been used. powder technology process is used for manufacture the specimen. good improvement in results of those properties appeared.

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Article
Study Effecting the Addition of Borax on Flammability of Rubbers
دراسة تأثير إضافة البوراكس على قابلية إلتهاب المطاط

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This research aim to studying effected addition of Borax on property Flammability for types of Rubber which represented by (Styrene- Butadine Rubber ,Nitrile Rubber and poly Chloroprene type (WRT)) from During change which produce in Thermal Erosion rate after Addition the Borax with loading level (0,5,10,15,20 pphr) which not Effecting on the Mechanical Properties of finishing Product Because Samples Production which Tread the Represent Properties (Tensile Strength at Break , elongation at Break , Modulus of elasticity at elongation 300%, , Tear resistance, Crack Growth resistance , Hardness , Specific Gravity ,Reselance ) where it is Account the Borax from Inorganic Fillers and Semi-reinforced for Types of Rubbers Then it is from Inorganic Retardants Materials . And After Procedure Erosion Rate Test which Limitation Flammability for Using Tyape of Rubbers with (40-50%) .And producing That Compounding (WRT3,WRT4) are providing Best Flame Resistance at percentage Addition(10,15 pphr) .Accession to Have good Mechanical Properties.

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